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Matthew

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Matthew Chapter 1

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Jesus’ Genealogy
  1. The genealogy scroll of Jesus the Anointed;(1)Most translations say “Jesus Christ” here. Contrary to popular belief, “Christ” is not Jesus’ last name; it’s a descriptive title. “Christ” is a transliteration of the Greek word “Χριστός” (Christos), with “Christ” being the Greek word and the “os” ending indicates it’s function in the sentence. Christ(os) literally means “anointed one” or “one who has been anointed”. the son of David, the son of Abraham.
  2. Abraham fathered Isaac. Then Isaac fathered Jacob. Then Jacob fathered Judah and his brothers.
  3. Then Judah fathered Perez and Zerah, who came out of Tamar. Then Perez fathered Hezron. Then Hezron fathered Ram.
  4. Then Ram fathered Amminadab. Then Amminadab fathered Nahshon. Then Nahshon fathered Salmon.
  5. Then Salmon fathered Boaz who came out of Rahab. Then Boaz fathered Obed who came out of Ruth. Then Obed fathered Jesse.
  6. Then Jesse fathered David the king. Then David fathered Solomon, who came out of the wife of Uriah.
  7. Then Solomon fathered Rehoboam. Then Rehoboam fathered Abijah. Then Abijah fathered Asa.
  8. Then Asa fathered Jehoshaphat. Then Jehoshaphat fathered Joram. Then Joram fathered Uzziah.
  9. Then Uzziah fathered Jotham. Then Jotham fathered Ahaz. Then Ahaz fathered Hezekiah.
  10. Then Hezekiah fathered Manasseh. Then Manasseh fathered Amos. Then Amos fathered Josiah.
  11. Then Josiah fathered Jeconiah and his brothers before the exile to Babylon.
  12. Then after the exile to Babylon, Jeconiah fathered Shealtiel. Then Shealtiel fathered Zerubbabel.
  13. Then Zerubbabel fathered Abiud. Then Abiud fathered Eliakim. Then Eliakim fathered Azor.
  14. Then Azor fathered Zadok. Then Zadok fathered Achim. Then Achim fathered Eliud.
  15. Then Eliud fathered Eleazar. Then Eleazar fathered Matthan. Then Matthan fathered Jacob.
  16. Then Jacob fathered Joseph, the husband of Mary, out of whom was born Jesus, called The Anointed.
  17. Therefore, all the generations from Abraham until David were 14 generations. And from David until the exile to Babylon were 14 generations. And from the exile to Babylon until The Anointed were 14 generations.
Jesus’ Conception and Birth
  1. Now, the birth of Jesus the Anointed was like this: Mary His mother was betrothed to Joseph. But before they came together, it was discovered that she carried a child in her womb from the Holy Spirit.
  2. But Joseph her husband – being righteous and not wanting to publicly disgrace her – was determined to send her away secretly.
  3. And while these things were greatly troubling(2)“were greatly troubling” is a single word in Greek. This difficult to translate word literally means in a state of passionate response/thinking, typically producing inner turmoil. him, behold; an angel of the Lord came down and appeared to him in a dream saying; “Joseph, son of David, don’t be afraid to take Mary as your wife. For what was conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.
  4. She will bear a son, and you will call his name(3)The Greek word translated “name” means so much more than simply a person’s name; it also means their character or identity. To the ancient mind – Hebrews especially – a person’s name was inseparable from their character. (Notice in Ruth when Namoi changes her name to “Mara”. Mara is the Hebrew word for bitter) The name “Jesus” literally means “Yehowah saves” (God saves). It’s not just His name; it’s His character. It’s what He does; it’s who He is. Jesus because He will save the people from their sins.
  5. All this was – and is – happening that it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying:
  6. Behold! The virgin will carry a child in her womb and will bear a son. And they will call His name Immanuel;”(4)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 7:14 which is translated: “God with us”.
  7. When Joseph woke from his sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded and took her as his wife.
  8. Also, he didn’t know her intimately(5)“know… …intimately” is one word in Greek. It emphasizes a personal sense of knowing, and is occasionally used as an idiom for sexual relations. until she gave birth to a son, and he called His name Jesus.

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Matthew Chapter 2

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The Magi Visit
  1. Now, Jesus was born in Bethlehem(6)the Hebrew word “Bethlehem” translates as “house of bread”, aka: a bakery. God arranged it so the bread of life (Jesus) was born in the town named “bakery”. of Judea in the days of Herod the king. And Behold, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem
  2. saying: “Where is He who was born king of the Jews? For we saw and understood(7)“saw and understood” is one word in Greek. It means see, but can have an additional nuance of understanding what is seen. His star in the east and came to bow down at His feet.”(8)“bow down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered.
  3. When King Herod heard, he was perplexed and deeply shaken,(9)“perplexed and deeply shaken” is a single word in Greek, with that exact definition. and all Jerusalem with him.
  4. And he gathered all the chief priests and scribes(10)“scribes” In the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. of the people, asking them where The Anointed is born.
  5. And they answered him, “In Bethlehem of Judea. For it was – and is – written through the prophet:
  6. And you Bethlehem, land of Judah, are by no means least among the leaders of Judah. For out of you will come Him leading; he who will shepherd My people Israel.”(11)quotation/allusion to Micah 5:2
  7. Then Herod secretly called the Magi and learned from them the precise time the star appeared.
  8. And sending them to Bethlehem, he said; “As you travel, search very carefully all around for the young child. Then as soon as you might find him, report back to me so that I too may come, and bow down at His feet.”(12)“bow down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered.
  9. So they listened to the king and traveled away. And behold, the star which they saw in the east went before them until it arrived; then it stood over where the child was.
  10. And seeing the star, they rejoiced with extremely great joy.
  11. And going into the house, they saw the child with Mary His mother. And falling down, they bowed low at His feet.(13)“bowed low at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. Also, opening their store of treasures, they offered gifts of gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
  12. And after being warned by God in a dream not to return to Herod, they returned to their land by another way.
The Escape to Egypt
  1. Now, after they left, behold; an angel of the Lord came down, appearing in a dream to Joseph saying, “After waking up, take the child and His mother and flee to Egypt and live there until I tell you. For very soon, Herod intends to seek the child to kill Him.”
  2. And waking up, he took the child and His mother by night and fled into Egypt.
  3. Further, he lived there until the death of Herod. This was so it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by The Lord through the prophet, saying; “From out of Egypt I called My son.”(14)quotation/allusion to Hosea 11:1
Herod’s wrath
  1. Then Herod – seeing that he was made a fool of(15)literally “mocked” by the magi – was greatly enraged.  And sending men out, he killed all the boys in Bethlehem and all in the region, from two years old and under; according to the precise time he learned from the magi.
  2. Then it was fulfilled: what was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet, saying;
  3. A voice in Rhama was heard; grievous crying and much wailing. Rachel is weeping for her children and doesn’t want to be comforted, because they are no more.”(16)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:15
  4. Now, when Herod died, behold; an angel of the Lord came down and appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,
  5. saying: “After waking up, take the child and His mother and travel into the land of Israel. For those seeking the life of the child have died, and are dead.(17)“have died, and are dead” the Greek word here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.
  6. And waking up, he took the child and His mother and entered into the land of Israel.
  7. But hearing that Archelaus reigned as king over Judea in place of his father Herod, he feared going there. And being warned by God in a dream, he went back to a part of Galilee.
  8. And on arriving, he settled down in a city called Nazareth, so what was spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled; that He will be called a Nazarene.

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Matthew Chapter 3

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John The Baptist
  1. Then in those days, John the Baptist came preaching in the desert of Judea.
  2. And he was saying: “Change your minds, and thus your deeds;(18)“Change your minds, and thus your deeds” is one word in Greek, typically translated “repent”. However, it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. All that meaning is captured by a single Greek word here. for the kingdom of the heavens was – and is – drawing near.”
  3. For this is the man spoken of through the prophet Isaiah, saying; “The voice of him urgently pleading in the desert: prepare the way of the Lord. Make His way straight.”(20)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:3
  4. Now he (John) wore a robe made from camel’s hair and had a leather belt around his waist.(19)quotation/allusion to 2 Kings 1:8, which describes the prophet Elijah as “a hairy man with a leather belt around his waist”. Also, his food was locusts and wild honey.
  5. At that time, Jerusalem was going out to him; and all Judea, and all the area around the Jordan.
  6. They were being baptized by him in the Jordan River; and were openly confessing their sins.
  7. Now, seeing that many of the Pharisees and Sadducees were coming to his baptism, he said to them; “You offspring of serpents!(21)This isn’t schoolyard name calling. Satan is always represented as a serpent. Therefore, calling them the “offspring of serpents” is akin to saying they are Satan’s children/followers. Further, this understanding makes John’s comment in 3:9 make much more sense. Who warned you to flee from the wrath(22)“wrath” the Greek word refers to anger or wrath that has built up over a longer period. This isn’t an outburst of anger in the moment; it’s matured over time. that’s coming very soon?”
  8. “Therefore, produce fruit worthy of a changed mind.”(23)See note on 3:2
  9. “And don’t presume to say among yourselves; “We have Abraham as a father”. For I tell you that God has the power to raise up children of Abraham out of these stones.”
  10. “Already, the axe is laid near the root(24)“root” the Greek word here can also mean “descendant”. That’s interesting considering the context… of the trees. Therefore, every tree not producing good fruit is cut off and thrown into the fire.”
  11. “Indeed, I baptize you in water toward changed minds, and thus changed deeds.(25)See note on 3:2 But after me is coming one mightier than I; He whom I am not worthy to carry His sandals. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire.”
  12. His(26)literally “whose” winnowing fork(27)“winnowing fork” is a literal translation of the Greek word here. A “winnowing fork” is used for “winnowing”. Winnowing is the process of separating the useful/edible grain from the the useless chaff. Chaff is the husks and stem fragments of a grain plant that are useless for anything. You “winnow” by using a winnowing fork to throw the mixture up into the air. The wind blows away the lighter chaff, while the heavier grain falls back down to be collected. This process was done on a “threshing floor”, which had to be cleaned prior to use because food was prepared (winnowed) there. is in His hand. And He will thoroughly cleanse His threshing floor and will gather His grain into the barn.  But the chaff He will burn completely with unquenchable fire.
Jesus’ baptism
  1. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan, to John to be baptized by(28)“by” the Greek word here can also mean “under”, sometimes with the connotation of authority; i.e. “under” in the sense of authority. him.
  2. But John stubbornly hindered Him, saying; “I need to be baptized by(29)see previous note. you, and you come to me?”
  3. But answering, Jesus said to him; “Let that go, just for now. For it’s proper for us to complete all righteousness in this way.  Then he let it go.
  4. Now, after being baptized, Jesus immediately came up away from the water.  And behold; the heavens were opened [to Him] and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming upon Him.
  5. And behold; a voice from the heavens was saying; “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

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Matthew Chapter 4

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Jesus’ Temptation
  1. Then Jesus was led up into the wilderness by the Spirit, to be tempted by the Accuser.(30)“Accuser” The Greek word used here is “διάβολος” (diabolos), and it’s the root of our English word “devil”. Much like “Christ” (see note on Matt 1:1) “devil” isn’t a name but a descriptive title.
  2. And after fasting(32)“fasting” doesn’t always refer to a complete denial of food.  Long fasts were often done with little or unpleasant food.  Jesus might not have forgone food and drink entirely, but rather was living on little or unpleasant food. forty days and forty nights, He was hungry.
  3. And having come, the tempter said to Him; “If you are God’s Son, command these stones so they become bread.
  4. But answering, He said; “It was – and is – written: Man will not live on bread alone, but instead on every spoken word(31)“spoken word” the Greek word here refers only to words that are spoken, never to words that are written. that comes from the mouth of God.”(33)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 8:3
  5. Then, The Accuser took Him to the holy city and had Him stand on the pinnacle of the Temple.
  6. And he said to Him; “If you are God’s Son, throw yourself down. For it was – and is – written: “He will give orders to His angels all-around(34)The Greek word used here is ” περί” (peri) which is (part of) the root of our word “perimeter”. It literally means “all-around”. The intended meaning could be that the angels are already all around you, but now they will have orders to protect you. Or, the God will give orders to angels to surround you protectively. Either (or both) could be intended. you.”(35)quotation/allusion to Psalm 91:11 Also, “They will raise you up on their hands, so you don’t stumble when your foot is moving towards a stone.”(36)quotation/allusion to Psalm 91:12
  7. Jesus declared to him; “Again, it was – and is – written: you will not test the Lord your God.”(37)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:16
  8. Again, The Accuser took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory.
  9. And he said to Him; “I will give you all these things if you bow down and worship me.”
  10. Then Jesus said to him; “Depart Satan! For it was – and is – written: You will worship the Lord your God, and you will serve Him alone.”(38)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:13
  11. Then The Accuser left. And behold; angels came and served Him.
  12. Now, because he heard John was arrested, He went back into Galilee.
  13. And leaving Nazareth, He came and settled down in Capernaum (by the sea) in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali,
  14. so that what was spoken by Isaiah the Prophet might be fulfilled, saying;
  15. Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali. The way of the sea on the other side of the Jordan; Galilee of the Gentiles.
  16. The people sitting in darkness saw a great light. And the men who sat in the land and shadow of death, a light rose on them.”(39)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 9:1-2
Jesus Begins Teaching and Healing
  1. From that time, Jesus began to proclaim and say; “Change your minds, and thus your deeds.(40)“Change your minds, and thus your deeds” is one word in Greek, typically translated “repent”. However, it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. All that meaning is captured by a single Greek word here. For the kingdom of the heavens was – and is – drawing near.”
  2. Now, He saw two brothers as He was walking beside the Sea of Galilee; Simon, called Peter, and Andrew his brother. They were casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
  3. And He said to them; “Come! Follow Me and I will make you fishers of men.”
  4. And immediately dropping the nets, they followed Him.
  5. And going from there, He saw others. Two brothers – James the son of Zebedee and John his brother – were in a boat with Zebedee their father adjusting their nets. And He called them.
  6. And immediately leaving the boat and their father, they followed Him.
  7. Further, He went through all Galilee; teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every chronic disease and sickness in the people.
  8. Now, the news about Him went out into all of Syria. Also, they brought Him all the sick, having various chronic diseases and persistent torments, and the demon possessed, and those having seizures, and those who were paralyzed, and He cured them.
  9. Further, many crowds followed Him from Galilee, and Decapolis, and Jerusalem, and Judea, and beyond the Jordan.

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Matthew Chapter 5

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The Sermon on the Mountain
  1. Then seeing the crowds, He went up to the mountain. And as He sat down, His disciples came to Him.
  2. And opening His mouth, He was teaching them, saying;
  3. “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.
  4. Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted.
  5. Blessed are the strong but gentle,(41)“strong but gentle” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness. i.e. some who is strong but applies their strength gently. for they will inherit the land.
  6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be satisfied.
  7. Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy.
  8. Blessed are the pure of heart, for they will see God.
  9. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God.
  10. Blessed are those who were – and are – being persecuted for the sake of righteousness; for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.
  11. Blessed are you when they disgrace and accuse(42)“disgrace and accuse” is one word in the Greek.  It can mean either, but both definitions were included because they both fit the context, and it seems likely that both were intended. you, and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil, lying things about you because of Me.
  12. Rejoice and jump for joy; for your wages are many in the heavens. In the same way, they persecuted the prophets before you.
  13. You are the salt of the land. But if the salt has become tasteless,(43)“become tasteless” is literally “become foolish”, as in “a fool is tasteless”. The double meaning here of foolish and tasteless is probably intended, and demonstrates some clever wordplay on Jesus’ part. from where will it be salted? For it’s not strong anymore. And if it’s not, it’s thrown outside to be trampled under foot by men.
  14. You are the light of the world. A city laying on a hill can’t be hidden.
  15. Further, they don’t light a lamp and put it under a measuring basket. On the contrary, it’s put on the lampstand and shines light to all those in the house.
  16. In the same way, shine your light before men so they might see your good works, and might glorify your Father in the heavens.
  17. Don’t assume I came to relax(44)“relax” the Greek word here literally means “loosen thoroughly”, often with the connotation of overthrowing or destroying because “loosen” can also mean dissolve. It comes from “thoroughly loosening” the straps of a pack animal at the end of a night or journey. Thus, it also has the connotation of ending something. The translation “relax” was chosen here because it best fits the context. Jesus spend the rest of the chapter “tightening” the moral standard of God’s (moral) law. the law or the prophets. I didn’t come to relax; but to fulfill.(45)“fulfill could also be translated “complete”. The following verses do not touch on the Mosaic Law, but rather moral behavior.  Jesus “completed” God’s moral law in this passage because He extended guilt to our hearts, not just our actions.  Jesus didn’t relax God’s moral standard as revealed by the law and the prophets here; He completed it.
  18. For truly(46)“truly” is literally “amen”, a word imported from Hebrew. It indicates a firm declaration, confirming what has been said or what is about to be said. I tell you; until heaven and earth pass away, not one iota(47)“iota” is the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, and the term can be applied to the smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet (yod) as well. or one diacritic mark(48)“diacritic marks” are little lines or dots that change the meaning or sound of a word. For example, in the word “fiancé”, the little line above the “e” indicates a change of pronunciation. English rarely uses them, but Greek does.  Hebrew sometimes does, but they weren’t introduced into Hebrew until the mid first millennium.  However, this more likely refers to the slight extensions on certain Hebrew letters that distinguish them from other letters. will pass away from the law until all happens.
  19. Therefore, if someone relaxes(49)“relaxes” literally “loosens”; see note on verse 17. the least one of these commandments – and teaches other men the same – he will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. But, whoever keeps and teaches it; he will be called great in the kingdom of the heavens.
  20. For I tell you; if your righteousness doesn’t abound greater than the Scribes(50)“Scribes” In the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. and Pharisees, then you won’t enter into the kingdom of the heavens.
Relating to others
  1. You heard that the ancients were told: “you shall not murder”. And whoever commits murder will be liable to judgement.
  2. But I say to you; everyone who is angry with his brother will be liable to judgement. And whoever might say to his brother “You airhead”(51)“airhead” the word used here is transliterated, apparently from Aramaic. It literally means “empty-headed”, or a fellow who is stupid or without sense. will be liable to the Sanhedrin.(52)The Sanhedrin was the highest Jewish court of the day. And whoever might say “You Fool” will be liable to the fire of the Valley of Hinnom.(53)Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  But this might refer to Israel’s history instead. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst sentence/judgement Israel had yet seen.  This happened again a few decades later when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD.
  3. Therefore, if you offer your gift on the altar – and there remember that your brother has something against you –
  4. leave your gift there before the altar and go away. First, be reconciled to your brother and then go offer your gift.
  5. Quickly reconcile with your opponent at law, who you are with on the way, until arriving. Then your accuser might not hand you over to the judge; and the judge to the officer, to be thrown into prison.
  6. Truly I tell you; you won’t leave that place until you pay the last penny.(54)“penny” the Greek word here refers to the smallest Roman coin, made from copper. (Much like the pennies in the United States used to be.)
  7. You heard it was said: “You shall not have sex with another man’s wife(55)“have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was typically called fornication or sexual immorality. (See the Greek/Hebrew word definitions; or Easton’s Bible dictionary entry on adultery.) .”(56)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14
  8. But I tell you; everyone who looks at a wife(57)“wife” in Greek, there is no separate word for “woman” versus “wife”. They are the exact same word, and only context determines which is meant. Given the context of the preceding verse (see note on previous verse) “wife” is more appropriate. in order to covet(58)“covet” the Greek word used here was also used twice in quoting the 10th commandment. (Romans 7:7 and Romans 13:9) given the context and definition, “covet” seems more appropriate than the traditional “lust” here. her, already had sex with the other man’s wife(59)“had sex with the other man’s wife” see note on previous verse. in his heart.
  9. Now, if your right eye makes you stumble; remove it and throw it away from you. For it’s better that one of your organs might perish, instead of your whole body being thrown into the Valley of Hinnom.(60)“Valley of Hinnom” is literal; see note on Matthew 5:22.
  10. And if your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it away from you. For it’s better that one of your organs might perish, instead of(61)literally “and not have” your whole body going into the Valley of Hinnom.(62)“Valley of Hinnom” is literal; see note on Matthew 5:22.
  11. Further; it was said: “whoever might send away(63)“send away” is literal here, though it’s typically translated divorce in this passage. The same word is used of Jesus “sending away” crowds and Pilate “sending away” (releasing) Barabbas. Paul uses a different Greek word when talking about divorce in 1 Corinthians. For the relation between “send away” and divorce, see note(s) in next verse. his wife; give her a divorce certificate.(64)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 24:1
  12. But I tell you; everyone who sends away(65)“send away” is literal; see note on previous verse his wife – except for the reason of sexual immorality – makes her commit adultery.  And whoever might marry a woman who was – and is – merely(66)“merely” see previous note sent away; he is guilty of sex with another man’s wife.(67)“guilty of sex with another man’s wife” see note on Matthew 5:27 (68)The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and had three parts: 1) write a divorce certificate. 2) Give it to your wife. 3) Send her away from your house. However, if a man “sent her away” (kicked her out of his house) without a divorce certificate in that culture, she was destitute. She was still legally married because she didn’t have a divorce certificate, so she couldn’t marry anyone else without being an adulteress. Often, her only resort to feed herself was prostitution… which resulted in her committing adultery anyway. He “makes her commit adultery” (sex with another man while still married) to feed herself. However, if she was already “sexually immoral”, then he doesn’t add to (“make her commit”) what she’s already doing.
  13. Again, you heard that the ancients were told: “You shall not make false oaths.”(69)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:12 And: “You shall fulfill your oaths to the Lord.(70)quotation/allusion to Numbers 30:2, and Deuteronomy 23:21-23
  14. But I tell you not to make oaths at all. Not by heaven, because it is the throne of God;
  15. nor by the land, because it is a footstool for His feet; nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the Great King.
  16. Nor shall you make an oath on your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black.
  17. So, let your word be meaningful.(71)“word” the Greek word here is “λόγος” (logos). It refers to not only a word, but also to the well-reasoned thought and intention behind those words; (what gives those words strength and meaning). Logos is the root of our word “logic”. Yes, if yes – no, if no. More than this comes from evil.
  18. You heard it was said: “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.”(72)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 24:20
  19. But I tell you: do not forcefully resist(73)“forcefully resist” the Greek word used here is also a military term referring to troops “holding the line” against the opposing army, typically by fighting back. i.e. taking a firm stand and refusing to be moved. the wicked. On the contrary; whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn and offer him the other.(74)“the one who strikes your right cheek”.  Jesus was almost certinly side-specific on purpose. In that culture, the right hand was used for clean tasks at the left was used for “dirty” tasks. (Such as wiping yourself; remember, there was no toilet paper.) Therefore, you would never hit someone with your left hand. If someone strikes your right cheek with their right (clean) hand, they must be giving you a backhanded slap. Backhanded slaps are only given to inferiors; never equals. If you offer your other cheek (your left) they are faced with a dilemma. If they strike you again with their right hand, they’ve slapped you as one slaps an equal, essentially making you their equal. But to backhand you as an inferior, they must use their left (unclean) hand– which would dishonor them as much as you. This was a non-violent way of resisting and simultaneously asserting your humanity.
  20. And to the man who intends to sue you and take your tunic; give him your cloak also.
  21. And whoever will force you to go one mile, go with him two.
  22. Give to him who asks you, and don’t turn away the man who wants to borrow from you.
  23. You heard it was said: show preference(75)“show preference” the Greek word used here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings. to your neighbor(76)quotation/allusion to Lev 19:18 and – by comparison – hate your enemy.
  24. But I tell you; show preference(77)“show preference” often translated love; see note on previous verse to your enemies, and pray for good over the men who persecute you. [Bless those who curse you. Do good to the men who insult and slander(78)“insult and slander” is one word in Greek.  It can mean either, and both meanings were likely intended. you, and to those who hate you](79)There is much debate as to the [bracketed] text’s authenticity in Matthew, with good arguments on both sides. However, it changes nothing doctrinally and agrees with the parallel passage in Luke.
  25. so that you might become sons of your Father who is in the heavens. For He makes the sun rise on evil and good; and He sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.
  26. For if you show preference to the men who show preference to you, what reward(80)literally “wages”, as a reward for work. do you have? Don’t even the tax collectors do that?
  27. And if you only greet your brothers, what abundance do you have? Don’t even the gentiles do that?
  28. Therefore, you will be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.

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Matthew Chapter 6

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Don’t Seek the praise of men
  1. “Now, beware not to do your righteousness in front of men, in order to be seen(81)“be seen” The Greek word here is “θεάομαι” (theaomai), which refers to spectators who watch something, like a theater. In fact, theaomai is the root of the Greek word “θέατρον” (theatron); which both means “theater” and is the root of our English word “theater”. by them. Otherwise, you have no reward(84)“reward” is literally “wages”, as a reward for work. from your Father in the heavens.
  2. “Therefore, when you give to the poor, don’t sound a trumpet in front of you just like the hypocrites.(82)“hypocrites” the Greek word here literally refers to a “theater actor”. In those days, actors often wore masks during their performances and thus were (figuratively) a “two-faced” person; i.e. they say one thing and do another. Jesus was using some clever wordplay here. (see note on previous verse) They do this in the synagogues and on the crowded streets so they might receive glory from men. Truly I tell you; they have traded away(83)“have traded away” is a single word in Greek meaning “to have something, because far away from something else“. their reward.(85)“reward” is literally “wages”, as a reward for work.
  3. “But you, when giving to the poor, don’t let your left hand know what your right hand is doing,
  4. “so your giving to the poor might be in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward(86)“reward” the Greek word here literally means “to give back” or “return”; especially what is due in payment. you.
  5. “And when you pray, you will not be like the hypocrites. For they did – and still do – love standing in the synagogues and on the corners of wide streets to pray, so they might be seen by men. Truly I tell you; they have traded away(87)“have traded away” is a single word in Greek meaning “to have something, because far away from something else“. their reward.(88)“reward” is literally “wages”, as a reward for work.
  6. “But when you pray, go into your inner room. And shutting your door, pray to your Father in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.
  7. “Now, when praying, don’t prattle endlessly like the pagans. For they assume that in their many words they will be listened to.
  8. “Therefore, don’t become like them. For God your Father did – and still does – see, and thus knows(89)“did – and still does – see, and thus knows ” is one word in the Greek, which refers to “seeing that becomes knowing”. Here it’s in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. what you need before you ask Him.
The Lord’s Prayer
  1. “Therefore, pray like this; “Our Father in the heavens,(90)Literally “Our Father, the in the heavens”. The Greek definite article (“the” in English) can stand in for a pronoun (he, she it, them, they, etc.), which is where you get the traditional “our Father, who art in heaven“. However, it doesn’t have to stand in for a pronoun. hallowed be your name.
  2. “Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.
  3. “Give us this day our daily bread.
  4. “And forgive us our debts,(91)“debts” the Greek word used here can also have the connotation of a sin or offense. as we also forgive those indebted to us.
  5. “And don’t lead us into temptation, but rescue us from evil. [For yours is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory through the ages. Amen.](92)This doxology is present in some early/important manuscripts but absent in others.
  6. “For if you forgive men their sinful slip-ups,(93)“sinful slip-ups”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) which is also used in Ephesians 2:1 in the phrase: “dead in your ‘paraptóma’ and sins”.  It carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. your heavenly Father will also forgive you.
  7. “But if you don’t forgive men [their sinful slip-ups,(94)“sinful slip-ups”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) which is also used in Ephesians 2:1 in the phrase: “dead in your ‘paraptóma’ and sins”.  It carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional.]; neither will your Father forgive your sinful slip-ups.
  8. “Now, when you fast; don’t become gloomy like the hypocrites. For they neglect their faces so they might be seen as fasting to men. Truly I tell you; they have traded away(95)“have traded away” is a single word in Greek meaning “to have something, because far away from something else“. their reward.(96)“reward” is literally “wages”, as a reward for work.
  9. “When you’re fasting however, anoint your head with oil and wash your face.
  10. “So this way, you might not appear as fasting to men, but to your Father in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you.
Treasure in heaven
  1. “Don’t store up your treasures on the earth where moth and eating consume, and where thieves break in and steal.
  2. “But, store up treasures in heaven; where neither moth nor eating consume, and where thieves don’t break in or steal.
  3. “For wherever your treasure is, your heart will be there too.
  4. “The lamp of the body is the eye.  Therefore, if your eye isn’t warped,(97)“eye isn’t warped” According to some sources, this is an idiom which means “to be generous”, in the sense of giving to others/charity.  This makes excellent sense when you consider the context.  The phrase is literally “is not warped”, with “not warped” being a single Greek word that literally means “without folds” (J. Thayer).   It carries a similar moral connotation of “upright”, in the sense of not being crooked, bent, evil, etc.  While “isn’t folded” would be more literally correct, it would be confusing because we don’t associate “folding” with crooked morals.  However, we do associate “warped” with them; hence the translation choice here. your whole body will be full of light.
  5. “But if your eye is evil,(98)“eye is evil” according to some sources, this is an idiom which means “to be stingy”.  i.e. hoarding your wealth in an unhealthy way. your whole body will be full of darkness.  Therefore, if the light within you is darkness, how great is that darkness?(99)In Greek, an interrogative pronoun (similar to our word “how”) is used, making it a question.  Many translations end this sentence with an exclamation point, which makes it a statement rather than a true question.  Jesus may have intended it as a rhetorical question, but it’s hard to be certain from the text.  Therefore, it has been translated as a question here.
  6. “No one can serve as a slave for two lords.  For either he will hate one by comparison and the other he will prefer; or he will be devoted to one and despise the other.  You cannot serve as a slave to God and the treasure you trust in.(100)“the treasure you trust in” is a single word in Greek, with that exact meaning.
No Need to be anxious
  1. “Because of this I tell you: don’t be anxious about your life, what you might eat or what you might drink.  Not even about your body and what clothes you might wear.  Isn’t life more than food and the body more than clothes?
  2. “Look(101)“look” the Greek word here implies intently looking to understand at the birds of the sky. For they don’t plant, nor harvest, nor gather into barns, and your heavenly Father feeds them.  Don’t you have much more value than they do?
  3. “And who among you – by being anxious – can add one hour to his life?
  4. “And about clothing; why are you anxious?  Learn and fully understand(102)“Learn and fully understand” is one word in Greek.  It means to understand something by studying it thoroughly.  This word is related to the Greek word for “disciple”, but has the added force of an intensifying prefix. the lilies of the field; how do they grow?  They don’t exhaust themselves with work nor do they spin.(103)Spinning is an ancient process of turning animal fibers (hair) into thread, which was then woven into fabric, which was made into clothes.  Spinning was a very labor intensive process before modern machinery.
  5. “But I tell you: not even Solomon in all his glory dressed himself like one of these.
  6. “Further, if the grass of the field – being here today and tomorrow thrown into a furnace – God clothes like this; won’t He much more clothe you of little faith?
  7. “Therefore don’t be anxious, saying: what will we eat?  Or, what will we drink?  Or, what clothes will we wear?
  8. “For all these, the nations longingly seek.  Indeed, your heavenly Father did – and still does – see, and thus knows(104)“did – and still does – see, and thus knows ” is one word in the Greek, which refers to “seeing that becomes knowing”. Here it’s in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. that you need them all.
  9. “So seek first the kingdom [of God] and His righteousness, and all these will be added to you.
  10. “Therefore, don’t be anxious about tomorrow, because tomorrow will be anxious itself.  Each day has enough trouble on its own.

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Matthew Chapter 7

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Judging Hypocritically
  1. “Do not judge, so you might not be judged.
  2. “For by whatever verdict you judge, you will be judged.  And whatever standard you use to measure, that standard will be applied to you.
  3. “Now, why do you look at the splinter in your brother’s eye, but in your own eye is a log you don’t think about?(105)“think about” is one word in Greek.  It refers to thinking carefully about something, with the implication that you are trying to understand it.
  4. “Or how will you tell your brother: “Let me remove the splinter from your eye.” and look; the log is in your eye.
  5. “You hypocrite!  First, remove the log from your eye; and then you will see clearly to remove the splinter from your brother’s eye.
Asking, gifts, and the narrow way
  1. “Don’t give holy things to dogs,(106)Wild dogs were regarded as scavengers and loathed much like coyotes or raccoons are today.  The lexicon even mentions that dog could refer to “a man of impure mind, an impudent man” (Thayer’s Greek lexicon) or even a “spiritual predator” (HELPS Word Studies). nor throw your pearls in front of pigs.  They will trample them with their feet and then turning, they might tear you to pieces.
  2. “Ask and it will be given to you.  Seek and you will find.  Knock and it will be opened to you.
  3. “For every man who asks, receives.  And the man who seeks, finds.  And to the man who knocks, it will be opened.
  4. “Or what man among you – when his son asks for bread – he won’t give him a stone will he?
  5. “Or if he asks for a fish, he won’t give him a snake will he?
  6. “Therefore, if you being evil did – and still do – know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in the heavens give good things to those asking Him?
  7. In all things therefore – whatever you want men to do for you – you must also do for them.  Indeed, this is the law and the prophets.
  8. “Enter through the narrow gate.  For wide is the gate, and broad is the way leading to ruin,(107)“ruin” this word is often translated “destruction”, but it more accurately implies a “loss of well-being” rather than a “loss of being” (Vine’s Expository Dictionary).   i.e. they don’t cease to exist (which would be “destruction”) but rather their quality of life is destroyed.  The word “destruction” can also have that connotation, but “ruin” seems to fit the Greek word better. and many are entering through it.
  9. “For narrow is the gate, and constricting was – and is(108)“constricting was – and is – ” is a single word in the Greek.  It refers to compressing via pressure, in a way that makes you feel constricted, restricted, or hemmed in.  It’s in the Greek perfect tense here, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. – the way leading to life.  And those who find it are few.
Know them by their fruit
  1. “Beware of false prophets who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inside they are marauding wolves.
  2. “You will know them from their fruit.  You don’t gather grapes from thorn bushes, or figs from thistles do you?
  3. “So, every good tree produces beautiful fruit.  But a rotten tree produces bad fruit.
  4. “A good tree can’t produce bad fruit.  Nor can a rotten tree produce beautiful fruit.
  5. “Every tree not producing good fruit is cut off and thrown into the fire.
  6. “Therefore, you will know them from their fruits.
  7. “Not all who say to Me: “Lord, Lord” will enter into the kingdom of the heavens; but only he who does the will of my Father in the heavens.
  8. “Many will say to Me on that day, “Lord, Lord; didn’t we prophesy in your name,(109)“name” is literal, but also carries the connotation of authority because you are acting “in the name” of someone with authority. and in your name didn’t we cast out demons, and in your name didn’t we perform many miracles?”
  9. “And then I will agree with them but say:(110)“but say”; a Greek word for “speak” does not appear here.  However, the Greek conjunction “ὅτι” (hoti) is used to introduce a “new” speaker. (Jesus quoting His future words.)  Thus this Greek conjunction – translated “but say” here – was used to introduce Jesus response.  Further, this conjunction can be used to introduce the reason for the following speech. “I never knew you.  Depart from me; you are working without regard for God’s commands.(111)“without regard God’s commands” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “ignoring God’s law”.  It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who –  either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law. (112)quotation/allusion to Psalm 6:8
Foundations compared
  1. “Therefore, everyone who hears these words of Mine and does them will become like a wise man who built his house on the rock.
  2. “And the rains fell down, and the flood came, and the wind blew; and they battered that house.  And it didn’t fall, because he had built the foundation on the rock.
  3. “And every man who hears these words of Mine and isn’t doing them, he will become like a foolish man who built his house on the sand.(113)In Israel, heavy rains from the hills cut long “trenches” through the limestone rock.  One of these water-cut trenches is called a “wadi”.  Most of the time, these are essentially dry riverbeds.  However, when heavy rains come, they turn back into streams or rivers for a time.  Often, the water comes through the wadi so fast that it resembles a flash-flood.  At the bottom of a wadi is sand.  Its likely Jesus was talking about someone who built a house in a (temporarily dry) riverbed – a wadi – that is known to flood.  That would be foolish indeed.
  4. “And the rains fell down, and the flood came, and the wind blew; and they battered that house.  And it fell, and its fall was great.
  5. And it happened, when Jesus finished these words, the crowds were stunned in amazement at His teaching.
  6. For He was teaching them like one having authority,(114)“authority” It’s possible that the “authority” that stunned the crowd was a technical term.   Properly called “semikhah”, the Jewish word literally means “laying on of hands”.  Its origins (as a technical term of authority) go back to Moses.  Moses was given authority by God, and God commanded him to pass some of that “authority” to Joshua by “laying hands on him” in the sight of the people.  (Num27:15-23, Deut 34:9)  The Jews beleived this authority was then passed down through “laying on of hands” to Jesus’ day.  Rabbis with semikhah had the authority to make decisions in the meaning of the Law and other spiritual matters.  In Jesus case, that meant a new interpretation of the Law.  However, ordinary scribes (Torah teachers) could only teach what those with semikhah had established. and not like their scribes.(115)This Greek word literally means a “scribe”, or someone who writes as their profession.  However, it’s often used in the New Testament for those learned in the Mosaic Law.

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Matthew Chapter 8

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Jesus heals a leper
  1. When He came down from the mountain, many crowds followed Him.
  2. And behold, a leper(116)A “leper” is a person suffering from “leprosy” (also called “Hansen’s Disease” in modern times).  The disease is caused by the bacteria “M. leprae“.  Symptoms includes the outbreak of unsightly skin sores and nerve damage. It was a great social stigma in the ancient world and remains so to this day in many places.  The Jews believed that leprosy was caused by sin.  Therefore they believed that only the promised messiah would be able to cure leprosy, because only God could forgive sin.  The leper coming to Jesus could be construed as an act of faith on his part. came and was bowing down at His feet, saying; “Lord, if you want to, you have the power to make me clean.”
  3. And reaching out His hand, He touched him saying, “I want to; be cleansed.”  And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.
  4. And Jesus said to Him, “See that you tell no one.  But go; show yourself to the priest and offer the gift that Moses commanded as evidence for them.”
The Centurion’s faith
  1. And when He entered Capernaum, a centurion(117)“centurion” was a rank in the Roman military. A normal centurion was in charge of 80 soldiers, plus ~20 support staff. However, there were different levels of centurion.  The highest ranking centurions could be in charge of up to 1000 men. approached Him.  He was pleading
  2. and saying: “Lord, my servant boy was – and is – lying sick in the house.  He is paralyzed and being horribly tormented.
  3. And He said to him: “I will come to heal him.”
  4. But answering, the centurion said; “Lord, I’m not worthy for you to come under my roof.  But only say the word and my servant boy will be healed.
  5. For I’m also a man under authority; and I have soldiers under me.  And I tell this one “Go”, and he goes. And to another “Come”, and he comes.  And to my slave “Do this”, and he does it.”
  6. And hearing this, Jesus marveled and told the men who follow Him; “Truly I tell you; I’ve found no one in Israel besides him with such great faith.
  7. Now, I tell you that many from east and west will arrive.  And they will recline at the table(118)“recline” is literal.  In ancient times, they laid down on a low table to eat. Thus, “reclining” in those days is similar to “sitting down” today to share a meal. with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens.
  8. But the sons of this kingdom(119)literally “the kingdom”.  The word “the” was translated “this” to avoid confusion with the kingdom of the heavens in the previous verse.  In Greek, the difference is made clear by using a different word form (which English can’t do). will be thrown into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
  9. And Jesus said to the centurion, “Go. Let it happen according to your faith.”  And his servant boy was healed in that hour.
Jesus heals many
  1. And when Jesus came to Peter’s house, He saw his mother-in-law was – and is – lying sick with a fever.
  2. And He touched her hand and the fever left her.  And she got up and was serving Him.
  3. Now, when it became evening, they brought Him many who were demon possessed; and He cast out the spirits with a word, and He healed all those who were badly afflicted.
  4. so that it might be fulfilled; what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet when he said: “He took our infirmities, and carried away our diseases.”(120)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 53:4
  5. Now, when Jesus saw a great crowd around him, He gave orders to depart to the other side of the sea.
The Cost of following Jesus
  1. And approaching Him, one scribe said: “Teacher; if you go anywhere, I will follow you.”
  2. And Jesus said to him: “The foxes have dens, and the birds of the air nests.  But the Son of Man has nowhere to lay His head, does He?
  3. Now, another of His disciples said to Him; “Lord, let me first go and bury my father.”
  4. But Jesus said to him; “Follow me, and let the dead bury their own dead.”
Jesus Calms the Storm
  1. And when he stepped into the boat, His disciples followed Him.
  2. And behold; a great storm began on the sea, so the boat was covered by the waves. But He was sleeping.
  3. And coming to Him, they woke Him up saying; “Lord, save me! We are perishing!”
  4. And He said to them; “Why are you fearful? O, you of little faith?”  Then getting up, He scolded the winds and the sea, and it became very calm.
  5. Then the men marveled, saying; “What kind of man(121)“What kind of man” is one word in Greek.  It can also be mean “from what country/region?”  And in that case is used to inquire about someone’s origins.  This, they could be asking where He’s from. is this?  Because even the winds and the sea listen to Him.”
Demons sent into pigs
  1. And when He came to the other side – to the land of Gadarenes(122)The Gadarenes lived in the city Gadara, which was south-east of the Sea of Galilee.  It was an important Hellenized (Greek) city, and one of the ten cities of the Decapolis. – two demon possessed men come out of the tombs to meet Him.  They were very violent, so no one could pass through that way.
  2. And behold, they shrieked, saying; “What are we to you, Son of God?  Did you come here to torment us before the appointed time?”
  3. Now, far away from them was a large herd of pigs, who were feeding.
  4. So the demons were begging Him, saying; “If you cast us out, send us into the herd of pigs.”
  5. And He said to them “Go.”  So they came out and went into the pigs.  And behold; the whole herd dashed down the steep bank into the sea, and died in the waters.
  6. Now, the men feeding them fled.  And going into the city, they reported everything; even about the demon-possessed men.
  7. And behold; the whole city went out to meet Jesus. And seeing Him, they begged Him to depart from their region.(123)literally “they begged so that He might depart away from their region.”

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Matthew Chapter 9

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Jesus heals a paralyzed man
  1. And stepping into a boat, He crossed over the sea and came to His own city.
  2. And behold; they were bringing Him a paralyzed man who was – and is – lying on a stretcher.(124)“stretcher” literally a bed, or bed mat, which can include a portable bed-mat.   The closest thing we have in modern days is a stretcher.  And Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralyzed man; “Have courage child; your sins are forgiven.”
  3. And behold; some of the scribes(125)“scribes” In the New Testament, this word is often used of those learned in the Mosaic Law. said to themselves “This man blasphemes!”
  4. And knowing their thoughts, Jesus said; “Why do you fervently consider evil in your hearts?”
  5. “For which is easier to say: “Your sins are forgiven.” or to say; “Get up and walk”?
  6. “However, so you might know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins…”  Then He told the paralyzed man; “Getting up, pick up your stretcher, and go to your house.”
  7. And getting up, he went to his house.
  8. But seeing this, the crowds were awestruck. And they glorified God who gave authority like this to men.
Jesus and the Tax Collectors
  1. And passing on from there, Jesus saw a man named Matthew sitting in a tax-collector’s office.  And He said to him; “Follow Me.”  And getting up, he followed Him.
  2. And it happened that He was reclining(126)“reclining” is literal.  In ancient times, they didn’t sit at a table, they “reclined” at a low table.  Thus, reclining often meant eating together. in the house.  And behold; many tax collectors and sinners were coming and reclining at the table with Jesus and His disciples.
  3. And seeing this, the Pharisees said to His disciples; “Why does your teacher eat with the tax collectors and sinners?”
  4. But hearing this He said; “The healthy don’t need a doctor, but the sick do.”
  5. “But going, learn this: “I desire mercy and not sacrifice.  For I didn’t come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
Fasting and Wineskins
  1. Then the disciples of John came to Him, saying; “Why do we and the Pharisees often fast, but your disciples don’t fast?”
  2. And Jesus said to them; “Can the groomsmen(127)“groomsmen” literally “sons of the bridal chamber”.  In that age, this referred to the men who helped the Groom prepare whatever was needed for the wedding, especially the “bridal chamber” (“honeymoon suite”).  The closest modern equivalent is groomsmen. mourn as long as the groom is with them?  But the days will come when the groom is taken away from them, and then they will fast.
  3. Now, no one puts an unshrunk patch of cloth on an old cloak. For the patch pulls away and it becomes a worse tear.
  4. Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins.(128)“wineskins” is literal, and refers to a leather “bag” used to hold liquids.  The phrase “new wine” refers to un-fermented grape juice.  As it ferments, it releases gas which causes the wineskin to stretch.  However, if an “old wineskin” is used with “new wine” (unfermented grape-juice), the gasses from the fermentation will stretch the already stretched leather bag so that it splits.  This makes the leather bag useless and the wine is spilled out and lost.  (“Old wineskins” could be used for “old wine” or other liquids, and thus were still useful.)  Indeed no; and if they do, the wineskins tear, and the wine spills out, and the wineskins are ruined.  But they put new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved.
Raising the Dead and healing an issue of blood
  1. As He was telling them these things, behold; one of the Jewish elders was coming.  He bowed low on his kness before Him, saying: “My daughter died just now.  But come; lay your hand on her and she will live.”
  2. And getting up, Jesus and His disciples followed him.
  3. And behold; there was a woman suffering from constant menstrual bleeding(129)“suffering from constant menstrual bleeding” is one word in the Greek.  It refers to a continuous flow of blood, aka: a hemorrhage.  It doesn’t specifically mean menstrual blood, but this exact word is used to refer to a menstrual blood in the Septuagint in Leviticus 15:33 and by medical writers. for twelve years.  Coming up behind Him, she touched the edge of His cloak.
  4. For she was saying inside herself; “If I only touch His cloak, I will be healed.”(130)In Malachi 4:2, it says that “the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings.”  The Hebrew word translated “wings” in that verse is “כָּנָף” (kanaph).  It means any extremity, including wings and also the edge of a garment.  It could be accurately translated “healing in the edge of His clothes”.  This woman likely knew this verse, and that’s probably why she specifically touched the edge of His cloak.  The Jews believed Malachi 4:2 was a prophecy about the Messiah.  So by touching His cloak, she was basically expressing her faith that Jesus was the Messiah.  This is quite possibly why Jesus said her faith healed her.
  5. And Jesus, turning and seeing her, said; “Have courage daughter; your faith did – and does – heal you.  And the woman was healed from that hour on.
  6. And Jesus came to the house of the Jewish elder.  And seeing the flute players and the crowds making a noisy outcry,
  7. He said; “Leave.  For the girl is not dead, but asleep.”  And they were laughing at Him.
  8. Now, when the crowd was sent outside, He entered, grabbed her hand, and the girl was raised up.
  9. And the news of this went through that whole land.
Jesus Heals the Blind and Demon Possessed
  1. And when Jesus was passing on from there, two blind men followed Him.  They were crying out and saying; “Show us mercy, Son of David(131)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes.  This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever.  This could be construed as an act of faith by the blind men..”
  2. Now, coming into the house, the blind men approached Him.  And Jesus said to them; “Do you believe that I’m able to do this?”  They said to Him; “Definitely Lord.”
  3. Then He touched their eyes, saying; “Let it happen to you through your faith.”
  4. And their eyes were opened.  And Jesus sternly warned them, saying; “See that no one knows.”
  5. But going out, they spread the news about Him in that whole land.
  6. Now, as they were leaving, behold; they brought Him a man who – being demon possessed – couldn’t speak.
  7. And when the demon was cast out, the mute man spoke.  And the crowds marveled, saying; “Something like this has never been seen in Israel.”
  8. Now, the Pharisees were saying; “He casts out demons by the ruler of the demons.”
The Harvest
  1. And Jesus was going around to all the cities and villages.  He was teaching in their synagogues, and announcing the good news of the kingdom, and healing every chronic disease and every sickness.
  2. Now, seeing the crowds, He was moved with compassion for them, because they had been – and were – troubled; and they had been – and were – cast away, like sheep having no shepherd.
  3. Then He said to His disciples; “Truly, the harvest is great but the workers are few.”
  4. Therefore, you must beg(132)“you must beg” in Greek is a passive imperative command, which we don’t really have in English. The command is to “let something be done to you”.  From the context, it appears Jesus was saying the disciples must let the lack of workers move them to beg God. the Lord of the harvest, so He might send out workers into His harvest.

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Matthew Chapter 10

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Instructing the Twelve
  1. And summoning His twelve disciples, He gave them authority over unclean spirits, so they could cast them out, and to heal every chronic disease and every sickness.
  2. Now, these are the names of the twelve apostles.  First, Simon called Peter and Andrew his brother. Also, James the son of Zebedee and John his brother.
  3. Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Mathew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus;
  4. Simon the Zealot; and Judas Iscariot, the man who betrayed Him.
  5. Jesus sent out these twelve, commanding them by saying; “Don’t go near the way of the Gentiles, and don’t go into a city of the Samaritans.”
  6. “But more importantly, go to the sheep of the house of Israel; they were – and are – being utterly lost.
  7. In your traveling, also preach saying; “The kingdom of the heavens was – and is – drawing near.”
  8. “Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received; freely give.
  9. “Don’t acquire gold, nor silver, nor copper in your money belts.(133)“money belts” in that age, belts were often hollow and used as a safe way to store money.
  10. “Don’t bring a food pouch for the way, nor two cloaks, nor sandals, nor a staff.  For the worker is worthy of his food.
  11. “Now, whatever city or village you enter into, carefully inquire who is worthy in it, and there stay until you might leave.
  12. “Then entering into the house, greet it.
  13. “And if the house is truly worthy, let your peace come on it.  But if it’s not worthy, let your peace return to you.
  14. “And whoever won’t welcome you, nor hear your words, then going outside that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet.
  15. Truly I tell you; it will be more bearable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgement than that city.
  16. “”Behold; I send you out like sheep in the midst of wolves.  Therefore, become shrewd as serpents and pure as doves.
Warning about Persecution
  1. “But beware of men, for they will hand you over to the Sanhedrins,(134)A Sanhedrin was a Jewish court that had authority in both civil and religious matters.  There was a lesser Sanhedrin in cities of significant size, and the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.  The Great Sanhedrin functioned like a Supreme Court over the lesser Sanhedrins. and will lash you with whips(135)“lash… …with whips”.  The Greek word here specifically refers to tying someone to a pole or frame and striking them repeatedly with a whip as a punishment. in their synagogues.
  2. “And also, you’ll be brought to governors and kings because of Me; to be a witness to them and the nations.
  3. “Now, when they hand you over, don’t be anxious about how or what you might say, for you will be given what to say in that very hour.
  4. “For you won’t be speaking; but the Spirit of your Father will be speaking through you.
  5. “Now, brother will betray brother to death, and a father will betray his child, and children will rise up against parents and will kill them.
  6. “And all will hate you because of My name.  But the man who endures to the end; he will be saved.
  7. “So when they persecute you in that city, flee to another.  For truly I tell you; you definitely won’t(136)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. finish fleeing through the cities of Israel until the Son of Man comes.
  8. “A disciple isn’t above the teacher, nor a slave above his master.
  9. It’s enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master.  If they call the master of the house Beelzebub,(137)From the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”.   It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal.  One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”.  Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god.  Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon.  There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon. how much more the members of His household?
Fear God, not Man
  1. “Therefore, don’t be afraid of them.  For nothing was – or is – hidden which won’t be uncovered; and there’s nothing secret which won’t be known.
  2. “What I tell you in the dark, speak in the light.  And what you hear whispered in the ear, preach on the rooftops.
  3. “And don’t fear those who kill the body, but can’t kill the soul.(138)“soul” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  The exact same word is used in verse 39. where we must lose our psuché to gain it.  But rather, fear those able to destroy(139)“destroy” the Greek word here is “ἀπόλλυμι” (apollumi).  It means to utterly lose (as in Matthew 10:6), to ruin, or to destroy.  Its root word emphasizes the loss incurred, not the destruction. both body and soul(140)The Greek word translated “soul” here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  The exact same word is used in verse 39. where we must lose our psuché to gain it. in the Valley of Hinnom.(141)“the Valley of Hinnom” Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  But this might refer to Israel’s history instead. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst sentence/judgement Israel had yet seen.  This happened again a few decades later when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. See following note. (142)Verse Note: While Jesus might have been referring to judgement in the afterlife, it’s unlikely. (See note on the word “soul” in this verse.)  He might’ve been referring to the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.  If you look at “soul” here in the sense of “identity” (again, see note) it makes some sense. Some of those trapped inside Jerusalem during the siege became so depraved, what they did isn’t fit to be put into print.  That could count as a destruction of “body and soul/identity”.
  4. “Aren’t two sparrows sold for a brass coin?(143)“a brass coin” is literally and specifically an “assarion”.  It was worth one tenth of a drachma.  The drachma was the going rate for a day’s worth of unskilled labor.  And not one among them will fall to the ground without your Father willing it.
  5. “Now, even the hairs on your head were – and are – all counted.
  6. “So don’t fear.  You have more value than many sparrows.
  7. “Therefore; everyone who will endorse Me in front of men, I will also endorse him in front of My Father in the heavens.
  8. “But whoever might deny Me in front of men, I will also deny him in front of My Father in the heavens.
  9. “Don’t assume that I came to bring peace on the earth. I didn’t come to bring peace, but a sword.
  10. For I came to divide; a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law.
  11. And a man’s enemies will be the members of his household.(144)quotation/allusion to Micah 7:6
  12. The man who loves his father or mother more than Me isn’t worthy of Me.  And the man who loves his son or daughter more than Me isn’t worthy of Me.
  13. And whoever doesn’t take his cross and follow after me isn’t worthy of Me.
  14. The man who finds his life(145)The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  And the man who loses his life(146)The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. because of Me will find it.
  15. The man who welcomes you, welcomes Me.  And the man who welcomes Me, welcomes the One who sent Me.
  16. The man who welcomes a prophet because(147)“because” literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was an idiom that was equivalent to “because”. he’s a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward.  And he who welcomes a righteous man because(148)“because” literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was an idiom that was equivalent to “because”. he’s righteous will receive a righteous man’s reward.
  17. And whoever gives one of these little ones a cup of cool water to drink, just because(149)“because” literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was an idiom that was equivalent to “because”. he’s a disciple…  Truly I tell you; he definitely won’t(150)“definitely won’t”.  In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis.  Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. lose his reward.

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Matthew Chapter 11

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  1. And it happened, when Jesus finished giving detailed orders to His twelve disciples, He left there to teach and preach in their cities.
John the Baptist’s Question
  1. Now, John heard of the Anointed’s works while in prison.  And sending two of his disciples
  2. said to Him; “Are you The Coming One,(151)“The Coming One” this odd phrase is intentional by John.  There were several Old Testament passages that the Jews believed referred to the messiah, which talk of Him “coming”.  (For example, Psalm 118:26, Psalm 40:7-8, and Malachi 3:1).  John was probably referring to Zechariah 9:9, which talks about the “coming King”, and in verse 11 speaks of setting prisoners free. Therefore, John was probably asking if Jesus was the messiah, and if so would he be freed. or should we wait for another?”
  3. And answering them, Jesus said; “When you go, report to John what you hear and see:
  4. The blind see, and the lame walk; the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised, and the poor are given good news.(152)Verse note: Jesus answered John’s question using a Jewish Rabbinic method called “remez” (or hint).  Jesus quotes portions of Isaiah 35:5-6, (blind, lame, deaf), Isaiah 42:6-7 (blind again) and Isaiah 61:1 (good news).  All three passages refer to the coming messiah/king, so Jesus was confirming that He was indeed Him.  However, in all three passages Jesus left off a part about setting prisoners free.  This was likely Jesus telling John that He was indeed the messiah, but John wouldn’t be set free.
  5. “And blessed is he who doesn’t stumble because of Me.
  6. Now, as they were leaving, Jesus began to tell the crowd about John; “What did you come out to the desert to watch?(153)“to watch” The Greek word here is “θεάομαι” (theaomai), which refers to spectators who watch something, like in a theater. In fact, theaomai is the root of the Greek word “θέατρον” (theatron); which both means “theater” and is the root of our English word “theater”. A reed shaken by the wind?
  7. But what did you come out to see? A man who was – and is – in soft clothing?  Look; the men always wearing soft clothes are in the Kings’ houses.
  8. But what did you come out to see; a prophet?  Truly I tell you, yes!  And one who’s far more than a prophet.
  9. “This is the man about whom it was – and is – written; “Behold; I send out my messenger before your face.  He who will carefully prepare your way before you.”(154)quotation/allusion to Malachi 3:1
  10. “Truly I tell you: among those born to women, none has – or is – risen who’s greater than John the Baptist.  But the least in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than him.
  11. “But from the days of John the Baptist until now, men force their way into(155)men force their way into” is a single word in Greek.  Most translations render it in the passive voice here (“suffers violence”).  However, the endings for the Greek middle voice and passive voice are the same in many verbs, this one included.  Therefore, it can be accurately translated as either passive or middle voice.  In the middle voice, it means to “use force” or to “force your way”.  When compared with a parallel passage in Luke 16:16, it seems the middle voice was intended.  Therefore, it was been translated in the middle voice here.  See note at end of the verse for more information. the kingdom of the heavens, and zealous men seize it. (156)Verse note: the latter half of this verse likely refer to the zeal with which John’s (and later Jesus’) disciples followed them.  In Luke 5:18-19, some men literally tore up a roof to get someone to Jesus.  In John 6:15, they wanted to make Jesus king by force.  It seems to be a positive statement in this verse, giving approval of the zeal.
  12. “For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.
  13. “And if you’re willing to accept it, he is Elijah; the one about to come.
  14. “He who has ears, let him hear.
This Wicked Generation
  1. “But to what will I compare this generation?  It’s like small children sitting in the markets who are calling to others.
  2. “saying; ‘We played the flute for you and you didn’t dance.  We cried out in mourning and you didn’t grieve.’
  3. “For John came neither eating nor drinking and they say; ‘he has a demon.’
  4. “The Son of Man came eating and drinking and they say; ‘Look; this man is a glutton and a drunkard, and a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’  Indeed, wisdom is declared righteous by her deeds.”
  5. Then He started to condemn the cities in which most of His miracles had happened, because they didn’t change their minds, and thus their deeds.(157)“change their minds, and thus their deeds” is one word in Greek, typically translated “repent”. However, it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second.
  6. “Woe to you Chorazin!  Woe to you Bethsaida!  For if the miracles happening in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon,(158)Tyre and Sidon were ancient cities against which God prophesied destruction at length, especially against Tyre.  (Isaiah 23, Ezekiel chapters 26-28) then long ago in sackcloth and ashes(159)Sackcloth and ashes was a common way for Jews to mourn or express great regret.  The “sackcloth” was a rough weave, probably equivalent to modern day burlap or canvas.  They would throw ashes on their heads and clothes to indicate the regret or grief. they would’ve changed their minds, and thus their deeds.(160)“changed their minds and thus their deeds” is one word in Greek, typically translated “repent”. However, it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second.
  7. “Further I tell you: it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgement than for you.
  8. “And you Capernaum.  You won’t be raised up to heaven, but will go down to the underworld,(161)The Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”. because if the miracles happening in you had happened in Sodom, it would remain to this day.
  9. “Further I tell you: because of this, it will be more bearable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgement than for you.
Rest for the Weary
  1. Then concluding, Jesus said; “I praise(162)“Praise”.  The Greek word here has a primary connotation of confession and agreement.  It also has a nuanced meaning of praise and thanks.  Given the context, “praise” was chosen.  However, the other meanings are certainly applicable and probably intended. you, Father – Lord of heaven and earth – because you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to children.
  2. “Yes Father, because it happening like this was pleasing before you.
  3. “And no one truly knows the Son except the Father.  Nor does anyone truly know the Father except the Son, and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him.
  4. “Come to Me, all who exhaust themselves working(163)“who exhaust themselves with work” is one word in Greek.  It literally means to tire yourself out – to become weary – from doing hard work or labor.  Interestingly, this doesn’t say working is bad.  It refers to exhausting yourself from working. and who were – and are – overloaded with burdens,(164)“who were – and are – overloaded with burdens” is one word in Greek.  It seems to refer to loading up a pack animal with more than it can carry.  It’s in the Greek perfect tense here, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. and I will give you rest.(165)quotation/allusion to Exodus 33:14, which says (in context it’s Yahweh/God speaking) “and He said; “My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”  Jesus was making a claim to His deity by saying He would do what God promised to do.
  5. “Take up My yoke(166)A “yoke” is shaped like an upside-down “U”, and was put over the necks of oxen to enable them to pull with their shoulders. It’s what enables them to do hard work, because they can put their full strength into the effort. upon you and learn from me.  For I’m strong but gentle, and humble of heart;(167)this is a double quotation/allusion to two different verses. In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses says that God will raise up a prophet like him, and concludes with “you must listen to him.”  The Jews believed this was a messianic prophecy.  Numbers 12:3 says that Moses was the most humble man on the earth.  By quoting Moses here, Jesus was saying He was the promised Messiah, and that they should listen to/obey Him. and you will find rest for your soul.(168)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 6:16.  Jesus statement here cannot be properly understood without reading that verse.  The verse reads: “Thus says Yahweh; “Stand at the road and look. Ask for the ancient paths – the good way – and walk in it, and you will find rest for your soul. But they said, “We won’t walk in it.” Jesus was saying they would only find rest if they were obedient.  Further, the ending of the verse is “we won’t walk in it”, which is likely an allusion to their disobedience.
  6. “For My yoke(169)see note on previous verse. is pleasant and My burden easy to bear.

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Matthew Chapter 12

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Working on the Sabbath
  1. At that time, Jesus went through the grain fields on the Sabbaths.(170)Sabbath here is plural, which might indicate this was a habit of His.  Now, His disciples were hungry, and began to pick and eat heads of grain.
  2. And seeing this, the Pharisees said to Him; “Look, your disciples are doing what isn’t lawful to do on the Sabbath.”
  3. So He said to them; “Haven’t you read what David did when he and the men with him were hungry?”
  4. “How he entered God’s house and they ate the consecrated bread, which wasn’t lawful for him – nor the men with him – to eat; but was only for the priests?
  5. “Or haven’t you read in the law that – on the Sabbath – the priests in the temple violate the Sabbath(171)The Mosaic law required sacrifices to be made in the temple twice a day, every day. (Exodus 29:38) Even on the Sabbath they were offered.  Of course, the priests had to work to perform the sacrifice. and aren’t guilty?
  6. “But I tell you that One greater than the temple is here.
  7. “And if you had understood what is written: “I desire mercy and not sacrifice.”(172)quotation/allusion to Hosea 6:6 you wouldn’t have condemned the innocent.
  8. “For the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.”
Healing on the Sabbath
  1. And departing from there, He went into their synagogue.
  2. And behold; a man with a withered hand was there. And they asked Him, saying; “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?” so they might accuse Him.
  3. Then He said to them; “What man among you has only one sheep?(173)literally “What man will be among you who will have one sheep.”  The tenses of the verbs were altered to make the sentence readable in English.  And if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, won’t he grab it and lift it out?
  4. So then, how much more valuable is a man than a sheep!  Therefore, it’s lawful to do good on the Sabbath.
  5. Then He told the man, “Reach out your hand.”  And he reached it out and it was restored to health, like his other.
  6. And after going out, the Pharisees held a council against Him, so they might kill Him.
  7. But knowing this, Jesus left there.  And many crowds followed Him and He healed them all.
  8. And He warned them, so they might not make Him known.
  9. This was so it might be fulfilled; what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying:
  10. Behold; My servant whom I chose.  My beloved, in whom My soul is well pleased. I will put My Spirit on Him, and He will announce justice to the nations.
  11. He won’t argue angrily, nor will He shriek like an animal,(174)“will He shriek like an animal” Is one word in Greek.  It can mean any sort of loud “cry”, shout, or shriek; but especially those made by animals. It’s root comes from the “caw” sound a raven makes. nor will someone hear His voice in the wide streets.
  12. He won’t crush a reed that was – and is – broken.  And He won’t quench a smoldering wick, until He irresistibly leads justice to victory.(175)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 42:1-4
  13. “And in His name, the gentiles will hope.”
A Divided House
  1. Then a blind and mute man being possessed by a demon was brought to Him, and He healed him so the mute man could speak and see.
  2. And all the crowds were marveling and saying; “This man can’t be the Son of David,(176)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes.  This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. can He?”
  3. But hearing this, the Pharisees said; “This man can’t cast out demons except through Beelzebub,(177)From the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”.   It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal.  One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”.  Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god.  Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon.  There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon (see following note). ruler(178)“ruler” The Greek word here could mean the one of greatest authority, but it doesn’t have to.  It means any “ruler”, not necessarily the one of highest authority.  The traditional interpretation of this word in this verse is “prince”. of the demons.”e
  4. But having known – and knowing – knowing their thoughts, Jesus said to them; “Every kingdom that’s being divided against itself becomes desolate. And every city or house that’s being divided against itself won’t stand.
  5. “And if Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself.  How then will his kingdom stand?
  6. “And if I cast out demons by Beelzebub, by whom do your sons cast them out? Because of this, they will be your judges.
  7. “But if I cast out demons by God’s Spirit, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.
  8. “Or; how is someone able to enter a mighty man’s house – and to seize his goods – unless he first ties up the mighty man?  And then will he plunder his house.
  9. “The man who isn’t with Me is against Me.  And the man who doesn’t assemble with Me scatters.
  10. “Because of this, I tell you every sin and blasphemy of men will be forgiven.  But blasphemy against the Spirit won’t be forgiven.
  11. “And whoever might speak a word against the Son of Man, he will be forgiven.  But whoever might speak against the Holy Spirit, he won’t be forgiven; neither in this age, nor in the age to come.
Know them by their fruit
  1. “Either make the tree beautiful and its fruit beautiful, or make the tree rotten and its fruit rotten.  For a tree is known by the fruit.
  2. “You offspring of serpents.(179)Satan is typically represented as a serpent. Therefore, calling them “offspring of serpents” is akin to saying they are Satan’s children or followers.  How are you – being evil – able to speak good things?  For the mouth speaks from the excess of the heart.
  3. “The good man brings out good things from the good storehouse of his heart.(180)“storehouse of his heart” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a place where treasure is stored, and can include things “treasured” in the heart or mind of a person. And the wicked man brings out wicked things from the wicked storehouse of his heart.(181)“storehouse of his heart” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a place where treasure is stored, and can include things “treasured” in the heart or mind of a person.
  4. “But I tell you this; for every careless word that men will speak, they will give a reason(182)The Greek word here is ” λόγος” (Logos), and is typically translated “word”.  (As in John 1:1.)  It properly refers to “reasoning expressed through speech”, which is why logos is the root of our English word “logic”. for it in the day of judgement.
  5. “For by the reason behind your words,(183)“reason behind… …words” is one word in Greek.  It’s the Greek word “λόγος” (Logos), and is typically translated “word”.  (As in John 1:1.)  It properly refers to “reasoning expressed through speech“, which is why Logos is the root of our English word “logic”. you will be declared righteous.  And by the reason behind your words,(184)“reason behind… …words” is one word in Greek.  It’s the Greek word “λόγος” (Logos), and is typically translated “word”.  (As in John 1:1.)  It properly refers to “reasoning expressed through speech“, which is why Logos is the root of our English word “logic”. you will be condemned as guilty.
The Sign of Jonah
  1. Then some of the Scribes and Pharisees answered Him, saying; “Teacher, we wish to see a miraculous sign from you.”
  2. But answering, He said to them; “A wicked generation – and an adulteress(185)The traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery. – seeks a miraculous sign.  And a sign won’t be given to her, except the sign of Jonah the Prophet.
  3. “For just as Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.
  4. The men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation in the judgement.  They will also condemn it because they changed their minds, and thus their deeds,(186)“change their minds, and thus their deeds” is one word in Greek, typically translated “repent”. However, it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. at the preaching of Jonah.  And behold; One greater than Jonah is here.
  5. The queen of the south will be raised in the judgement with this generation.  She will also condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear Solomon’s wisdom.  And behold; One greater than Solomon is here.
The Evil Spirit Returns
  1. “Now, when the unclean spirit comes out of the man, it travels through waterless places seeking rest… and finds none.
  2. “Then it says: “I’ll return to my house; from where I left.”  And going back, it finds the house vacant; it was – and is – swept and beautifully decorated.
  3. “Then it goes and takes with itself seven other spirits more evil than itself.  And entering the house, they settle down there.  Indeed, the end(187)“end” the Greek word here is “ἔσχατος” (eschatos), which indicates the final state of a thing. It’s the root of the English word “eschatology”, which is the study of “end times”. (Revelation in Christian circles) of that man becomes worse than the beginning.  And it will be like that for this wicked generation.
Sons do the Father’s will
  1. Now, while He was speaking to the crowds, behold; His mother and brothers had been standing outside seeking to speak to Him.
  2. So someone told Him; “Look, your mother and your brothers were – and still are – standing outside. They’re seeking to speak to you.”
  3. But answering the man who told Him, Jesus said; “Who is My mother and who are My Brothers?”
  4. And reaching His hand toward His disciples, He said; “Look, My mother and My brothers.
  5. “For whoever does the will of My Father in the heavens; he is My brother and sister and mother.”

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Matthew Chapter 13

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The Parable of the Sower
  1. Later that day, Jesus left the house and was sitting beside the sea.
  2. And many crowds were gathered to Him.  So He stepped into a boat to sit down, and the whole crowd stood on the seashore.
  3. And He told them many things in parables, saying; “Behold, the man who sows seed went out to sow.
  4. “And in his sowing, some seeds fell beside the road.(188)“the road” is literal.  However, it can also be translated “the way”, which is how it’s typically translated in the BOS Bible for good reason.  In the early Christian church, they often referred to the Christian life as “The Way”.  Interestingly, the seed fell “beside” or “next to” “the way”.  And coming down, the birds devoured them.
  5. “Now, other seeds fell on rocky places which didn’t have much soil. And they sprang up at once because they didn’t have depth in the soil.
  6. “Then the sun rose and they were scorched because they didn’t have roots, and they dried up.
  7. “Now, other seeds fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them.
  8. “Now, other seeds fell on the good soil and they were bearing fruit; some a hundredfold, and some sixty and some thirty.
  9. “He who has ears, let him hear.”
Why Jesus Spoke in Parables
  1. And coming up to Him, the disciples said; “What’s the reason you speak to them in parables?”
  2. And answering, He said to them; “Because you were – and are – entrusted to know the mysteries of the kingdom of the heavens.  But they weren’t – and aren’t – entrusted.
  3. “For whoever has, more will be entrusted to him and he will have abundance.  But whoever doesn’t have, even what he has will be taken away from him.
  4. “This is why I speak to them in parables.  Because while seeing, they don’t see.  And while hearing, they don’t hear, nor do they understand.
  5. “And they fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah, saying; “Your ears will hear and won’t understand. And while seeing you’ll see, and won’t perceive.
  6. For the heart of this people has grown calloused(189)“has grown calloused”. The Greek word here literally means to thicken, especially with fat.  It metaphorically means to be dull or insensitive.  All of those are pretty well captured by the English word calloused, because callouses are thickened skin which becomes dull or insensitive. and their ears barely listen, and their eyes are shut.  Lest, when they see with the eyes, and hear with the ears, and understand with the heart, and they return, indeed I will heal them.”(190)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 6:9-10
  7. “But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear.
  8. “For truly I tell you; many prophets and righteous men fervently yearned to see what you see, and didn’t see it; and to hear what you hear, and didn’t hear it.
The Parable Explained
  1. Therefore, you must hear and understand(191)“must hear and understand” is one word in the Greek.  It literally means to hear, sometimes with the connotation of understanding what is being said.  In this passage, it’s in the imperative mood, making it a command. the parable of the man who sowed seed.
  2. To everyone who hears the word of the kingdom and doesn’t understand it, the evil one comes and steals by force(192)“steals by force” is one word in Greek.  It refers to robbery using open or obvious force, and never to something done covertly. what was – and is – sown in his heart.  This is the seed sown beside the road.(193)“the road” is literal.  However, it can also be translated “the way”, which is how it’s typically translated in the BOS Bible for good reason.  In the early Christian church, they often referred to the Christian life as “The Way”.  Interestingly, the seed fell “beside” or “next to” “the way”.
  3. Now, the seed sown on the rocky places.  This is the man who hears the word, and receives it at once with great joy.
  4. However he doesn’t have root in himself, but is temporary; only lasting for a season.(194)“temporary; only lasting for a season” is one word in the Greek.  Its’ colloquial meaning is “temporary”, but the full technical meaning is “lasting (only) for a season”.  Technically, including both is double translating a Greek word.  However, the additional nuance of the full definition adds meaning to the verse, therefore it was included.”  And when constricting distress(195)“constricting distress ” The Greek word here focuses on the internal distress of an external situation.  It refers to a narrow place that makes someone feel confined, trapped, and without options.  A similar word is used in Matthew 7:14, which says “For narrow is the gate, and constricting was – and isthe way leading to life.  And those who find it are few.”  The early Church called the Christian life “the Way”. This could indicate that Jesus was referring to the rocky seed falling away because they find the Christian life is too restricting/confining in their life. or persecution arise because of the word, he falls away at once.
  5. Now, the seed among the thorns.  This is the man who hears the word, and the worries of this age and the deception of riches choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.
  6. Now, the seed sown on good soil. This is the man who hears the word and since he understands it, he truly bears fruit.  And indeed, some produce a hundredfold, and some sixty, and some thirty.
The Wheat and False Wheat (tares)
  1. He set another parable before them, saying; “The kingdom of the heavens is like a man sowing good seed in his field.”
  2. But while the men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed false wheat(196)“False wheat” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the plant “Lolium temulentum”, commonly called darnel, cockle, tares, and false wheat.  Darnel looks almost identical to wheat until the ear appears at maturity (the ear is different from wheat).  Further, wheat is brown when ripe, whereas darnel is black.  The differences between wheat and darnel are subtle and hard to spot while growing, but obvious and easily spotted when the plants mature.  This made it a frustrating weed for much of human history. among the true wheat and left.
  3. Now, when the plants sprouted and made fruit, then the false wheat was revealed.
  4. So coming to the master of the house, the slaves said to him; “Lord, didn’t you sow good seed in your field? How then does it have false wheat?”
  5. And he said to them; “An enemy man did this.”  And the slaves said to him; “Then, do you want us to go out and gather them?”
  6. And he said; “No, because when gathering the false wheat you might uproot the true wheat with them.
  7. “Allow both to grow together until the harvest. And at harvest time I will tell the harvesters; “First gather the false wheat and tie them into bundles to burn them.  But gather the wheat into my barn.”
The Mustard Seed, Leaven, and Reason for Parables
  1. He set another parable before them, saying; “The kingdoms of the heavens is like a mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his field;
  2. “which is truly smaller than all the common(197)The word “common” is not in the Greek, but was added to provide cultural context. The mustard seed was the smallest seed of all the plants that the Jews cultivated. seeds.  But when it’s grown, it’s greater than the garden plants and becomes a tree.  Therefore, the birds of the air come and make nests(198)“make nests” is one word in Greek which literally means to pitch a tent or to encamp, with the connotation of settling down or dwelling in a place.  The obvious parallel with birds is building a nest. on its branches.”
  3. He told them another parable; “The kingdom of the heavens is like leaven, which a woman took and mixed into three measures of flour until it was all mixed and began to rise.”(199)“was… …mixed and began to rise” is one word in Greek.  It means to mix some type of leaven (such as yeast, sourdough, etc.) into dough in order to make it rise.
  4. Jesus said all these things to the crowds.  And He was speaking nothing to them without a parable
  5. so that it might be fulfilled; what was spoken through the prophet, saying; “I will open My mouth in parables.  I will declare thing which were – and are – hidden from the foundation of the world(200)“world” the Greek word here is “κόσμος” (kosmos) and is the root of our English word “cosmos”.  Properly, it refers to an ordered system like the world, or even the whole universe.  It could be properly translated “…from the foundation of the universe.”.”(201)quotation/allusion to Psalm 78:2
The Parable of the False Wheat (Tares) Explained
  1. Then after sending away the crowds, He went into the house. And His disciples approached Him saying; “Explain to us the parable of the false wheat in the field.
  2. Then answering, He said: “The man who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man
  3. “and the field is the world.  And the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom.  And the false wheat, these are the sons of the evil one,
  4. “and the enemy sowing them is the Accuser.(202)“the Accuser” The Greek word used here is “διάβολος” (diabolos), and it’s the root of our English word “devil”. Much like “Christ” (see note on Matt 1:1) “devil” is not a name but a descriptive title.  Matthew uses the name “Satan” only 4 times in his gospel, far less than Mark and Luke, but even more than John (who only uses it once).  Also, the harvest is the culmination of the age and the harvesters are the angels.
  5. “Therefore, just as the false wheat is gathered and completely burned by fire, it will be just like this in the culmination of the age.
  6. “The Son of Man will send out His angels.  And from out of the kingdom, they will gather all the bait that ensnares(203)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek.  It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached.  Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim. and the men who act without regard for God’s commands,(204)“without regard for God’s commands ” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “without regard for God’s law”. It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who – either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law.
  7. “and will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
  8. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun(205)quotation/allusion to Daniel 12:3 in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear.
The kingdom is like: treasure, pearl, dragnet
  1. “The kingdom of the heavens is like a treasure that was – and is – hidden in a field, which – after finding it – a man hides again.  And for the joy of finding it, leaves and sells everything – whatever he has – and buys the field.
  2. “Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a traveling merchant searching for magnificent pearls.
  3. “And finding one extremely valuable pearl, he left and sold everything – whatever he had – and bought it
  4. “Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a dragnet(206)“Dragnet” is literal.  It’s a slang term for a type of fishing net that’s properly called a “seine”.  A dragnet is a long net with weights at the bottom and floats at the top.  It’s dragged through the sea either by men walking or boats.  Notably, it catches everything between the surface and the bottom of the net, regardless of the type of fish the fishers want to catch. that was cast into the sea, which was gathering every kind of fish.
  5. “When it was filled, they pulled it up to the shore. And sitting down, they collected the good fish into containers.  But they threw out the rotten fish.
  6. “It will be like this in the culmination of the age.  The angels will go out and separate the wicked men from the midst of the righteous men,
  7. “and they will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.”
  8. “Do you understand all these things?”  They said to Him; “Yes.”
  9. Then He told them; “Because of this, every scribe(207)“scribe” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. being discipled in the kingdom of the heavens is like a man – a master of his house – who brings out new and old things from the treasury of his heart.”(208)“the treasury of his heart” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a place where valuable things are stored, which can include thoughts or ideas stored in the heart or mind.
Jesus returns to Nazareth
  1. And when it happened, when Jesus finished these parables, He left that place.
  2. And coming into His hometown,(209)“hometown” is literally “fatherland”, as in the place his father lived/lives.  This was another way of saying the place He came from, i.e. His hometown. He was teaching them in their synagogue so that they were stunned in amazement. And they said; “From where did this man get this wisdom and the power to perform miracles?
  3. “Isn’t this the carpenter’s son? Isn’t His mother called Mary? And His brothers James, and Joseph, and Simeon, and Judas?
  4. And indeed, aren’t all His sisters with us?  So then, where did He learn all these things?
  5. And they were offended by Him.  But Jesus said to them; “A prophet isn’t without honor except in his hometown(210)“hometown” is literally “fatherland”, as in the place his father lived/lives.  This was another way of saying the place He came from, i.e. His hometown. and in his own household.”
  6. And He didn’t do many miracles there because they had no faith.

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Matthew Chapter 14

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The Death of John the Baptist
  1. At that time, Herod the Tetrarch(211)“Tetrarch” is composed of two Greek words; the first means “four”, the second means “ruler”.  Properly, it means someone who rules over a fourth part of a region.  Essentially, this means a minor governor. heard the news of Jesus
  2. and he told his servants; “This is John the Baptist.  He rose from the dead and that’s why these miraculous powers work in Him.”
  3. For after seizing John, Herod bound him and put him in prison because of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip.
  4. For John was saying to him; “It’s not lawful for you to have her.”
  5. Although Herod wished to kill him, he feared the crowd because they regarded him as a prophet.
  6. Then – while celebrating Herod’s birthday feast – the daughter of Herodias(212)“daughter of Herodias” History tells us that her name was Salome, who had become Herod’s stepdaughter at this point.  A common estimate for her birth year is 14 AD, meaning she was in her mid-teens when she danced before Herod. One common view is that Salome danced sensually to entice, but that seems unlikely given these two facts. danced in their midst and pleased Herod.
  7. For this reason, he promised with a vow to give her whatever she asked.
  8. But being urged by her mother, she said; “Give me John the Baptist’s head, here on a platter.”
  9. And the king – being deeply grieved because of his vows and the guests reclining(213)“reclining” in the first century, you didn’t “sit” at a table in chairs.  Rather, you laid down with your feet sticking out in a reclining position. at the table – commanded John’s head to be given.
  10. And sending orders, he beheaded John in the prison.
  11. And his head was brought on a platter and was given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother.
  12. And coming forward, his disciples took the body and buried it. And going to Jesus, they told Him.
  13. So hearing this, Jesus withdrew from there on His own by boat to a desolate place. And hearing this, the crowds followed Him on foot from the cities.
  14. And going out, He saw a great crowd and was moved with compassion for them, and healed their sick.
Feeding the Five Thousand
  1. Then it became evening, so the disciples approached Him saying; “This place is desolate and the hour is already late. Therefore, dismiss the crowds so that going into the towns, they might buy food for themselves.
  2. But Jesus said to them; “They don’t need to leave. You give them something to eat.”
  3. And they said to Him; “We don’t have anything here, except five loaves of bread and two fish.”
  4. And He said; “Bring them here to Me.”
  5. And commanding the crowds to sit down on the grass, He took the five loaves and two fish.  And looking up to heaven, He blessed them.  And breaking the loaves, He gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds.
  6. And all ate and were satisfied.  And they picked up the excess broken pieces; twelve baskets full.
  7. Now, the men who ate were about five thousand men, without counting women and children.
Jesus Walks On Water
  1. And immediately, He compelled the disciples to step into the boat and to go before Him to the other side of the sea, until He sent away the crowds.
  2. And after sending away the crowds, He went up to the mountain on His own to pray. When evening came, He was there alone.
  3. Now, the boat was already many stadia(214)a “stadia” is ~606 English feet, which is ~185 meters. from land.  It was being buffeted by the waves, for the wind was hostile.
  4. Then, in the fourth watch of the night, He went to them walking on the sea(215)quotation/allusion to Job 9:8 and Job 38:16.
  5. And seeing Him walking on the sea, the disciples were perplexed and deeply shaken,(216)“perplexed and deeply shaken” is a single word in the Greek, with that exact meaning. saying; “It’s a ghost!” and they shrieked from fear.
  6. And immediately, Jesus spoke to them saying; “Have courage and don’t fear; I Am.”(217)“I Am” the Greek construction here is identical to John 8:58, where Jesus proclaims His Deity.  However, it could also be translated “it is I”, which is more common.  This is possibly a reference several Old Testament passages, primarily Exodus 3:14 where God appears to Moses and reveals His name is “I Am”.
  7. And answering Him, Peter said; “Lord, if it’s you, command me to come to you on the waters.”
  8. Then He said; “Come.”  And coming down from the boat, Peter walked on the water and came to Jesus.
  9. But seeing the violent wind, he was afraid and was starting to sink in the sea.  He cried out saying; “Lord save me!”
  10. And immediately reaching out his hand, Jesus caught him and said to him; “You of little faith, for why did you doubt?”(218)“doubt” the Greek word here comes from two words, meaning “double” and “standing”.  That is, someone who has two ideas in their mind and can’t – or won’t – decide between the two.
  11. And as they were climbing into the boat, the wind ceased.
  12. Then the men in the boat bowed down at His feet,(219)“bowed down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”, which isn’t inaccurate (Jesus is God, and thus is worthy of our worship).  It comes from the Greek words: “pros” meaning “towards”, and “kyneo” meaning “to kiss”.  It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure.  Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. saying; “Truly, you are God’s Son.”
Healing at Gennesaret
  1. And crossing over the sea, they came to the land of Gennesaret.
  2. And recognizing Him, the men of that place sent messengers to that whole region, and they brought all the sick to Him.
  3. And they were begging Him, so they might merely touch the fringe of His robe.(220)Malachi 4:2 speaks of the “sun of righteousness” which has “healing in it’s wings”.  The Jews believed this prophecy referred to the Messiah. The Hebrew word translated “wings” literally means any extremity (wing, arm, leg, etc.), including the “extremity” – or fringe – of a garment. Thus they believed touching the fringe of the Messiah’s robe would bring healing.  This is almost certainly an indication that they believed Jesus was the Messiah, because they applied a Messianic prophecy to Him.  And as many as touched it were completely cured.

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Matthew Chapter 15

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Man’s Tradition vs God’s Commandments
  1. Then some scribes(221)“scribes” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. and Pharisees from Jerusalem approached Jesus, saying;
  2. Why( do your disciples defy the tradition of the elders?  For, they don’t wash their hands whenever they eat bread.
  3. But answering, He said to them; “And why do you defy the command of God because of your tradition?
  4. “For God commanded; ‘Honor your father and mother.'(222)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12.  And; ‘The man who curses(223)“curses” the Greek word which means to curse literally means to speak evil of.  Likewise, the Greek word for bless literally means to speak well of.  Therefore, in this verse it could also be translated “speaks evil of”.  Either or both could be intended. his father or mother, he must end in death.'(224)quotation/allusion to Exodus 21:17
  5. “But you say; ‘anyone may tell their father or mother; ‘If something from me might’ve helped you, it’s a gift to God instead.'(225)it’s a gift to God instead”.  In Greek, this phrase is only one word, “δῶρον” meaning “gift” or “sacrifice”.  Mark 7:11 uses the word “Corban”, which is specifically a gift consecrated/devoted to God.   The Pharisees believed that it was wrong to use something which was devoted/consecrated to God for “normal” use.   Therefore, the Pharisees said if a man devoted (gave) everything he owned to God, he couldn’t use it for another purpose (such as helping family).  However, there was no time requirement to deliver his goods, so he could keep them indefinitely while avoiding his obligations.  This loophole was apparently invented by the Pharisees to allow men to shirk the Biblical and moral obligation of taking care of their own parents.
  6. “He definitely won’t(226)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. honor his father [or his mother].  And thus you nullify God’s command through your tradition.
  7. “Hypocrites!  Isaiah prophesied about you correctly, saying;
  8. This people honors Me with their lips, but their heart is far away(227)“far away” the Greek word here literally means “to have something, because far away from something else“. from Me.
  9. They worship Me pointlessly, teaching man’s precepts as doctrine.”(228)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 29:13
What Defiles A Man
  1. And summoning the crowd, He told them; “Listen and understand:
  2. “what goes into the mouth doesn’t defile a man, but what goes out of the mouth; this defiles a man.”
  3. Then approaching Him, the disciples said; “Did you know the Pharisees were offended because they heard your word?”
  4. And answering He said; “Every plant that My heavenly Father didn’t plant will be pulled up by the roots.
  5. “Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind; and if a blind man guides a blind man, both will fall into a pit.”
  6. And answering, Peter said to Him; “Explain this parable to us.”
  7. But He said; “Are you also without understanding,(229)“without understanding” is one word in Greek.  It specifically refers to those who are unable or unwilling to put facts together in a coherent manner.  Thus it also has the connotation of being foolish or stupid. even now?”
  8. “Don’t you recognize that everything entering into the mouth proceeds into the stomach and is expelled into a sewage pit.(230)“sewage pit” the Greek word here literally means “a place of sitting apart”, referring to a drain or latrine for human waste.
  9. But what goes out of the mouth comes from the heart, and these defile a man.
  10. For out of the heart comes wicked thoughts,(231)“thoughts” the Greek word here indicates back-and-forth reasoning, sometimes with yourself.  It also carries the connotation of leading to confusion or doubting. murders, men having sex with other men’s wives,(232)“men having sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, usually translated “adulteries” in this verse.  However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife.  Whereas the English word “adultery” means either spouse engaging in sex with someone else.  The Hebrews divided sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman.  A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery.   A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication. Both are serious sins, but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words. sexual immoralities, thefts, perjuries, and blasphemies.
  11. These are what defiles a man.  But to eat with unwashed hands doesn’t defile a man.
The Canaanite Woman’s Faith
  1. And departing from there, Jesus withdrew to the region of Tyre and Sidon.
  2. And behold; a Canaanite woman from that region came to Him.  She was crying out and saying; “Have mercy on me Lord, Son of David.(233)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as declaration of faith by the Canaanite woman.  My daughter is grievously demon possessed.”
  3. But He didn’t answer her a word.  And approaching Him, His disciples were urging Him saying; “Send her away, because she cries out after us.”
  4. But answering her, He said; “No. I was only sent to the sheep of the house of Israel who were – and are – lost.”(234)who were – and are – lost” is one word in Greek.  It’s a verb in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.
  5. But coming to Him, she was bowing down at His feet and saying; “Lord, help me.”
  6. But answering, He said; “It’s not good to take children’s bread and throw it to little dogs.”(235)“little dogs” The Greek word here is the diminutive form of the Greek word that means “dog”.  Hence, a small dog or a puppy.  The connotation is of a household pet (which would probably be beloved), but it doesn’t have to be a pet.
  7. But she said; “Yes Lord, and yet the little dogs eat from the breadcrumbs which fall from their master’s table.”
  8. Then answering, Jesus said to her; “O woman, your faith is great!  Let it happen to you as you desire.” And her daughter was healed from that very hour.
Feeding Four Thousand
  1. And departing from there, Jesus went along the Sea of Galilee. And going up the mountain, He was sitting there.
  2. And many crowds approached Him, having with themselves lame, crippled, blind, mute, and many others.  And they dropped(236)“dropped” is literal.  The Greek word means to throw or set down carelessly (drop).  It’s used 7 times in the New Testament, 6 of which it’s typically translated “throw” or “cast”. them at His feet, and He healed them.
  3. Therefore, the crowd marveled at seeing the mute speaking, and crippled made whole, and lame walking, and blind seeing.  And they glorified the God of Israel.
  4. And summoning His disciples, Jesus said; “I feel compassion for the crowd, because they’ve remained with me three days already and don’t have something to eat.  And I don’t wish to send them away hungry, lest they faint on the way.
  5. And the disciples said to Him; “Where in this wilderness would we get enough bread to feed so great a crowd?”
  6. And Jesus said to them; “How many loaves of bread do you have?”  And they said; “Seven, and a few small fish.”
  7. And commanding the crowd to recline(237)“recline” is literal.  In the 1st century, they didn’t sit at a table.  Rather, they laid down with their feet sticking out. on the ground,
  8. He took the seven loaves and the fish.  And giving thanks, He broke them.  And He was giving them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds.
  9. And all ate and were satisfied.  And they picked up the excess pieces, seven baskets full.
  10. Now, the men who ate were four thousand men, without counting women and children.
  11. And sending away the crowds, He stepped into the boat and came to the region of Magadan.

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Matthew Chapter 16

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Looking For A Sign
  1. And approaching Jesus to test Him, the Pharisees and Sadducees asked Him to show them a miraculous sign from heaven.
  2. But answering, He said to them; “When it becomes evening, you say: ‘It’ll be good weather, for the sky is red’.
  3. And in the morning you say: ‘today will be a storm, for the sky is red and cloudy’.  Indeed, you know how to discern the sky’s appearance, but you can’t discern the miraculous signs of the times.
  4. A wicked generation – and an adulteress(238)“adulteress” the traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery. – seeks a miraculous sign. And a sign won’t be given to her, except the sign of Jonah.  And leaving them behind, He departed.
The Leaven of the Pharisees
  1. And coming to the other side, the disciples forgot to take bread.
  2. Then Jesus said to them; “Look out and beware the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
  3. And they were reasoning among themselves, saying; “He said this because we didn’t bring bread.”
  4. But knowing this, Jesus said; “Why do you reason among yourselves; because you didn’t bring bread?  O You of little faith.
  5. “You don’t yet understand nor remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  6. “Nor the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  7. “How don’t you understand that I didn’t speak to you about bread?  Now, beware the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
  8. Then they understood that He didn’t say to beware the leaven of bread, but of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ teaching.
Jesus, the Rock on Which the Church is Built
  1. Then coming to the region Caesarea Philippi, Jesus was questioning His disciples, saying; “Who do men say the Son of Man is?”
  2. And they said; “Indeed, some say John the Baptist, but others Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.”
  3. He said to them; “But who do you declare Me to be?”
  4. And answering, Simon Peter said; “You are The Anointed; The Son of the Living God.”
  5. And answering, Jesus said to Him; “Blessed are you Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood didn’t reveal this to you, but My Father in the heavens.
  6. And I also tell you that you are Peter.  And on this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of the underworld(239)“underworld” the Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”. won’t overpower her.
  7. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of the heavens.  And whatever you bind on earth will be, was – and is – bound(240)“will be, was – and is – bound” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “bind”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here.  The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in the heavens.  And whatever you loose on earth will be, was – and is – loosed(241)“will be, was – and is – loosed” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “loosen”, which is in the Greek Perfect tense here.  The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in the heavens.
  8. Then He clearly ordered the disciples, so they would tell no one He is The Anointed.
  9. From that time, Jesus The Anointed began to show His disciples that it’s essential for Him to go to Jerusalem, and to suffer many things from the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, (242)“scribes” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law.  and to be killed, and be raised up on the third day.
  10. And taking Him aside, Peter began to scold Him, saying; “God forbid(243)“God forbid” is literally “God have mercy”, but the colloquial meaning is the idea or hope that God will prevent something bad because He’s merciful. you Lord; this definitely won’t(244)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. happen to you.
  11. But turning around, He said to Peter; “Get behind Me Satan!  You are a stumbling stone for Me, because you aren’t thinking the things of God, but the things of men.
The Cost of Discipleship
  1. Then Jesus said to His disciples; “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, pick up his cross, and follow Me.
  2. “For whoever wishes to save his life(245)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  But whoever loses his life(246)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. for My sake will find it.
  3. “For what good will it be if a man gains the whole world but loses his life?(247)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, or soul in that sense.  Or what will a man give in exchange his life?(248)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.
  4. “For the Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His Father with His angels.  And then ‘He will pay back each according to his deeds’.(249)quotation/allusion to Psalms 62:12 / Proverbs 24:12
  5. “Truly I tell you: some who were – and are – standing here definitely won’t(250)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.”

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Matthew Chapter 17

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The Transfiguration
  1. And after six days, Jesus took Peter, and James, and John his brother.  And He led them up to a high mountain on their own.
  2. And He was transfigured in front of them.  And His face shone like the sun, and His clothes became white as light.
  3. And behold; Moses and Elijah appeared to them, talking with Him.
  4. Then answering, Peter said to Jesus; “Lord, it’s good for us to be here. If you wish, I’ll make three tabernacles(251)A tabernacle is a moveable structure like a tent. However, they are typically much more rigid, expensive, and much nicer.  In the Old Testament, God didn’t have a temple until Solomon’s day.  Before that, He “dwelled” in a tabernacle built to exacting standards. here: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
  5. While He was still speaking, Behold; a shining cloud overshadowed them.  And Behold; a voice came from the cloud saying; “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to Him.”
  6. And hearing this, the disciples fell on their faces and were extremely terrified.
  7. Then approaching, Jesus touched them and said; “Get up and don’t be afraid.”
  8. And lifting their eyes, they saw no one except Jesus.  He was alone.
  9. And while they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying; “Tell no one of the vision until the Son of Man is risen from the dead.”
  10. And the disciples questioned Him, saying; “Then why do the scribes(252)“scribes” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. say: “Elijah must come first”?”
  11. And answering, He said; “Indeed, Elijah comes first and will restore all things.
  12. “But I tell you Elijah has already come.  And they didn’t recognize him, but did whatever they wished to him.  In the same way also, the Son of Man is about to suffer under them.
  13. Then the disciples understood that He spoke to them about John the Baptist.
Healing a Demon Possessed Boy
  1. And when they came to the crowd, a man approached Him.  And falling to his knees before Him,
  2. He was saying; “Lord, have mercy on my son because he has seizures and suffers terribly.  For he often falls into fire, and often into the water.
  3. And I brought him to your disciples, and they couldn’t heal him.
  4. Then answering, Jesus said; “O, You unbelieving generation who was – and is – perverted.  How long will I be with you?  How long will I put up with you?  Bring him here to me.
  5. And Jesus rebuked him, and the demon went out from him.  And the boy was healed from that very hour.
  6. Then approaching Jesus in private, the disciples said; “Why couldn’t we cast it out?”
  7. And He said to them; “Because your faith is weak. For truly I tell you: if you had faith like a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain: “Move from here to there” and it will move.  And nothing will be impossible for you.
  8. [“But this kind doesn’t go out except by prayer and fasting.](253)This textual variant is essentially identical to Mark 9:29 – so it changes nothing doctrinally – but the authenticity of this verse to Matthew’s gospel is disputed.  There are strong arguments on both sides, but the argument doesn’t center on theology.  It is merely about if this verse was copied over from Mark’s gospel by scribes, or original to Matthew.
Predicting the Resurrection
  1. Now, while they were gathered in Galilee, Jesus told them; “The Son of Man is about to be betrayed into the hands of men.
  2. “And they will kill Him, and on the third day He will be raised up.”  And they were extremely grieved.
The Temple Tax
  1. Now, they came to Capernaum and the men who collect the two-drachma(254)A drachma is an ancient Greek silver coin that weighed 4.3 grams, or 0.15 ounces. tax approached Peter and said; “Doesn’t your teacher pay the two-drachma tax?”
  2. He said; “Yes.”  And going into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying; “What’s your opinion Simon?  From whom do the kings of the earth take tax and tribute?  From their sons or from strangers?”
  3. Then Peter said; “From the strangers.” Jesus said to him; “Then the sons are free.”
  4. “But, so that we don’t offend them… going to the sea, cast a fishhook and pick up the fish that comes up first.  And opening its mouth, you’ll find a silver coin.(255)“a silver coin” is literally “a statér”, an Greek coin worth four drachma. So taking that coin, give it to them for Me and you. “

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Matthew Chapter 18

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The Greatest in the Kingdom
  1. In that hour, the disciples approached Jesus saying; “Who then is the greatest in the kingdom of the heavens?”
  2. And summoning a young child, He had the child stand in their midst,
  3. and He said; “Truly I tell you: If you don’t change and become like the little children, you definitely won’t(256)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. enter the kingdom of the heavens.
  4. “Therefore, whoever will humble himself like this young child; this man is the greatest in the kingdom of the heavens.
  5. “And whoever welcomes one such young child in My name, he welcomes Me.
  6. “But whoever lays bait to ensnare(257)“lays bait to ensnare” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. one of these little ones who believes in Me, it’s better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck and be drowned in the depths of the sea.
  7. “Woe to the world for the bait that ensnares.(258)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. For it’s necessary for the bait that ensnares(259)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. to come.  Yet, woe to the man through whom this bait that ensnares(260)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. comes.
  8. “But if your hand or your foot ensnares(261)“ensnares” is the same word translated “bait that ensnares” in the previous verses. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. you, cut it off and throw it from you.  It’s better for you to enter into the life maimed or lame, than having two hands or two feet and be thrown into the fire of ages.(262)“fire of ages” is literal, though “age-long fire” could be equally accurate. It’s traditionally translated “eternal fire” here, but that’s less literal and “fire of ages” captures the severity of the fire, which the traditional interpretation doesn’t.  Further, the word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is merely the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long”, “of ages”, or similar. 
  9. “And if your eye ensnares(263)“ensnares” is the same word translated “bait that ensnares” in the previous verses. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. you, pluck it out and throw it from you. It’s better for you to enter into the life with one-eye, than having two eyes and be thrown into the fire of the Valley of Hinnom.(264)Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  However, it also has historical significance which is lost when it’s merely translated “hell”.  Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst judgement Israel had yet seen. This happened again a few decades after Christ when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD.
  10. “See that you don’t despise one of these little ones. For I tell you: their angels in the heavens continually see the face of My Father in the heavens.
  11. [“For the Son of Man came to save those who were – and are – lost.](265)It’s unclear whether this verse was originally part of Matthew or added later, and there are good arguments on both sides of the debate.  It’s nearly identical to Luke 19:10, so it changes nothing doctrinally.
The Parable of the Lost Sheep
  1. “What’s your opinion?  If any man has one hundred sheep and one of them is led astray; won’t he surely(266)“won’t… …surely”  The Greek here is a stronger word for “no” than is typically used and always carries an emphatic sense. When used for negation – instead of a negative question as here – the translation “definitely not” would be ideal. leave the ninety-nine on the mountain and departing from there, seek the one who was led astray?
  2. “And if he finds it, truly I tell you: he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine who weren’t – and aren’t led astray.
  3. “Thus, it’s not the will of your Father in the heavens that one of these little children should perish.
Church Discipline
  1. “Now, if you brother sins [against you],(267)There is a great debate on whether the words “against you” were original to Matthew. Several of the earliest manuscripts don’t contain “against you”, but the vast majority of later manuscripts do. The context of verse 21 (with Peter asking how many times to forgive someone who sins “against me”) would support the longer reading.  However, the context of the previous verse is about sheep who are “led astray” and those who hurt “little children”, which wouldn’t include offenses “against you”.  There is also Galatians 6:1, which – though a different book – would seem to support the shorter reading.  On the other hand, the sheer volume of manuscripts that support the longer reading can’t be ignored.  The debate is ongoing. go rebuke him with evidence of his fault(268)“rebuke him with evidence of his fault” is one word in Greek.  It means to correct or expose something (typically bad/wrong), which includes the idea of supporting evidence for the correction or exposition. between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have won over your brother.
  2. “But if he won’t listen, take one or two more with you so that “By the mouth of two or three witnesses, every word they speak(269)“word they speak” is a single word in Greek.  It’s a noun here, which specifically refers to words that are spoken, not written. may be confirmed.”(270)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 19:15
  3. “But if he disregards them, tell the church assembly.  But if he also disregards the church assembly, let him be exactly like a pagan and tax collector.
  4. “Truly I tell you: Whatever you bind(271)“Binding and Loosing” were recognized legal terms in the Jewish faith.  Binding and loosing meant to “forbid” or to “permit” a practice in the faith.  Josephus says that that the Pharisees “became the administrators of all public affairs so as to be empowered to banish and readmit whom they pleased, as well as to loose and to bind.”  Jesus gave the church assembly to the authority to do what previously only the Pharisees – the religious elite – had been permitted to do.  Given the context here, it likely means to bind (forbid) or to loose (permit) associating with someone who has fallen into sin.  However, it could also refer to forbidding or permitting religious practices, though that idea isn’t contained in the immediate context. on earth will be, was – and is – bound(272)“will be, was – and is – bound” is two words in the Greek.  The first is exactly equivalent to the English word “is”, though here it’s in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second word means to “bind”.  Here it’s in the perfect tense which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in heaven. And whatever you loose(273)“Binding and Loosing” were recognized legal terms in the Jewish faith.  Binding and loosing meant to “forbid” or to “permit” a practice in the faith.  Josephus says that that the Pharisees “became the administrators of all public affairs so as to be empowered to banish and readmit whom they pleased, as well as to loose and to bind.”  Jesus gave the church assembly to the authority to do what previously only the Pharisees – the religious elite – had been permitted to do.  Given the context here, it likely means to bind (forbid) or to loose (permit) associating with someone who has fallen into sin.  However, it could also refer to forbidding or permitting religious practices, though that idea isn’t contained in the immediate context. on earth will be, was – and is – loosed(274)“will be, was – and is – loosed” is two words in the Greek.  The first is exactly equivalent to the English word “is”, though here it’s in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second word means to “loosen” or to “relax”.  Here it’s in the perfect tense which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in heaven.
  5. Again, truly I tell you: If two of you on earth agree about any matter – if they ask – it will become so through My Father in the heavens.
  6. For where two or three were – or are – gathered in My name, I’m there in their midst.
Forgiveness and the Unforgiving Slave
  1. Then approaching Jesus, Peter said to Him; “How often will I forgive my brother when he sins against Me? Up to seven times?”
  2. Jesus told him; “I tell you, not up to seven times; but up to seventy times seven.
  3. “Because of this, the kingdom of the heavens has become like a man – a king – who wished to settle accounts with his slaves.
  4. Then beginning to settle his accounts, one was brought to him; a debtor who owed ten thousand talents.(275)A “talent” is not a coin but a measure of weight.  It was about 75lbs, or 3000 silver shekels in weight. A talent of silver was worth about 6,000 denarii, which was the going rate for a day’s worth of unskilled labor.  However, the Greek word translated “ten thousand” here can also mean “countless”, so the exact number isn’t important.  It’s rather like how American’s use “a million” today to mean any large but indefinite number.
  5. “Now, since he had nothing to repay the debt, the lord ordered him to be sold, and his wife and children – and all that he had – and the debt to be repaid.
  6. “Then falling down, the slave was bowing at his feet,(276)“was bowing at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. saying; “Have patience with me and I will repay everything to you.”
  7. “And being moved with compassion, that slave’s lord released him and forgave his debt.
  8. “But after departing, that slave found one of his fellow slaves who owed him a hundred denarii.(277)A denarius (plural “denarii”) was an ancient silver coin.  It was the going wage for a day’s worth of unskilled labor. And seizing him, he was choking him, saying; “If you owe anything, pay it back!”
  9. “Then falling down, his fellow slave was begging him, saying; “Have patience with me and I will pay you back.”
  10. “But he wasn’t willing.  Rather, after departing, he threw him into prison until he might paid back what was owed.
  11. “Then seeing what happened, his fellow slaves were extremely grieved.  And going to their lord, they explained everything that happened.
  12. “Then summoning him, his lord said to him; “You wicked slave! I forgave all that debt because you begged me.
  13. “Weren’t you required(278)“required” is literal.  The Greek word here specifically refers to “what is necessary” or “right and proper”.  It can also refer to what needs to be done, as Jesus uses this word to say His death was necessary. to have mercy on your fellow slave, just like I had mercy on you?
  14. “And being provoked to anger, his lord handed him over to the prison torturer(279)“prison torturer” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a prison guard whose job it was to extract information from prisoners. until he paid back all that he owed.
  15. “And My heavenly Father will do likewise to you, unless each of you forgives his brother from your heart.

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Matthew Chapter 19

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  1. And it came to pass, when Jesus finished these words, He departed from Galilee and came to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan.
  2. And many crowds followed Him, and He healed them there.
Marriage and Separation
  1. And some Pharisees approached Him, testing Him and saying; “Is it lawful for a man to send away(280)“send away” is literal here, though it’s typically translated divorce in this passage. The same word is used of Jesus “sending away” crowds and Pilate “sending away” (releasing) Barabbas. Paul uses a different Greek word when talking about divorce in 1 Corinthians. The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and had three parts: 1) write a divorce certificate. 2) Give it to your wife. 3) Send her away from your house. However, if a man “sent her away” (kicked her out of his house) without a divorce certificate, in that culture she was destitute. She was still legally married because she didn’t have a divorce certificate, so she couldn’t marry anyone else without being an adulteress. Often, her only resort to feed herself was prostitution.  There was a debate as to whether this was lawful according to the Mosaic Law. This was one of the two great debates centering on divorce. (See following note for the other debate) The Pharisees cleverly asked about both in a single question here.  Jesus’ response makes it clear that spouses should live together as long as they are married. his wife for every(282)“every reason” is literal.  During Jesus day, there was a great debate between the rabbinic schools of Shammai and Hillel on what was an acceptable reason for a divorce (or merely “sending away”; see previous note).  The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and includes this preamble: “When a man takes a wife and marries her, and she doesn’t find favor in his eyes because he finds some indecency in her…“.  The school of Shammai took the “indecency” part to mean there must be some kind of sexual indiscretion/exposure before a man could divorce her.  While Hillel’s school focused on the “not finding favor” part.  They said anything he didn’t like – even burning his dinner – could be grounds for divorce.  Essentially, Hillel’s school said a man could divorce his wife for “every reason”.  This was one of the two great debates centering on divorce. (See previous note for the other debate) The Pharisees cleverly asked about both in a single question here. reason?”(281)“reason” The Greek word here is usually used in the judicial sense of an accusation of a crime.
  2. Then answering, He said; “Haven’t you read that from the beginning, He who created them, made them male and female?(283)Quotation/allusion to Genesis 1:26-27
  3. “And He also said: for this reason, a man will leave his father and mother and will be joined to his wife.  And the two will become one flesh,(284)Quotation allusion to Genesis 2:24.  Jesus appears to be talking solely about a physical union here (not a spiritual one). Paul makes this clearer in 1 Corinthians 6:16, where the Genesis 2:24 is also applied to sex with prostitutes.
  4. “so then, they’re no longer two, but one flesh.  Therefore, what God has yoked together,(285)“yoked together” is literal.  A “yoke” is a contoured wooden beam used to join two beast of burden (cows, oxen, etc.) together so they can pull a heavy load together. man must not separate.(286)“separate” the Greek word here literally means to depart, vacate, or “create space”; or to “place room between” (Strong’s).  See note on “send away” in verse 3. Paul uses this word in 1 Corinthians 7 in the section on divorce, but it’s not translated divorce there.  There, it’s typically translated “leave” instead.
  5. They said to Him; “Then why did Moses command to give her a scroll of divorce and to send her away?”(287)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 24:1, which lists the three things a man must do to divorce his wife. The final two parts of the divorce procedure were to give the wife a scroll of divorce and send her away from his house.
  6. He told them; “Moses allowed you to send away(288)see note on “send away” in verse 3. your wives because of your hard hearts.  But from the beginning it didn’t – and doesn’t – happen this way.
  7. “But I tell you: Whoever sends away(289)see note on “send away” in verse 3. his wife – except for sexual immorality – and marries another woman of the same kind(290)“another woman of the same kind” is one word in Greek, with that exact definition.  The “of the same kind” part likely refers to a woman who is merely “sent away” and not properly divorced. See note on “send away” in verse 3. is guilty of sex with another man’s wife.(291)“is guilty of sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commits adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was still a serious sin, but the not the specific sin of adultery. (See the Greek/Hebrew word definitions; or Easton’s Bible dictionary entry on adultery.) [(292)Some manuscripts add: [And the man who marries her who was – and is – merely sent away is guilty of sex with another man’s wife.]  This textual variant is absent from the earliest and best manuscripts, and quotes by the early church fathers support the shorter reading.  It is essentially identical to Mathew 5:32, and was probably copied over from there.  Therefore, it hasn’t been included in the main text of the BOS Bible.]
  8. His disciples said to Him; “If the accusation against(293)“accusation against” ; the Greek word here is usually used in the judicial sense of an accusation of a crime. a man and wife is like this, it’s better not to marry.”
  9. And He told them; “Not all receive this word, but only who it was – and is – given to.(294)“was – and is – given to” is one word in Greek.  It’s in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.
  10. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother’s womb.  And there are eunuchs who were made into eunuchs by men.  And there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of the heavens. He who can accept this, let him accept it.
Let the Children Come
  1. Then some young children were brought to Him, so that He might lay hands on them and pray. However, the disciples scolded them.
  2. But Jesus said; “Let the young children go and don’t forbid them to come to Me.  For of such a kind is the kingdom of the heavens.
  3. And after laying hands on them, He departed from there.
The Rich Young Man
  1. And behold; after approaching Him, one man said; “What good might I do, so that I might have the life of ages?(295)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning.
  2. And He said to him; “Why do you ask Me about good?  Only one is good.  But if you wish to enter into the life, keep the commandments.”
  3. He said to Him; “What sort of commandment?”  And Jesus said; “You will not murder, you will not have sex with another man’s wife,(296)“have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was typically called fornication or sexual immorality. you will not steal, you will not commit perjury.(297)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13-16
  4. you must honor your father and mother,(298)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12 and you will show preference(299)The Greek word used here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not merely feelings. to your neighbor as yourself.”(300)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  5. The young man said to Him; “I have carefully observed(301)“carefully observed” the Greek word means to guard something by keeping a close eye on it, often with the connotation of being careful to do, or not do, something. all of these.  What do I still lack?”
  6. Jesus was declaring to Him; “If you desire to be perfect, go, sell your possessions and give to the poor, and you will have stored up treasure in the heavens.  And come follow Me.
  7. But after hearing this word, the young man departed grieving, for he had many properties.(302)“properties” the Greek word here can refer to possessions, but more properly refers to land or real estate with buildings.
  8. Then Jesus told His disciples; “Truly I tell you: A rich man will enter into the kingdom of the heavens with difficulty.
  9. “And again I tell you: It’s easier for a camel(303)“camel”.  The Greek word for camel is almost identical to the Greek word for a rope. (“Καμιλου vs. καμήλου”) Some contest that Jesus said “rope.  However, there’s very little manuscript evidence for this and all of them are 9th century or later.  Others contest that Jesus was referring to a small gate – called a “eye of the needle” gate – in Jerusalem that was only large enough for an unladen camel to pass through.  The story goes, these smaller gates allowed entrance after dark when the main gates closed, but it was difficult because you had to unpack the camel before it could fit through the tiny “needle gate”.  However, there is no historical evidence for this and the story only dates to the 9th century at the earliest. to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.”
  10. And hearing this, the disciples were incredibly stunned, saying; “Then who’s able to be saved?”
  11. Then looking at(304)“looking at” is literal, however the Greek word can also mean to consider something. them, Jesus said; “with men, this is impossible; but with God, all things are possible.”
  12. Then answering, Peter said to Him; “Look, we left everything and followed you.  Therefore, what will we be?”
  13. And Jesus said to them; “Truly I tell you: in the renewal when the Son of Man sits down on His glorious throne, you men who followed Me will also sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
  14. And everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My name’s sake will receive a hundredfold and will inherit the life of ages.”(305)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning.
  15. But many who are first will be last; and the last, first.

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Matthew Chapter 20

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Parable of the Worker’s Pay
  1. “For the kingdom of the heavens is like a man – a master of the house – who at dawn immediately went out to hire workmen for his vineyard.
  2. “Then after agreeing with the workmen to pay out a denarius for the day, he sent them into his vineyard.
  3. “And going out about the third hour,(306)“The third hour”, the Jews counted hours from dawn, which was typically around 6:00 in the morning. Therefore, “the third hour” is about 9:00am. he saw other workmen were – and are – standing idle in the market.
  4. “And he told those men; “You go into the vineyard also, and I will give you whatever is right.”
  5. “And they went.  And going out again about the sixth and the ninth hour, he did the same thing again.
  6. “Then about the eleventh hour, after going out, he found other workmen who were – and are – standing idle.  And he said to them; “Why did you stand here idle all day?
  7. “They told him; “Because no one hired us.” He told them; “You also go into the vineyard. [And you will receive whatever is right.]
  8. “And when it became evening, the master of the vineyard said to his foreman; “Call the workmen and pay them the wages, beginning from the last, up to the first.
  9. “And coming forward, the men hired about the eleventh hour each received a denarius.
  10. “And coming forward, the men hired first assumed they would receive more, but they also received a denarius each.
  11. “Now, they were grumbling against the master of the house after receiving their pay;
  12. “saying; “These last men only worked one hour, and you made them equal to us; the men who bore the whole day’s burden and the scorching heat.”
  13. “But answering one of them, he said; “Friend,(307)“friend” this Greek word is only used three times on the Bible.  All of them are in Matthew, and all are in the sense of a false friend.  One lexicon says it refers to someone posing as a friend, but who really has their own interests in mind. I haven’t been unjust or wronged(308)“been unjust or wronged” is one word in Greek.  It refers to wicked and/or unjust harm, especially undeserved harm, done to someone. you.  Didn’t you agree with me on a denarius?”
  14. “Take what’s yours and go.  But I wish to give this last man the same as you.
  15. “Or, isn’t it lawful for me to do what I wish with what’s mine?  Or, is your eye evil(309)According to some sources, this is an idiom which means “to be stingy” or “to be greedy”.  See also, Matthew 6:23. because I’m generous?”
  16. In this way, the last will be first, and the first last. [for many are called, but few are chosen.]
Jesus Predicts His Death a Third Time
  1. And going up to Jerusalem, Jesus took the twelve disciples aside privately and He told them while on the way;
  2. “Behold, we go up to Jerusalem.  And the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and scribes,(310)“scribes” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. and they will condemn Him to death.
  3. And they will hand Him over to the nations to mock, and to flog with whips,(311)“to flog with whips”. The Greek word here specifically refers to striking someone repeatedly with a whip as a punishment, often after tying them to a pole or frame. and to crucify; and on the third day He will rise again.
The Greatest in the Kingdom
  1. Then the mother of the sons of Zebedee with her sons approached Him, bowing down at His feet(312)“bowing down at his feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. and asking something from Him.
  2. And He said to her; “What do you desire?”  She said to Him; “Say that in your kingdom, these two sons of mine might sit down: one at your right hand, and one at your left hand.”
  3. But answering, Jesus said; “You didn’t – and don’t – know what you ask.  Are you able to drink the cup that I’m about to drink?  [Or to be baptized in the baptism that I’m baptized?]  They told Him; “We are able.”
  4. He told them; “Indeed, you will drink My cup [and be baptized in the baptism that I’m baptized.] But to sit on My right and left; this isn’t Mine to give.  But instead, that’s for who it was – and is – prepared by My Father.”
  5. And hearing this, the ten were indignant on account of the two brothers.
  6. Then summoning them, Jesus said; “You did – and do – know that the rulers of the gentiles exercise authority over them, and their great men dominate them.
  7. It will not be this way among you.  But whoever among you wishes to become great, he will be your servant.
  8. And whoever among you wishes to be first, he will be your slave,
  9. just as the Son of Man didn’t come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a ransom(313)“ransom” this Greek word referred to the price required to buy a slave’s freedom. for many.
Jesus Heals Two Blind Men
  1. And as they were departing from Jericho, a great crowd followed Him.
  2. And behold; two blind men were sitting along the way.  And hearing that Jesus was passing by, they cried out saying; “Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David.”(314)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by the blind men.
  3. But the crowd sternly warned them, so they might be silent.  But they cried out louder, saying; “Lord, have mercy on us Son of David.”(315)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by the blind men.
  4. And stopping, Jesus called to them and said; “What do you want Me to do for you?”
  5. They said to Him; “Lord, we ask that our eyes might be opened.”
  6. Then being moved with compassion, Jesus touched their eyes and at once they recovered their sight; and they followed Him.

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Matthew Chapter 21

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The Triumphal Entry
  1. And when they drew near to Jerusalem and came to Bethphage(316)Bethphage was a small town located outside Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives. It’s name means “house of unripe figs”. on the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples out on an errand,(317)“sent out… …on an errand” is one word in Greek.  It’s the word “ἀποστέλλω” (apostelló) which is related to the Greek word we translate as “apostle”.  It literally means to send someone out on a mission.
  2. saying to them; “Go into the village before you, and at once you’ll find a donkey who was – and is – tied, and a colt with her.  After untying them, bring them to Me.
  3. “And if someone says anything, you will say: “The Lord has need of them.” and he will send them at once.”
  4. And this was – and is – happening so what was spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying:
  5. Tell the daughter of Zion: Behold! Your King comes to you strong but gentle.”(318)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 62:11.  “strong but gentle” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness. i.e. some who is strong but applies their strength gently.  “He was – and is – mounted on a donkey, even a colt; the foal of a beast of burden.”(319)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 9:9
  6. Then going and doing as Jesus instructed them, the disciples
  7. brought the donkey and the colt.  And they put their tunics on them, and He sat on them.
  8. Now, the massive crowd spread their cloaks on the road.  And others were cutting branches from the trees and were spreading them on the road.
  9. Now, the crowds who preceded Him, and those who followed, were crying out, saying; “Hosanna,(320)“Hosanna” A Hebrew word which means “save now”, or “please save now”. It was originally a cry for help, but apparently indicates exultation or joy. The “na” suffix indicates intense emotion, hence the emphatic sense here. to the Son of David!(321)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­the crowds. He was – and – is blessed who comes in the name of the Lord.(322)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:26 Hosanna(323)“Hosanna” A Hebrew word which means “save now”, or “please save now”. It was originally a cry for help, but apparently indicates exultation or joy. The “na” suffix indicates intense emotion, hence the emphatic sense here. in the highest!”
  10. And as He was entering Jerusalem, the whole city was agitated, saying; “Who is this?”
  11. And the crowds were saying; “This is the prophet, Jesus from Nazareth of Galilee.”
Cleansing the Temple
  1. And Jesus entered the temple and threw out all the men who were buying and selling in the temple. And He overturned the money-changers’ tables, and the chairs of the men who sold the doves.
  2. And He told them; “It was – and is – written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer‘,(324)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 56:7 but you made it a den of robbers.”(325)Quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 7:11
  3. And the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple, and He healed them.
  4. But seeing the wondrous deeds that He did, and the children who cried out in the temple saying; “Hosanna to the Son of David!”, the chief priests and scribes were indignant.
  5. And they said to Him; “Do you hear what these children say?”  And Jesus told them, “Absolutely.  Did you never read: “From out of the mouths of infants and nursing babes, you have prepared praise for yourself.”(326)quotation/allusion to Psalm 8:2?”
  6. And leaving them behind, He went outside the city to Bethany and spent the night there.
The Fig Tree Withers
  1. Then early in the morning, as He was returning to the city, He was hungry.
  2. And seeing one fig tree by the road, He went to it and found nothing on it except leaves alone.  And He said to it; “Fruit won’t come from you anymore; not throughout this age.”  And the tree instantly withered.
  3. And seeing this, the disciples marveled, saying; “How did the fig tree wither instantly?”
  4. And answering, Jesus said to them; “Truly I tell you: If you have faith and don’t doubt, you’ll not only do the miracle of the fig tree, but even if you tell this mountain: “be lifted up and thrown into the sea”, it will happen.
  5. And all things – as many as you ask in prayer while believing – you will receive.
Jesus’ Authority Challenged
  1. And after He went into the temple and was teaching, the chief priests and elders of the people approached Him, saying; “By what authority are you doing these things?  And who gave you this authority?”
  2. But answering, Jesus told them; “I’ll also ask you one question, which – if you answer Me – I’ll also tell you by what authority I do these things.
  3. “From where was the baptism of John; from heaven, or from men?”  And they were reasoning among themselves, saying; “If we say ‘from heaven’, He will say to us: “Then why didn’t you believe him?”.
  4. But if we say ‘from men’ we fear the crowd, for everyone regards John like a prophet.
  5. And answering Jesus, they said; “We didn’t – and don’t – know.”  And He told them; “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.
A Parable of Two Sons
  1. “But what’s your opinion?  A man had two children.  And approaching the first, He said; “Son, go work in the vineyard today”.
  2. “And answering, he said; “Sir, I’m not willing.”  But regretting it later, he went.
  3. “And approaching the second son, he said the same thing.  And answering, the son said; “I will sir.” and he didn’t go.
  4. “Which of the two did the will of the father?”  They said; “The first.”  Jesus said to them; “Truly I tell you: the tax collectors and prostitutes go into the kingdom of God before you.
  5. “For John came to you in the way of righteousness and you didn’t believe him, but the tax collectors and prostitutes believed him.  And after seeing, you didn’t even regret afterwards to believe him.
The Wicked Vinegrowers
  1. “Hear another parable: There was a man, a master of a house, who planted a vineyard.  And He placed a fence around it, and dug a winepress in it, and built a fortified tower,(327)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 5:1-2 and hired out vinegrowers, and traveled to a foreign country.
  2. “Then, when the fruit season was near, he sent his slaves to the vinegrowers to receive his fruit.
  3. “And the vinegrowers took his slaves; and indeed they beat one, and killed another, and another they stoned.
  4. “Again, he sent other slaves, more than the first time, and they did the same to them.
  5. “Afterwards, he sent his son to them, saying; “They will turn in shame and revere(328)“will turn in shame and revere” is one word in Greek.  It means “to turn about”, often in shame or away from shame and to revere something else. my son”.
  6. “But seeing the son, the vinegrowers said among themselves; “This is the heir.  Come; we’ll kill him and gain his inheritance.
  7. “And seizing him, they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.
  8. “Therefore, when the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to these vinegrowers?”
  9. They said to Him; “He will horribly destroy those horrible men.(329)“He will horribly destroy those horrible men” is literally “He will wickedly destroy those wicked men”, but not in the sense of the destruction being wicked.  Rather, the sense is “let the punishment fit the crime”. i.e. let “the wicked meet a wicked end”.  Therefore, “horribly/horrible” was chosen to avoid this confusion, and to avoid making the reader think the lord’s actions were wicked.  And he will hire out the vineyard to other vinegrowers, who will give him the fruits in their seasons.
  10. Jesus said to them; “Did you never read in the scriptures? The stone which the builders rejected; this has become the head corner stone.  This happened from the Lord, and is marvelous in our eyes.(330)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22-23
  11. “Because of this, I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a people(331)“people” is literal.  It’s the Greek word ” ἔθνος” (ethnos), which is typically translated “Gentiles” or “nations”  Here, it’s in the neuter gender. producing its fruit.
  12. “And the man who falls on this stone will be shattered, but whoever it falls on, it will crush him to pieces and scatter him like chaff.”(332)“will crush… …to pieces and scatter him like chaff” is one word In Greek.  It refers to the process of winnowing, where the whole grain is slightly crushed to break the (useless) chaff from the (useful) grain. Then, the mixture is thrown into the air so the wind carries it away, while the heavier (useful) grain falls back to the earth.  See note on Matthew 3:12 for more information on winnowing,
  13. And hearing His parables, the chief priests and Pharisees knew that He spoke about them.
  14. And they were seeking to seize Him, but they feared the crowds because they regarded Him as a prophet.

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Matthew Chapter 22

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The Parable of the Wedding Feast
  1. And answering, Jesus again spoke to them in parables, saying;
  2. “The kingdom of the heavens may be compared to a man – a king – who prepared a wedding feast for his son.
  3. “And he sent his slaves to call the men who were – and are – invited to the wedding feast, and they weren’t willing to come.
  4. “Again, he sent other slaves, saying; “Tell the men who were – and are – invited: “behold, my dinner was – and is – prepared.  My oxen and fattened cattle were – and are – sacrificed(333)“sacrificed” the Greek word here can also mean to slaughter with a specific purpose in mind.  Essentially, the king was saying he’d sacrificed (slaughtered) the best animals he owned for this meal. and everything is ready.  Come to the wedding feast.”
  5. “But not caring, they indeed departed; one to his own farm, and another to his business.
  6. “And seizing his slaves, the rest spitefully injured and killed them.
  7. “Then the king was enraged.  And sending his armies, he destroyed those murders and burned their city.
  8. “Then he said to his slaves; “Indeed, the wedding feast is ready but the men who were – and are – invited weren’t worthy.
  9. “Therefore, travel on the highways and roads, and invite as many as you find to the wedding feast.
  10. “And going out to the roads, those slaves gathered everyone; whoever they found – both evil and good – and the wedding feast was full of men reclining at the table.
  11. “Then entering to observe the men reclining at the table, the king saw a man there who wasn’t – and isn’t – dressed in wedding clothes.
  12. “And he said to him; “Friend, how did you enter here without wedding clothes?” But he was speechless.
  13. “Then the king told his servants; “After binding his hands and feet, throw him out, into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
  14. “For many are called, but few are chosen.”
Paying Caesar’s tax
  1. Then leaving, the Pharisees held a council on how they might trap Him in His words.
  2. And they sent their disciples along with Herod’s supporters to Him, saying; “Teacher, we did – and do – see that you are true, and the way of God is in the truth you teach.  And you don’t worry about anyone, for you don’t look at the appearance of men.
  3. Therefore tell us, what’s your opinion: Is it lawful to pay the poll tax(334)A “poll tax” (also called a “head tax or “capitation”) is a tax on every liable individual in a nation.  This specific tax was paid yearly, and could only be paid in Roman money, not Jewish money. to Caesar, or not?
  4. But knowing their wickedness, Jesus said; “You hypocrites; why do you test Me?
  5. “Show Me the coin used for the poll tax.”  And they brought Him a denarius.
  6. And He said to them; “Whose image is this, and whose inscription?”
  7. They told him; “Caesar’s.”  Then He told them; “Therefore, repay the things of Caesar to Caesar, and the things of God to God.”
  8. And hearing this, they marveled.  And leaving Him, they departed.
Marriage in the Resurrection
  1. On that same day, some Sadducees – who say there’s no resurrection – approached Him and questioned Him,
  2. saying; “Teacher, Moses said that If any man dies without having children, his brother will marry his wife, and he will raise up offspring for his brother.”(335)Quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:5
  3. “Now, seven brothers were among us, and the first died after marrying.  And not having offspring, he left his wife to his brother.
  4. “And the second did the same thing, and the third, until the seventh.
  5. “Then last of all, the woman died.
  6. “Therefore in the resurrection, whose wife will she be of the seven?  For all had her.”
  7. And answering, Jesus told them; “You’ve been led astray, not having known – or knowing – the scriptures nor the power of God.
  8. “For in the resurrection, they don’t marry nor are they given in marriage; but they are like the angels of God in the heavens.
  9. “But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven’t you read what was spoken to you by God, saying;
  10. I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.”(336)Quotation/allusion to Exodus 3:6 He isn’t the God of the dead, but of the living.”
  11. And hearing this, the crowds were stunned at His teaching.
The Greatest Commandment
  1. And the Pharisees – hearing that He had silenced the Sadducees – gathered themselves together.
  2. And testing Him, one of their lawyers questioned Him, saying;
  3. “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law?”
  4. And He declared to him; “You will show preference(337)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s), or “actively doing what the Lord prefers,” (HELPS).  The greatest commandment is about obedience.    Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó doesn’t center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) for the Lord your God in your whole heart, and in your whole soul, and in your whole mind.(338)Quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:5
  5. This is the great and foremost commandment.
  6. And the second is similar to it: You will show preference(339)“show preference” see note on verse 37 for your neighbor as yourself.(340)Quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  7. The whole law hangs on these two commandments, and the prophets do also.
Whose Son is The Anointed?
  1. And while the Pharisees were – and are – gathered together, Jesus questioned them,
  2. Saying; “What’s your opinion concerning The Anointed?  Whose son is He?”  They told Him; “David’s.”
  3. He said to them; “Then how does David – in the Spirit – call Him Lord, saying;
  4. The Lord said to my Lord: sit at My right hand until I place your enemies underneath your feet.(341)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:1
  5. “Therefore, if David calls Him Lord, how is He his son?”
  6. And no one was able to answer Him a word; nor did anyone dare to question Him any longer, from that day on.

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Matthew Chapter 23

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Do As They Say, Not As They Do
  1. Then Jesus spoke to the crowds and His disciples,
  2. saying; “The scribes(342)“scribes” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. and Pharisees have sat down on Moses’ seat.
  3. “Therefore in all things – as many as they tell you – do and observe.  But don’t act according to their deeds, for they speak and don’t act.
  4. “They tie up heavy [and oppressive] burdens and lay them on the shoulders of men, but they aren’t willing to move them with their finger.
  5. “And they do all their deeds in order to be seen by men, for they broaden their phylacteries(343)a “phylactery” was a small leather case worn on the body like an amulet.  It contained four important passages of scripture (Ex 13:1-10, Ex 11-16; Duet 6:4-9 , Deut 13-21).  They were strapped to left arm facing the heart, or to the head and/or wrist to signify that God through the scriptures should guide all thoughts and actions. and enlarge their tassels.
  6. “And they love the chief place at dinners, and the chief seat at the synagogues,
  7. “and the greetings in the assembly or market,(344)“assembly or market” is one word in Greek.  It can mean either a place of assembly by men, or by implication a market.  Technically, including both translations is double translating (translating the same word twice two different ways).  However, both meanings were included because both are relevant and equally likely. and to be called ‘Rabbi’ by men.
  8. “But you won’t be called ‘Rabbi’ for only One is your teacher, and all of you are brothers.
  9. “And don’t call anyone on the earth your father; for One is your Father, and He’s in heaven.
  10. “And don’t be called master teachers,(345)“master teacher” is one word in Greek, referring to a leader who guides by instructing.  In Modern Greek, this word refers to a “professor”. because One is your master teacher;(346)“master teacher” is one word in Greek, referring to a leader who guides by instructing.  In Modern Greek, this word refers to a “professor”. The Anointed.
  11. “But the greatest among you will be your servant.
  12. “And whoever exalts himself will be humbled; and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.
Woe to the Scribes and Pharisees
  1. “But woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you shut up kingdom of the heavens before men.  For you don’t enter, and don’t allow the men who are entering to enter.
  2. [“Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you devour widow’s houses and are praying long prayers for appearance’ sake. Because of this, you will receive a greater judgement.]
  3. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you travel across the sea and dry land to make one convert to Judaism.   And when he becomes one, you make him twice a son of the Valley of Hinnom(347)“the Valley of Hinnom” most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife. However, it also has historical significance which is lost when it’s merely translated “hell”. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) This was arguably the worst thing Israel had done because – as a result – God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12).  Jesus words here about “the sons of the Valley of Hinnom” likely indicates He was condemning them as being just as guilty as those kings. as you are.
  4. “Woe to you blind guides; you men who say: “Whoever swears by the temple, it’s nothing.  But whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.”
  5. “You are foolish and blind!  For which is greater: the gold, or the temple that sanctified the gold?
  6. “And you say: “Whoever swears by the altar, it’s nothing.  But whoever swears by the gift that’s upon the altar, he is obligated.
  7. “You blind men! Which is greater: the gift, or the altar which sanctifies the gift?”
  8. “Therefore, the man who swears by the altar swears by it, and by everything upon it.
  9. “And the man who swears by the temple, swears by it and by He who inhabits it.
  10. “And the man who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and He who sits upon it.
  11. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you pay tithes of mint, and dill, and cumin, and neglect the weightier parts of the law: justice, and mercy, and faithfulness.  But it’s required to do these, without neglecting those.
  12. “You blind guides! You men who strain out a gnat, but you’re swallowing a camel!
  13. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you clean the outside of the cup and the dish,(348)“dish”, this Greek word refers to a dish in/on which light food or appetizers are served.  Specifically, expensive or choice food which is delightful, but doesn’t satisfy hunger. but within they’re full of robbery and no self-control.
  14. “You blind Pharisee!  First clean the inside of the cup [and the dish], so its outside may also become clean.
  15. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you are like tombs which were – and are – being whitewashed.  Which indeed outwardly appear beautiful, but inside they are full of dead men’s bones and all impurity.
  16. “And in the same way, you indeed appear outwardly righteous to men, but within are full of hypocrisy and have no regard for God’s commands.(349)“no regard for God’s commands ” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “no regard for God’s law”. It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who – either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law.
  17. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you build the tombs of the prophets and beautifully decorate the mausoleums(350)“mausoleums” the Greek word here refers to a monument and/or memorial tomb.  The word “mausoleum” means a free-standing tomb constructed as a monument or memorial for a deceased person. of the righteous.
  18. “And you say; “If we were living in the days of our fathers, we wouldn’t be partners with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.
  19. “So then, you yourselves testify that you’re sons of the men who murdered the prophets,
  20. “Live up to the standard of your fathers.
  21. “You snakes!  You offspring of serpents!  How will you escape from the sentence of the Valley of Hinnom?(351)“Valley of Hinnom” most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife. However, it also has historical significance which is lost when it’s merely translated “hell”. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst judgement Israel had yet seen. This happened again a few decades after Jesus when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. Here, Jesus was likely making a double reference to punishment in the afterlife and earthly judgement.
Lament Over Jerusalem
  1. “Because of this, behold!  I send prophets, and wise men, and Scribes to you. You will kill and crucify some of them, and some of them you will flog(352)“flog”; the Greek word here specifically refers to tying someone to a pole or frame and striking them repeatedly with a whip as a punishment. in your synagogues.  And you will persecute them from city to city,
  2. “so that all the righteous blood being shed on the earth will come upon you: from the blood of righteous Abel up to Zechariah son of Berekiah, who you murdered between the temple and the altar.
  3. “Truly I tell you: all these will come upon this generation.
  4. “O, Jerusalem, Jerusalem; you who kill the prophets and stone the men who were – and are – sent to her.  How often I wished to gather your children the same way that a hen gathers her chicks under her wings; and you weren’t willing.
  5. “Behold!  Your house is left to you desolate.
  6. “For I tell you: you definitely won’t(353)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. see Me from now until you say: He was – and is – blessed who comes in the name of the Lord.”

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Matthew Chapter 24

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The Temple’s Destruction Prophesied
  1. And leaving the temple, Jesus was departing and His disciples approached Him to show Him the temple buildings.
  2. But answering, He told them; “Don’t you see all these things?  Truly I tell you: There definitely won’t(354)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. be one stone left upon another stone here, which won’t be torn down.
  3. Then later – as He was sitting down on the Mount of Olives – the disciples approached Jesus in private saying; “Tell us: when will these things be, and what’s the sign of your coming and the culmination(355)“culmination” is literal, though many translations render it “end”. It refers to an end which is not merely a cessation, but rather the completion and can indicate ushering in the next time era. of the age?
  4. And answering, Jesus told them; “Watch out, lest someone leads you astray.
  5. “For many will come in My name, saying; “I am the Anointed” and they will lead many astray.
  6. “Then you’ll be about to(356)“you’ll be about to” is one word in Greek.  In the present tense, it indicates something that is at the very point of happening.  Here, it’s in the future tense, indicating that only when the specified future point is reached (after the false Anointeds come) then these things “will be about to” – or at the very point of – happening. hear of wars and rumors of wars.  Look, don’t be alarmed for this must happen, but it’s not yet the end.
  7. “For nation will rise up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.  And there will be famines and earthquakes in various places,
  8. “But all these merely begin the birth pains.
  9. Then they will hand you over to persecution, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all the nations because of My name.
  10. “And then many will fall away, and they will betray one another, and they will hate one another.
  11. “And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray.
  12. “And because disregard for God’s commands will be multiplied, the love of many will grow cold.
  13. “But the man who endures to the end, he will be saved.
  14. “And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole Roman Empire(357)“Roman Empire” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “the world inhabited by Romans”.  This Greek word originally referred to those who lived in Greece, excluding all others.  Later – after they were absorbed into the Roman Empire – it came to mean those who lived in the Roman Empire, excluding those outside it. as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come.
  15. “Therefore, when you see the abomination of desolation(358)Quotation/allusion to Daniel 9:27 (the one spoken of through Daniel the prophet) was – and is – standing in the holy place (let the reader understand)
  16. “Then, let those in Judea flee to the mountains.
  17. “The man on the housetop must not come down to collect things from his house,
  18. “and the man in the field must not turn back to collect his cloak
  19. “But woe to the women carrying in their womb, and to the women who nurse in those days.
  20. “And pray that your flight won’t happen in winter, nor on a Sabbath.
  21. “For then there will be a great tribulation, such as hasn’t occurred from the beginning of the world until now; and it most definitely won’t(359)“and it most definitely won’t”.  In Greek, this is a triple negative (and not, no, not) to add very strong emphasis.  While double negatives are normally used to add emphasis in Greek, triple negatives are extremely rare and make the statement even more definitively negative.  Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the words “most definitely” were added to keep the very strong emphatic sense of the Greek. happen again.
  22. “And unless those days were cut short, no flesh would be saved. But for the sake of the elect, those days will be cut short.
  23. “Then if someone tells you; “behold, here is The Anointed”, or “He’s here” don’t believe it.
  24. “For false anointed ones and false prophets will arise.  And they will give great signs and wonders to lead many astray; if possible, even the elect.
  25. “Behold; I did – and do – warn you in advance.
The Coming of the Son of Man
  1. “Therefore, if they tell you; “Behold; He’s in the wilderness!” don’t go out.   Or if they say “Behold; He’s in the inner room!” don’t believe it.
  2. “For just as lightning comes from the east and shines even in the west, so will the coming of the Son of Man be.
  3. “Wherever a carcass might be, vultures will be gathered there.
  4. “And immediately after the tribulation of those days: The sun will be darkened and the moon won’t give its light.(360)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 13:10  And the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.(361)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 34:4
  5. “And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes(362)“Tribes” the Greek word here refers to a people descended from a common ancestor.  In the New Testament, it’s almost exclusively applied to the twelve tribes of Israel, who descended from Jacob. of the land will mourn.  And they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory.(363)Quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13
  6. “And He will send His angels with a great trumpet call.  And they will gather His elect from the four winds; from one end of the sky(364)the Greek word for “sky” is the exact same as the word for “heaven”.  Only context determines which is intended. to the other end.
The Fig Tree Explained
  1. “Now, learn from the parable of the fig tree.  When its branch becomes tender and sprouts leaves, you know that summer is near.
  2. “And likewise you – when you see all these things – you know that He is near; right at the door.
  3. “Truly I tell you: this generation definitely won’t(365)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. pass away until all these things happen.
  4. “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words definitely won’t(366)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. pass away.”
Keep Watch
  1. “But concerning that day and hour, no one did – or does – know, not even the angels in the heavens nor the Son; except the Father alone.
  2. “For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah.
  3. “For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving daughters in marriage, up until the day Noah entered into the ark;
  4. “and they didn’t know until the flood came and took them all away.  The coming of the Son of Man will also be like this.
  5. “At that time, two men will be in the field; one is taken, and one is left.
  6. “Two women are grinding at the mill; one is taken, and one is left.
  7. “Therefore, keep watch because you didn’t – and don’t – know what day your Lord comes.
  8. “But know this: if the master of the house had known what watch of the night the thief comes in, he would’ve watched and not allowed his house to be broken into.
  9. “For this reason, you also must become ready; because the Son of Man comes in that hour you don’t expect.
  10. “Therefore, who is the faithful and prudent slave whom the Lord has put over his household servants, to give them food in the proper season?
  11. “Blessed is that slave whom his lord finds doing likewise at his coming.
  12. “Truly I tell you: he will set him over all of his possessions
  13. “But if that wicked slave says in his heart: “My lord delays”,
  14. “And he begins to beat his fellow slaves then eats and drinks with the drunkards,
  15. “Then the lord of that slave will come on a day which he doesn’t expect, and in an hour which he doesn’t know.
  16. And he will cut him in two, and will set his place with the hypocrites; where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.

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Matthew Chapter 25

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The Parable of the Ten Virgins
  1. “At that time, the kingdom of the heavens will be like ten virgins who, after taking their lamps, went out to meet the bridegroom.
  2. “Now, five of them were foolish and five were prudent,
  3. “for the foolish took their lamps but didn’t take oil with them.
  4. “But the wise took oil in flasks with their lamps.
  5. “And while the bridegroom was delaying, they all became drowsy and were sleeping.
  6. “But in the middle of the night, a great cry began: “Behold the bridegroom!  Go out to meet him!”
  7. “Then all those virgins arose and trimmed their lamps.
  8. “And the foolish said to the prudent; “Give us some of your oil, because our lamps have gone out.”
  9. “But the prudent answered, saying; “No. There definitely isn’t(367)“definitely isn’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. enough for us and you. Instead, go to the men who sell oil and buy it for yourselves.”
  10. “But while they were going away to buy oil, the bridegroom came.  And the virgins who were ready entered into the wedding feast with him, and the door was shut.
  11. “And later the remaining virgins also came, saying; “Lord, lord; open for us.”
  12. “But answering, he said; “Truly I tell you: I didn’t – and don’t – know you.”
  13. “Therefore, keep watch because you didn’t – and don’t – know the day nor the hour [in which the Son of Man comes].
The Parable of the Talents
  1. “For it’s just like a man traveling to a foreign country, who called his own slaves and handed over his possessions to them.
  2. “And indeed, he gave five talents(368)A “talent” is not a coin but a measure of weight. It was about 75lbs, or 3000 silver shekels in weight. A talent of silver was worth about 6,000 denarii, which was the going rate for a day’s worth of unskilled labor. to one, and two to another, and one to another; to each according to their own ability.  And at once he traveled to a foreign country.
  3. “And going out, the man who received five talents traded with them and gained another five.
  4. “Likewise, the man with two gained another two.
  5. “But departing, the man who received one talent dug a hole in the ground and hid his master’s silver.
  6. “Then after much time passed, the master of those slaves came and settled accounts with them.
  7. “And approaching him, the man who received five talents brought another five talents, saying; “Master, you handed me five talents. Behold, I have gained another five talents.”
  8. “His master was telling him; “Well done good and faithful slave.  You were faithful over a few things; I will set you over many. Enter into the joy of your master.”
  9. “Then approaching him, the man with two talents said; “Master, you handed me two talents.  Behold, I have gained another two.
  10. “His master was telling him; “Well done good and faithful slave.  You were faithful over a few things; I will set you over many. Enter into the joy of your master.”
  11. “Then approaching him, the man who had received – and still has – one talent said; “Master, I know that you’re a harsh man; reaping where you didn’t sow, and gathering where you didn’t scatter seed.”
  12. So being afraid and departing, I hid your talent in the ground. Behold, you have what’s yours.”
  13. “But answering, his master told him; “You wicked and lazy slave!  You had known that I reap where I didn’t sow, and gather where I didn’t scatter seed.
  14. “Therefore, it was proper for you to invest my silver with the bankers, and coming back I would have recovered my money with interest.
  15. “Therefore, take the talent from him and give it to the man who has ten talents.
  16. “For everything will be given to the man who has, and he will have abundance. But for the man who doesn’t have, even what he has will be taken away from him.
  17. “Also, cast out the useless slave into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
The Sheep and the Goats
  1. “And when the Son of Man comes in His glory – and all the angels with Him – then He will sit upon His glorious throne.
  2. “And all the nations will be gathered before Him.  And He will separate them one from another, just as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.
  3. “And indeed, He will put the sheep on His right and the goats on the left.
  4. “Then the king will tell those on His right; “Come, you men who were – and are – blessed by My Father.  Inherit the kingdom which was – and is – prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
  5. “For I hungered, and you gave Me something to eat.  I thirsted, and you gave Me a drink.  I was a foreigner, and you were hospitable to Me.
  6. I was naked, and you clothed Me. I was sick, and you visited Me. I was in prison, and you came to Me.”
  7. “Then the righteous will answer Him, saying; “Lord, when did we see you hungering and fed you, or thirsting and gave you a drink?
  8. “And when did we see you as a foreigner and were hospitable, or see you naked and clothed you?
  9. “And when did we see you being sick or in prison and come to you?
  10. “And answering, the King will tell them; “Truly I tell you: however much you did for one of the least of these My brothers, you did for Me.
  11. And then He will tell those on His left; “Depart from Me, you men who were – and are – cursed into the fire of ages,(369)“fire of ages” is literal, though “age-long fire” could be equally accurate. It’s traditionally translated “eternal fire” here, but that’s less literal and “fire of ages” captures the severity of the fire, which the traditional interpretation doesn’t.  Further, the word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is merely the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long”, “of ages”, or similar. which was – and is – prepared for The Accuser(370)“The Accuser” is literal.  The Greek word used here is “διάβολος” (diabolos), and it’s the root of our English word “devil”. Much like “Christ” (see note on Matt 1:1) “devil” isn’t a name but rather a descriptive title. and his angels.
  12. For I hungered and you didn’t give Me something to eat.  I thirsted, and you didn’t give Me a drink.
  13. I was a foreigner, and you weren’t hospitable; naked, and you didn’t clothe Me; sick and in prison, and you didn’t visit Me.
  14. “And then they will answer, saying; “Lord, when did we see you hungering, or thirsting, or a foreigner, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn’t serve you?”
  15. “Then He will answer them, saying; “Truly I tell you: however much you didn’t do for one of the least of these, you didn’t do for Me.
  16. And these will depart into the punishment of ages,(371)“punishment of ages” is literal, though “age-long punishment” could be equally accurate. It’s traditionally translated “eternal punishment” here.  However the word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is merely the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long”, “of ages”, or similar.  Further, “punishment of ages” captures the severity of the punishment, which the traditional interpretation doesn’t. but the righteous into the life of ages.”(372)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning.

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Matthew Chapter 26

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  1. And it happened – when Jesus finished all these words – He said to His disciples,
  2. “You did – and do – know that after two days, it becomes Passover and the Son of Man is handed over to be crucified.”
(More) Plotting to Kill Jesus
  1. Then the chief priests and elders of the people were gathered together in the courtyard of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas.
  2. And they held a council so they might seize and kill Jesus by treachery.
  3. But they were saying; “Not during the feast, so it won’t become a riot among the people.”
The Woman Anoints Jesus with Scented Oil
  1. And while Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the Leper,(373)A “leper” is a person suffering from “leprosy” (also called “Hansen’s Disease” in modern times). The disease is caused by the bacteria “M. leprae“. Symptoms includes the outbreak of unsightly skin sores and nerve damage. It was a great social stigma in the ancient world and remains so to this day in many places. The Jews believed that leprosy was caused by sin. Therefore they believed that only the promised messiah would be able to cure leprosy, because only God could forgive sin.
  2. a woman approached Him with an alabaster bottle of very expensive scented oil.  And she poured it on His head as He was reclining(374)“reclining” is literal. In ancient times, they didn’t sit at a table, they “reclined” at a low table. Thus, reclining often meant eating together. at the table.
  3. But seeing this, the disciples were indignant, saying; “Why did she waste this?
  4. “For this could’ve been sold for much and the money given to the poor.
  5. But knowing this, Jesus told them; “Why do you cause trouble for the woman?  For, she did a lovely deed to Me.
  6. “For you always have the poor with you, but you won’t always have Me.
  7. “For this woman pouring this scented oil on My body did it to prepare Me for burial.
  8. “Truly I tell you: wherever this gospel might be proclaimed in the whole world, what this woman did will be spoken of as a memorial of her.
Judas Betrays Jesus
  1. Then departing, one of the twelve – the man called Judas Iscariot – went to the chief priests.
  2. He said; “What are you willing to give me if I deliver(375)The Greek word translated “deliver” here can also be translated “betray” Him to you.”  And they paid him thirty pieces of silver.
  3. And from then on, he was seeking the right opportunity so he might deliver(376)The Greek word translated “deliver” here can also be translated “betray” Him.
The Last Supper
  1. Now, on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples approached Jesus, saying; “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?”
  2. And He said; “Go into the city to the certain man and tell him: “The teacher says: My time is near.  I will celebrate the Passover in your house with My disciples.”
  3. And the disciples did as Jesus instructed them, and prepared the Passover.
  4. And when it became evening, He was reclining at the table with the twelve disciples.
  5. And while they were eating, He said to them; “Truly I tell you: one of you will betray Me.”
  6. And being deeply grieved, each one began to say to Him; “It’s not me Lord, is it?”
  7. And answering, He said; “The man who dipped his hand in the bowl with Me, he will betray Me.
  8. “Indeed the Son of Man departs, just as it was – and is – written about Him: “But woe to that man, by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for that man if he wasn’t born.”
  9. But answering, Judas – the man who betrayed Him – said; “It’s not me Rabbi, is it?”  He told him; “You have spoken.”
  10. And while they were eating, Jesus took the bread and after a blessing, He broke it.  And giving it to the disciples, He said; “Take, eat; this is My Body.”
  11. Then taking a cup and giving thanks, He gave it to them, saying; “Drink from it, all of you.”
  12. “For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for the benefit of many, for forgiveness of sins.
  13. “But I tell you: I definitely won’t(377)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. drink of this fruit of the vine from now until that day when I drink it fresh with you in My Father’s kingdom.
  14. And after singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Peter’s Denial Predicted
  1. Then Jesus told them; “All of you will stumble because of Me on this night.  For it was – and is – written: I will strike the Shepherd and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.(378)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 13:7
  2. “But after being raised, I will go before you into Galilee.”
  3. But answering, Peter told Him; “If everyone else stumbles because of you, I will never stumble.”
  4. Jesus said to Him; “Truly I tell you: on this night – before a rooster crows – you will deny Me three times.”
  5. Peter told Him; “Even if I needed to die with you, I definitely won’t(379)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. deny you.”  And all the disciples said the same thing.
The Garden of Gethsemane
  1. Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane and told the disciples; “Sit here while I’m going over there to pray.”
  2. And taking along Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, He began to be deeply grieved and troubled.
  3. Then He told them; “My soul is engulfed in sorrow, even to death.  Stay here and keep watch with Me.”
  4. And going forward a little farther, He fell on His face, praying and saying; “My Father; if it’s possible let this cup pass from Me. Nevertheless, not as I will, but as you will.
  5. And He went to the disciples and found them sleeping.  And He said to Peter; “You couldn’t keep watch like this for one hour with Me?
  6. “Keep watch and pray so you won’t enter into temptation.  Indeed, the spirit is eager but the flesh is weak.
  7. Again, going away for a second time, He prayed saying; “My Father, if this cup can’t pass unless I drink it, let your will be done.”
  8. And coming again, He found them sleeping, for their eyes were – and are – heavy.
  9. And leaving them again, He departed to pray for a third time, saying the same words again.
  10. Then He came to the disciples and told them; “Sleep and rest later. Behold; the hour was – and is – near, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
  11. “Wake up, let’s go.  Behold; the man who betrayed Me was – and is – near.”
Jesus is Arrested
  1. And while He was still talking, behold; Judas – one of the twelve – came, and with him was a great crowd with swords and clubs from the chief priests and elders of the people.
  2. And the man who betrayed Him gave them a sign, saying; “He is whoever I kiss; seize Him.”
  3. And approaching Jesus at once, he said; “Hello Rabbi.” And kissed(380)“kissed” is one word in Greek here, and a different word from the previous verse.   It denotes either more than one kiss, or possibly an affectionate kiss. Him.
  4. And Jesus said to him; “Friend, why are you here?”  Then approaching Him, they laid hands on Jesus and seized Him.
  5. And behold; after reaching out his hand, one of the men with Jesus drew his sword.  And striking the high priest’s slave, he cut off his ear.
  6. “Then Jesus told him; “Return your sword to its place, for all who take up a sword will perish by a sword.”
  7. Or, do you think that I can’t call on My Father, and right now He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels?
  8. How then could the scriptures be fulfilled, that say it must happen this way?
  9. In that hour, Jesus said to the crowds; “Did you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me like a violent robber?(381)“violent robber” is one word in Greek.  It refers to someone who steals through force, as opposed to a burglar or thief who steals through stealth.  I was sitting every day in the temple teaching, and you didn’t seize Me then.
  10. “And all this was – and is – happening so the prophets’ writings might be fulfilled.”  Then leaving Him, all the disciples fled.
Jesus’ Trial
  1. Then the men who seized Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the Scribes and the elders were assembled.
  2. But Peter was following Him from afar, until the high priest’s courtyard.  And going inside, he was sitting with the servants to see the outcome.
  3. Now, the chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin(382)The Sanhedrin was the highest Jewish court of the day. were seeking false testimony against Jesus so they might put Him to death.
  4. And they didn’t find any, though many were coming forward as false witnesses.  But coming forward later, two said;
  5. “This man was saying: “I’m able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.”
  6. And standing up, the high priest said to Him; “You answer nothing?  Why do these men testify against you?”
  7. But Jesus was silent.  And the high priest said to Him; “I put you under oath(383)“I put… …under oath” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning. by the living God, so tell us if you are The Anointed, the Son of God.
  8. Jesus told him; “You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you: from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of power and coming on the clouds of heaven.(384)Quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13
  9. “Then the high priest tore his robe, saying; “He committed blaspheme!  Why would we still need witnesses?  Behold; you heard His blasphemy just now.
  10. “What’s your opinion?”  And answering, they said; “He is guilty and deserves(385)“guilty and deserves” is one word in Greek.  It was a legal/forensic term which indicated guilt for a crime, and thus also that the accused was deserving of punishment. death.”
  11. Then they spat in His face, and punched(386)“punched” the Greek word here means to strike with a (closed) fist, specifically the knuckles.   i.e. a punch. Him, and slapped(387)“slapped”.  The Greek word here could also mean “to strike with a rod” Him,
  12. saying; “Prophesy to us Anointed One: who is the man who hit you?”
Peter Denies Jesus
  1. Now, Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard, and one servant girl approached him, saying; “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.”
  2. But he denied it before everyone, saying; “I didn’t – and don’t – know what you’re talking about.”
  3. Then going out to the gateway, another servant girl saw him and told the men there; “This man was with Jesus of Nazareth.”
  4. And again, he denied it with an oath, saying; “I didn’t – and don’t – know the man.”
  5. But approaching him after a little while, the men who were – and are – standing there said to Peter; “Surely you’re also one of them, for even your accent makes it obvious.”
  6. Then he began to curse and to make an oath, saying; “I didn’t – and don’t – know the man!” And at once a rooster crowed.
  7. And Peter remembered the words Jesus spoke, saying; “before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.”  And going outside, he wept bitterly.

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Matthew Chapter 27

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  1. When it became morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people held a council against Jesus so they could put Him to death.
  2. And after binding Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate the governor.
Judas Hangs Himself
  1. Then seeing that He(388)“He” could also possibly be referring to Judas, since the Greek word translated “condemned” could alternately be translated “guilty and deserving of punishment”.  That would make the sentence read: “Then seeing that he was guilty and deserving of punishment, Judas – the man who betrayed Him – was feeling remorse.” was condemned, Judas – the man who betrayed Him – was feeling remorse. He returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,
  2. saying; “I sinned by betraying innocent blood.”  And they said; “What’s that to us?  You will see to it.”
  3. And throwing the pieces of silver into the temple, he departed and hanged himself after leaving.
  4. But picking up the pieces of silver, the chief priests said; “It’s not lawful to put them into the temple treasury,(389)“temple treasury” is one word in Greek.  The word is “κορβᾶν” (corban) and is also used in Mark 7:11.  It specifically refers to gifts that were devoted/consecrated to God, and hence could also mean the place where such gifts were stored. since it’s the price of blood.”
  5. Then after taking counsel, they bought the potter’s field with them, to be a burial place for foreigners.
  6. For this reason, that field is called “field of blood” to this day.
  7. Then it was fulfilled, what was spoken through the prophet [Jeremiah],(390)There is a textual variant here.  Some manuscripts don’t give the prophet’s name, some identify it as Jeremiah, and some as Zechariah.  The quote is from Zechariah, but sometimes a scroll was identified by the first book in that scroll, and Zechariah could’ve been part of a scroll that started with Jeremiah. saying; “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of He who was – and is – priced, on whom the sons of Israel set a price,
  8. and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord directed me.(391)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 11:12-13
Jesus Before Pilate
  1. Then Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor questioned(392)“questioned” the Greek word here could also be translated “interrogated”. Him, saying; “Are you king of the Jews?”  And Jesus declared: “It’s as you’ve said.”
  2. And He was accused by the chief priests and elders, but He answered no one.
  3. Then Pilate said to Him; “Don’t you hear how many things they testify against you?”
  4. And He didn’t answer him, not even one word; so the governor began to marvel greatly.
  5. Now at the festival, the governor had been accustomed to release one prisoner who the crowd was wanting.
  6. And at that time, they were holding a notorious prisoner called [Jesus] Barabbas.
  7. Therefore, while they were – and are – assembled, Pilate said to them; “Who do you wish I would release to you: [Jesus] Barabbas, or Jesus who’s called The Anointed?”
  8. For he had known that they betrayed Him because of malicious envy.(393)“malicious envy” is one word in Greek.  It refers to envy/jealousness that doesn’t seek to take what another has, but rather to tear down the object of the envy.
  9. And while he was sitting on the judgement seat, his wife sent word to him, saying; “Let nothing be between you and that righteous man, for today I suffered greatly in a dream because of Him.”
  10. But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds so they might ask for Barabbas, but kill Jesus.
  11. And answering, the governor said to them; “Which of the two do you wish I would release for you?”  And they said; “Barabbas.”
  12. And Pilate said to them; “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called The Anointed?”  They all said; “Let Him be crucified.”
  13. But he said; “For what evil He’s done?”  But they were vehemently crying out, saying; “Let Him be crucified!”
  14. But Pilate – seeing that nothing helped, but rather it was becoming a riot – took water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying; “I’m innocent of this man’s blood.  You will see to it.”
  15. And answering, all the people said; “His blood is on us and on our children.”
  16. Then Pilate released Barabbas for them, but after flogging Jesus, he handed Him over to be crucified.
Jesus is Mocked and Crucified
  1. Then taking Jesus with them into the Praetorium,(394)“Praetorium” could refer to either the governor’s residence, or the camp of the Roman military.  In this case, context tells use the latter is intended. the governor’s soldiers gathered the whole cohort(395)“cohort”.  The cohort was a basic unit of the Roman military, which consisted of 480 soldiers, plus 120 servants.  A standard cohort was comprised of 6 “centuries”, which consisted of 80 men, plus 20 servants.  However, the first cohort in every Roman Legion was composed of five double strength centuries, or 800 soldiers plus 200 servants. against Him.
  2. And stripping off His clothes, they clothed Him in a scarlet ruler’s robe.(396)“ruler’s robe” is one word in Greek (chlamys).  It refers to a short robe or cloak often worn by various rulers, such as kings, governors, or even emperors.  It was also worn by soldiers and military officers.
  3. And after weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on His head and put a reed in his right hand.  And falling on their knees before Him, they mocked Him, saying; “Hail king of the Jews!”
  4. And spitting on Him, they took the reed and were hitting Him on the head.
  5. And when they finished mocking Him, they stripped the ruler’s robe off Him, and clothed Him in His clothes, and led Him away to crucify Him.
  6. Then going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon.  They forced that man to carry His cross.
  7. And coming to a place called Golgotha (which is called: “place of a skull”),
  8. they gave Him wine which was – and is – mixed with gall(397)gall is a bitter herb. to drink.  And after tasting it, He wasn’t willing to drink it.
  9. Then after crucifying Him, they split His clothes by casting lots [so it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by the prophet; “They split My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for My clothing“].(398)The second half of this verse is present in some Greek manuscripts, but not the majority.  It is strongly attested by Old Latin evidence however.  Further, this variant ends with the same Greek word as the first half of the verse (κλῆρον).  This makes it very susceptible to accidental omission, because one of the more common errors is when two lines end with the same word, scribes were liable to accidentally skip everything in between.  Further, it’s a quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:18, which Jesus quotes a few verses later in verse 46.
  10. And sitting down, they were guarding Him there.
  11. And they put the charges against Him above His head, which was – and is – written: “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.”
  12. At that time, two violent robbers(399)“violent robber” is one word in Greek.  It refers to someone who steals through force, as opposed to a burglar or thief who steals through stealth. were crucified; one on the right hand, one on the left.
  13. Now, the men who passed by were slandering(400)“slandering” this word is typically translated “blaspheme”, but also means slander.  It’s quite possible this double meaning was intentional by Matthew. Him, shaking their heads
  14. and saying; “You who destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days; save yourself.  And if you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”
  15. And likewise, the chief priests with the scribes and elders were mocking and saying;
  16. “He saved others, but can’t save Himself.  He’s the king of Israel?  Let Him come down from the cross right now and we’ll believe in Him.”
  17. He did – and does – trust in God.  Let Him rescue Him now if He desires to.(401)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:8  For He said: “I am God’s Son”.”
  18. And likewise even the robbers who were crucified with Him were insulting Him.
Jesus’ Death
  1. Then darkness came over all the land from the sixth hour until the ninth hour.
  2. And about the night hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, saying; “Eli, Eli; lama sabachthani.” That is translated: “My God, My God; why have you abandoned Me?(402)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:1
  3. And hearing this, some of the men who were – and are – standing there began saying; “This man calls for Elijah.”
  4. And immediately running up, taking a sponge, filling it with sour wine, and putting it on a reed, one of them gave Him a drink.
  5. And the rest were saying; “Leave Him alone.  We’ll see if Elijah comes and will save Him.” [(403)Some manuscripts add: “But after taking a spear, another pierced His side and water and blood came out.” to the end of this verse.  However, this is regarded as a later addition by nearly all New Testament scholars, probably in an attempt to harmonize with John 19:34.  The vast, overwhelming majority of manuscripts don’t support this addition.]
  6. And again crying out in a loud voice, Jesus gave up His spirit.
  7. And behold; the veil in the temple was torn in two from top to bottom, and the land was shaken, and the rocks were split.
  8. And the tombs were opened and many of the saint’s bodies who were – and are – fallen asleep were raised.
  9. And going out of the tombs after His resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many.
  10. Then the centurion(404)“centurion” was a rank in the Roman military. A normal centurion was in charge of 80 soldiers, plus ~20 support staff. However, there were different levels of centurion. The highest ranking centurions could be in charge of up to 1000 men. and the men keeping watch over Jesus with him – after seeing the earthquake and the things which happened – were awestruck and terrified,(405)“awestruck and terrified” is literally “extremely afraid/awestruck”, with “extremely” being a separate Greek word.  The Greek verb “ἐφοβήθησαν” here can mean to “fear” or “awe” or “revere” depending on the context.  Sometimes more than one meaning is intended, as is likely the case here.  Technically, including both awe and fear is double translating (translating the same word twice two different ways).  However, both meanings were included because both are relevant, equally likely, and it’s likely that Matthew intended both. saying; “Truly this man was God’s Son.”
  11. Now, there were many women watching from afar who had followed Jesus from Galilee while ministering to Him;
  12. among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.
Jesus is Buried
  1. And when it became evening, a rich man came from Arimathea named Joseph, who also was discipled by Jesus.
  2. And approaching Pilate, this man asked for the body of Jesus.  Then Pilate commanded it to be delivered to him.
  3. And taking the body, Joseph wrapped it in a clean linen cloth
  4. and put it in his new tomb, which he cut in the rock.  And after rolling a great stone over the door of the tomb, he departed.
  5. Now, Mary Magdalene was there with the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb.
  6. Then the next day (which is after the Sabbath preparation day) the chief priests and Pharisees were gathered before Pilate,
  7. saying; “Lord, we remembered that the deceiver said while living: “After three days, I will be raised.”
  8. Therefore, order the tomb to be secured until the third day, lest His disciples ever come, steal Him, and tell the people: “He has risen from the dead.” And the last deception will be worse than the first.
  9. Pilate declared to them; “You have a guard.  Go, secure it as you did – and do – see fit.(406)“you did – and do – see fit” is one word in Greek.  It refers to perceiving, or “seeing that becomes knowing”, similar to our English phrase “I see what you mean.”
  10. Then departing, they secured the tomb with the guard and by setting a seal(407)“setting a seal” is one word in Greek. Commonly, this was done by melting wax and using a signet ring to make an impression before the wax had fully cooled.  If the wax seal was broken, it was impossible to fix without using the signet ring again.  This served as a form of signature in the ancient world. on the stone.

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Matthew Chapter 28

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Jesus’ Resurrection
  1. And after the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.
  2. And behold; there was a great earthquake.  For after descending from heaven and approaching the tomb, an angel of the Lord rolled away the stone and was sitting on top of it.
  3. And his appearance was like lightning and his clothes were white as snow.
  4. And the men who guarded the tomb trembled from fear and became like dead men.
  5. But answering the women, the angel said; “Don’t be afraid, for I did – and do – know that you seek Jesus, the man who was – and is – crucified.”
  6. “He isn’t here, for He was raised from the dead, just as He said.  Come, see the place where He was lying.
  7. “And going quickly, tell His disciples that He was raised from the dead. And behold; He goes before you into Galilee, and you will see Him there. Behold; I have told you.”
  8. And quickly going away from the tomb with awe(408)“awe” the Greek word here can also be translated “Fear” or “revere” depending on the context.  Here, awe seems to fit better than either of those. and great joy, they ran to tell His disciples.
  9. [But as they were going to tell His disciples,] behold; Jesus met them, saying; “Rejoice!” And approaching Him, they bowed down at His feet(409)“bowed down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. and grabbed His feet.
  10. Then Jesus told them; “Don’t be afraid.  Go, tell My brothers so they go into Galilee, and they will see Me there.”
The Soldiers’ Deception
  1. And as they were leaving, behold; some of the guard went into the city and reported everything which happened to the chief priests.
  2. And gathering with the elders and taking counsel, they gave the soldiers sufficient silver,
  3. saying; “Say that His disciples stole Him by coming at night while we were sleeping.”
  4. “And if this is heard by the governor, we will persuade him and will keep you of of trouble.”
  5. And taking the silver, they did just as they were instructed.  And this report was widely spread among the Jews, even to this day.
The Great Commission
  1. And the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus directed them.
  2. And seeing Him, they bowed down at His feet.(410)“bowed down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered.  But some doubted.(411)The Greek word translated “doubted” comes from two words, meaning “double” and “standing”.  That is, someone who has two ideas in their mind and can’t – or won’t – decide between the two.
  3. And approaching them, Jesus spoke saying; “All authority in heaven and on the earth was given to Me.
  4. Going(412)“going” in Greek, this is a passive participle, and therefore is more accurately “being made to go”.  However, some Greek scholars argue that it inherits the imperative force of the finite verb “disciple” due to the construction of the sentence (called “attendant circumstance”).  Others maintain that the “attendant circumstance” rule either doesn’t exist, or doesn’t apply here.  In either case, the main imperative command in the Great commission is not “go/going” but rather to disciple.  The Great Commission focuses on creating genuine disciples, not “merely” creating converts through evangelism. therefore, disciple all the gentiles;(413)“gentiles” could also be translated “nations”, as this Greek word can be translated either way depending on the context. baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit;
  5. and teaching them to carefully observe all things, as many as I commanded you. And behold; I’m with you always, until the culmination of the age.

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Mark

Luke

John

Acts

 

Paul’s Epistles

Romans

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Romans Chapter 1

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Greeting
  1. Paul, a slave of Jesus the Anointed, called to be an apostle, having been – and being – set apart for God’s gospel,
  2. which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy scriptures,
  3. concerning His son; the One who came from the seed of David according to the flesh,
  4. the One who was declared God’s Son in power according to the Spirit of holiness by His resurrection from the dead; Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
  5. through whom we received grace and apostleship to accomplish the obedience of faith in all the gentiles for His name’s sake
  6. including in you, who are also called to be of Jesus the Anointed.
  7. To all the men who are beloved by God and called to be saints in Rome: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
  8. First, I indeed thank my God through Jesus the Anointed for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed in the whole world.
  9. For God – who I serve I serve in my spirit by the gospel of His Son – is my witness of how unceasingly I make mention of you,
  10. always in my prayers imploring to come to you, if at last I will somehow successfully travel to you by the will of God.
  11. For I long to see you so I might impart some spiritual gift to you, for you to be strengthened.
  12. That is, I wish to be encouraged together among you through each other’s faith, both your faith and mine.
The gospel and foolish wickedness
  1. Now brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant that I frequently purposed to come to you (and was hindered until now), so I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the rest of the gentiles.
  2. I’m indebted to both Greeks and barbarians; to both wise and foolish.
  3. Thus for me, I’m also ready to preach the gospel to you, the men in Rome.
  4. For I’m not ashamed of the gospel, for it’s the power of God for salvation to all the men who believe, to both the Jew first and also to the Greek.
  5. For God’s righteousness is revealed in it from faith to faith, just as it was – and is – written: “And the righteous shall live by faith.”(414)quotation/allusion to Habakkuk 2:4
  6. For God’s wrath is revealed from heaven upon all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, the men who suppress the truth by unrighteousness.
  7. because what’s known of God is obvious among them, for God revealed it to them.
  8. For since the creation of the world, His invisible attributes – both His eternal power and divinity – were understood by the created things, for them to be without excuse,
  9. because while knowing God, they didn’t glorify Him or be thankful, but they became futile in their reasoning, and their foolish heart was darkened.
  10. While professing to be wise, they became fools.
  11. And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into a likeness of the image of corruptible man, and birds, and four-legged animals, and creeping things.(415)“creeping things” is one word in Greek, which can refer to reptiles, especially snakes.
  12. Therefore, God handed them over to the cravings of their hearts; to impurity, to disgrace their bodies among them,
  13. who changed the truth of God into a lie, and reverently feared and served the creation instead of the One who created it, who is blessed through the ages. Amen.
  14. Because of this, God handed their men(416)“their men” Is more literally “them” in the masculine form.  However, since gender matters to this verse, “their men” was chosen to avoid readers misinterpreting “them” as applying to both genders.  It should be noted that the word “their” in the later phrase “their females” is also masculine. over to disgraceful, depraved passions; for both they and(417)“both they and” is a single word in Greek which properly means “both and”.  It’s a less common conjugation, though is used seven times in Romans 1, every time with the meaning of “both and”.  The antecedent for the “both” part is clearly the men in the first clause, thus “they” was added for clarity. their females exchanged the natural use of intercourse(418)“use of intercourse” is one word in Greek.  It should be noted that the Greek word χρῆσις (chrésis) refers specifically to intercourse, which requires penetration by the male.  While this verse is typically translated and interpreted to apply to female homosexuality, that is impossible because χρῆσις requires a male’s involvement.  Without a male, it isn’t χρῆσις.  There is no instance in all of Greek literature where χρῆσις is applied to female homosexuality.  The early church fathers applied this verse not to female homosexuality, but to sodomy, which requires a male penetrating another person (male or female).  Thus the “natural use of intercourse” (vaginal intercourse) is contrasted with sodomy, which is “close beside but contrary to nature”.  The “female homosexuality” interpretation of this verse arose primarily after the church began to use a Latin translation of the Bible instead of the original Greek, and thus the specificity of χρῆσις was lost in translation. for the one that’s close beside but contrary to(419)“close beside but contrary to” is one word in Greek.  It’s the Greek word “παρά” (para) which is the root of our word parallel.  The primary meaning is “close beside”, but when followed by a word in the Greek accusative case – which it is here – it also gains the nuance of being “contrary to”. nature.
  15. And doing the same thing also, the males were both rejecting the natural use of the female and were inflamed in their lust for one another.  Males with males, bringing about their shame and receiving in themselves the recompense which is proper for their error.
  16. And as they didn’t see fit to have recognition of God, God handed them over to a perversely unfit mind, to do what isn’t proper;
  17. having been – and being – filled with all unrighteousness, depravity, covetousness, wickedness, full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malevolence, secret slander;
  18. slanderous, haters of God, violent, arrogant, boasters, investors of evil, disobedient to parents,
  19. without understanding, oath-breakers, without familial affection, and without mercy.
  20. Men who, while knowing the righteous judgement and ordinance of God – that the men who practice such things are worthy of death – not only do them, but also join in approvingly with the men who practice them.

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Romans Chapter 2

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God’s righteous, impartial judgement
  1. Therefore, you O man are inexcusable; every man who judges.  For by what you judge the other man, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things.
  2. You did – and do – know that the judgement of God is based on truth upon the men who practice such things.
  3. Consider this O man; you who judges the men who practice such things (even while doing them yourself) do you think that you will escape the judgement of God?
  4. Or do you scorn the richness of His benevolence, and forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the benevolence of God leads you to repentance.
  5. And according to your hardness and unrepentant heart, you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and the revelation of the righteous judgement of God,
  6. who will repay each according to his deeds.(420)quotation/allusion to Psalm 62:12.
  7. To the men seeking good work with endurance, glory, honor, and incorruptibility: the life of ages. (421)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning.
  8. But to the men who disobey the truth from selfish ambition (also being persuaded of unrighteousness): anger and wrath.
  9. Tribulation and anguish will come upon every man’s soul who practices wickedness; both to the Jew first and then to the Greek.
  10. But glory, and honor, and peace to every man who practices good; both to the Jew first and also to the Greek,
  11. for there’s no favoritism with God.
Obedience matters, not circumcision
  1. For as many as sinned without the law will also perish without the law.  And as many as sinned with the law will be judged by the law.
  2. For the hearers of the law aren’t righteous with God, but the doers of the law will be made righteous –
  3. (For when the gentiles who don’t have the law do the things of the law by nature, these men not having the law are a law to themselves,
  4. who clearly demonstrate the work of the law written in their hearts; witnessing together with their conscience and (between one another) alternately accusing or even defending their thoughts.)
  5. – on that day when God judges the hidden things of men through Jesus the Anointed according to my gospel.
  6. But if you bear the name of ‘Jew’, and rely on the law, and boast in God,
  7. and you know His will, and you examine things to prove what is excellent, being taught from the law,
  8. and you were – and are – confident in yourself to be both a guide to blind men and a light to men in darkness;
  9. a strict schoolmaster of foolish men, a teacher of immature men, having the embodiment of knowledge and the truth in the law;
  10. Therefore, you man who teaches another, don’t you teach yourself?  You man who preaches not to steal, do you steal?
  11. You man who says not to have sex with another man’s wife,(422)“have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication. do you have sex with another man’s wife?  You man who detests idols, do you rob temples?
  12. You who boast in the law, do you dishonor God through deliberate violations of the law?
  13. For just as it was – and it – written: “the name of God is blasphemed among the gentiles through you.”(423)quotation/allusion to Ezekiel 36:20
  14. For circumcision indeed benefits you if you practice the law.  But if you are a deliberate violator of the law, your circumcision did – and does – become uncircumcision.
  15. Therefore, if the uncircumcised man keeps the ordinances of the law, won’t his uncircumcision be considered circumcision?
  16. And the uncircumcised by birth – the man who’s fulfilling the law – will judge you, a deliberate violator of the law though having the letter of the law and circumcision.
  17. For the one with the appearance of a Jew isn’t, nor the one with the appearance of circumcision in the flesh,
  18. but the man who’s a Jew internally is; who also has circumcision of the heart in spirit, not in the letter, whose approval isn’t from men, but from God.

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Romans Chapter 3

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God is righteous
  1. Then what is the advantage of the Jew?  Or what is the benefit the circumcision?
  2. Much in every way; primarily that they were entrusted with the oracles of God.
  3. Then what if some disbelieved?  Their unbelief doesn’t nullify the faithfulness of God does it?
  4. May it never be!  But let God be true though every man is a liar; just as it was – and is – written: “that you might be made righteous in your words, and will prevail when you’re to be judged.”(424)quotation/allusion to Psalm 51:4
  5. But if our unrighteousness proves God’s righteousness, what will we say: is God – the One who inflicts wrath – unrighteous?  (I speak as a man might.)
  6. May it never be!  Otherwise, how will God judge the world?
  7. But if the truth of God overflowed for His glory by my lie, why am I also still judged a sinner?
  8. And why not say: “let us do evil so good might come”?  Just as we’re blasphemously charged with saying and as some report us to say; their condemnation is just.
No man is righteous
  1. What then, are we better?  Not at all!  For we previously brought an accusation against both Jews and Greeks that all are under sin.
  2. Just as it was – and is – written: “There is none righteous, not even one.
  3. There is no man who understands, there is no man who seeks God.
  4. All have turned away; together they have become like worthless spoiled milk.(425)” they have become like worthless spoiled milk” is one word in Greek, originally referring to milk that had spoiled, and thus was worthless and good for nothing.  Thus, this word also has the connotation of being corrupt/spoiled/ruined.  There is no man who does good; there isn’t even one.”(426)quotation/allusion to Psalm 14:1-3
  5. Their throat is a grave that was – and is – open.  Their tongues continually deceive.”(427)quotation/allusion to Psalm 5:9  “An asp’s(428)an “asp” is a highly poisonous snake who’s venom is very often fatal when left untreated.  Further, the venom works quickly, making it even more dangerous. venom is under their lips;”(429)quotation/allusion to Psalm 140:3
  6. whose mouth is full of curses and bitterness.”(430)quotation/allusion to Psalm 10:7
  7. Their feet are swift to spill blood,
  8. complete ruin and misery are in their ways,
  9. and they haven’t known the way of peace.”(431)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 59:7-8
  10. There is no fear of God before their eyes.”(432)quotation/allusion to Psalm 36:1
  11. Yet we did – and do – know that whatever the law says, it speaks to the men under the law so that every mouth might be stopped, and all the world might be brought to trial being guilty(433)“might be brought to trial being guilty” is one word in Greek.  It refers to bringing someone who is guilty to trial to answer for their crimes.   It can also refer to the sentence of the condemned. before God.
  12. Therefore, no flesh will be made righteous in His sight by the works of the law, for through the law comes knowledge of sin.
Righteousness from God through Jesus
  1. But now, the righteousness of God was – and is – made known apart from the law, being testified of by the law and the prophets;
  2. the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus the Anointed for all the men who believe.  For there’s no distinction,
  3. for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
  4. being made righteous by His grace through the liberating ransom payment(434)“the liberating ransom payment” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”.  It properly refers to a released secured by paying a ransom. in Jesus the Anointed,
  5. who God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood for a demonstration of His righteousness, by the forbearance of God through the overlooking of sins which were – and are – previously committed,
  6. for the demonstration of His righteousness in the present season, for Him to be righteous and to make righteous the man whose faith is in Jesus.
  7. Where then is the boasting?  It’s excluded.  Because of what Law?  Of works?  By no means, but through the law of faith.
  8. For we consider a man to be made righteous by faith apart from the works of the law.
  9. Or is God only God of the Jews?  Isn’t He also God of the gentiles?  Yes!  Of the gentiles too,
  10. since there’s one God, who will make the circumcision righteous by faith, and the uncircumcision righteous through the same faith.
  11. Then, do we nullify the law through faith?  May it never be!  Instead, we establish the law.

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Romans Chapter 4

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Righteousness from works vs faith
  1. Then what will we say that Abraham discovered?  (Who is our father according to the flesh.)
  2. For if Abraham was made righteous by works, he has a reason to boast (but not to God).
  3. For what does the scripture say: “And Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness.”(435)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
  4. Now, to the man who works, his wages aren’t credited as grace, but as what’s owed.
  5. But to the man who doesn’t work – but believes on the One who makes him righteous – his faith is credited as righteousness,
  6. Just as David also speaks of how blessed is the man for whom God credits righteousness apart from works:
  7. Blessed are the men whose lawlessness was forgiven, and whose sins were covered;
  8. blessed is the man to whom God definitely doesn’t(436)“definitely doesn’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. credit his sin.”(437)quotation/allusion to Psalm 32:1
For both circumcisions and uncircumcision
  1. Then, is this blessing only on the circumcision, or also on the uncircumcision?  (For we say faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.(438)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6 )
  2. Then how was it credited?  While being in circumcision or in uncircumcision?  Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.
  3. And he received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness of faith while in uncircumcision, for him to be the father of all the men who believe while in uncircumcision, for it to be credited to them as righteousness also.
  4. And the father of circumcision isn’t only father to the men of circumcision, but also to the men who walk in the footsteps of our father Abraham while in uncircumcision.
  5. For the promise – for him to be an heir to the world – wasn’t given to Abraham or his descendants through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.
  6. For if the men of the law are heirs, faith was – and is – made void and the promise was – and is – nullified.
  7. For the law brings about wrath; but where there’s no law, there’s no deliberate sin either.
  8. Therefore, it’s from faith so that it’s by grace, for all the seed to be certain of the promise; not only to those of the law, but also to those of Abraham’s faith, who is the father of us all.
  9. Just as it was – and is – written: “I did – and do – establish you as a father of many nations.”(439)quotation/allusion to Genesis 17:5   He believed before God, the One who gives life to the dead and calls the things which don’t exist into being.
  10. With hope against hope, Abraham believed the promise for him to become a father of many nations, according to what had been spoken: “So will your descendants be.”(440)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:5
  11. And not being weak in faith, he considered his own body as [already] having been – and being – dead (being one hundred years old) and the deadness of Sarah’s womb.
  12. But he didn’t doubt the promise of God in unbelief, but was strengthened in faith; giving glory to God
  13. and being fully convinced that what God did – and does – promise, He is also able to do.
  14. And therefore: “It was credited to him as righteousness.”(441)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
  15. Yet it wasn’t written that “it was credited to him” because of him alone,
  16. but also because of us (to whom it’s about to be credited); to the men who believe on the One who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,
  17. who was handed over because of our sinful slip-ups(442)“sinful slip-ups”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional., and was raised for the sake of us being made righteous.

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Romans Chapter 5

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Peace with God
  1. Therefore, having been made righteous by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus the Anointed.
  2. Through whom we also did – and do – have access by faith into this grace in which we did – and do – stand, and we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.
  3. And not only that, but we also rejoice in tribulations; having known – and knowing – that tribulation produces endurance,
  4. and endurance produces proven character, and proven character produces hope.
  5. And hope doesn’t make us ashamed because the love of God was – and is – poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit; the One who was given to us.
  6. For while we were still weak, the Anointed still died for the sake of the ungodly at the opportune time.
  7. For rarely will someone die for the sake of a righteous man, though for the sake of a good man perhaps someone might even dare to die.
  8. But God proved His own love for us, because with us still being sinners, the Anointed died for our sake.
  9. Therefore, having now been made righteous by His blood, how much more will we be saved from wrath through Him!
  10. For if we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son while being enemies, then having been reconciled, how much more will we be saved by His life!
  11. And not only this, but we’re also rejoicing in God through our Lord Jesus the Anointed, through whom we received our reconciliation.
Death through Adam’s sin, life through Jesus’ righteousness
  1. Because of this, just as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin, so also death spread to all men, because all have sinned.
  2. For sin was in the world until the law, but sin isn’t charged to an account when there’s no law.
  3. But regardless, death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over the men who didn’t sin in the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of the One who is about to come.
  4. But the gift isn’t like the sinful slip-up.  For if the many died by one man’s sinful slip-up, the grace of God and the gift by the grace of one man – Jesus the Anointed – overflowed much more to the many.
  5. For also, the gift isn’t like what came through the one who sinned. For indeed, the judgement from one resulted in a sentence of punishment, but the grace from many sinful slip-ups resulted in our being made righteous.
  6. For if death reigned through the one sinful slip-up of the one, how much more will the men who received the abundance of grace and gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus the Anointed!
  7. So therefore, just as a sentence of punishment came to all men through one sinful slip-up, so also being made righteous in life came to all men through one righteous deed.
  8. For just as the many were made sinners through the disobedience of one man, so also the many will be made righteous through the obedience of One man.
  9. And the law entered so the sinful slip-ups might abound.  But where sin abounded, grace super-abounded,
  10. so just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to the life of ages(443)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning. through Jesus the Anointed our Lord.

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Romans Chapter 6

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Dead to sin, Alive to the Anointed
  1. Therefore, what will we say?  Might we continue in sin so grace might abound?
  2. May it never be!  How will we who died to sin still live in it?
  3. Or do you not know that as many as were baptized into the Anointed were baptized into His death?
  4. Therefore, we were buried with Him through baptism into death, so just as the Anointed was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we might also walk in newness of life.
  5. For if we did – and do – become united with the likeness of His death, we will also be the same in the resurrection,
  6. knowing this: that our old man was crucified with Him, so the body of sin might be nullified, to enslave us to sin no longer.
  7. For the man who died was – and is – absolved from sin.
  8. And if we died with the Anointed, we believe that we will also live with Him,
  9. having known – and knowing – that the Anointed (having been raised from the dead) no longer dies; death no longer has authority over Him.
  10. For the death that He died, He died to sin once for all; but the life that He lives, He lives to God.
  11. Likewise, also consider yourselves to be indeed dead to sin, but alive to God in Jesus the Anointed.
  12. Therefore, don’t let sin reign in your mortal body in order to obey its cravings,
  13. nor present your parts as tools of unrighteousness in sin, but present yourselves to God as alive from the dead, and your parts as tools of righteousness to God.
  14. For sin won’t have authority over you, for you aren’t under the law, but under grace.
Sin into death, obedience into righteousness
  1. What then, might we sin because we aren’t under the law but under grace?   May it never be!
  2. Didn’t – and don’t – you know that whoever you present yourselves to as slaves for obedience, you are slaves to him who you obey?  (Whether of sin into death or obedience into righteousness.)
  3. But grace be to God that though formerly being slaves of sin, you are now obedient from the heart to the pattern of teaching which was handed over to you,
  4. and having being freed from sin, you were enslaved to righteousness.
  5. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.  For just as you presented your parts as slaves to impurity and lawlessness resulting in more lawlessness, so now present your parts as slaves to righteousness leading into becoming holy.
  6. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness.
  7. Therefore, what fruit did you then have in things of which you’re now ashamed?  For the end of those things is death.
  8. But presently – having been freed from sin and being made slaves to God – you have your fruit for becoming holy, and the end is the life of ages.(444)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning.
  9. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of grace in God is the life of ages(445)“life of ages” see previous note. in Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.

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Romans Chapter 7

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The law is holy
  1. Or do you not know brothers – for I speak to men knowing the law – that the law has authority over a man for as long as he lives?
  2. For the married woman was – and is – bound by law to her husband while he’s living.  But if the husband dies, she is severed from the law of the husband.
  3. So then, if she became joined to another man while her husband is living, she will be publically called an adulteress.  But she is free from the law if the husband dies, so she’s not an adulteress though becoming joined to another man.
  4. So then my brothers, you also died to the law through the body of the Anointed, for you to belong to another; the One who was raised from the dead so we might bear fruit to God.
  5. For when we were in the flesh, the passions of sin were working in our limbs through the law to bear the fruit of death.
  6. But now, we have been severed from the law, having died to what we were bound, in order for us to serve in newness of the Spirit and not oldness of the letter.
  7. Then what will we say?  Is the law sin?  May it never be!  But I wouldn’t have recognized sin except through the law.  For I wouldn’t have been aware of covetousness except the law says: “You shall not covet.”(446)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21
  8. But taking an opportunity through the commandment, sin produced all sorts of covetousness in me; for apart from the law, sin is dead.
  9. Yet I once was alive apart from the law.  But after coming, the commandment revived the sin and I died.
  10. And the commandment that was to result in life, was found to result in death.
  11. For taking an opportunity through the commandment, sin thoroughly deceived me and through it put me to death.
  12. So then the law is indeed holy; and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good.
Desiring to do good, but not doing
  1. Therefore, has what’s good become death to me?  May it never be!  But sin – so it might be revealed as sin – was working out death in me through what’s good, so sin might become sinful beyond excess through the commandment.
  2. For we did – and do – know that the law is spiritual, but I’m fleshly; having been – and being – sold under sin’s authority.
  3. For I don’t understand what I do.  For what I desire, this I don’t do.  But what I hate, this I do.
  4. But if what I don’t desire, this I do; I agree with the law that the law good.
  5. And now I no longer do it, but the sin which dwells in me.
  6. For I did – and do – know that good doesn’t dwell in me (that is, in my flesh).  For to desire is present in me, but the doing of good isn’t.
  7. For I don’t do the good that I desire, but the evil that I don’t desire, this I practice.
  8. And if what I don’t desire, this I do; it’s no longer I who does it, but the sin which dwells in me.
  9. Therefore, I find the law that evil is present in me, the man who desires to do good,
  10. for I delight in the law of God according to the inward man.
  11. But I see another law in my limbs, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner of the law of sin which is present in my limbs.
  12. What a wretched man I am!  Who will rescue me from this body of death?
  13. But grace be to God through Jesus the Anointed our Lord!  So then, I myself indeed serve God’s law with my mind, but sin’s law with my flesh.

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Romans Chapter 8

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Walking in Flesh vs Spirit
  1. Therefore, there is now no sentence of punishment to the men in Jesus the Anointed [who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.](447)This textual variant is disputed, with the majority of manuscripts supporting its inclusion, but the earliest manuscripts supporting its omission. The exact same words occur in verse 4.  It possible that scribes copied this down from there to “soften” the verse, or that Paul repeated it for emphasis. The debate is ongoing.
  2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Jesus the Anointed set you free from the law of sin and death.
  3. For the law was powerless in that it was weak through the flesh.  But God sent His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh; and concerning sin, He condemned sin in the flesh,
  4. so the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, the men who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.
  5. For the men who are walking according to the flesh set their mind on the things of the flesh.  But the men walking according to the Spirit, set their mind on the things of the Spirit.
  6. For the mind of flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace;
  7. because the mind of flesh has hostility for God because it’s not subject to the law of God, nor can it be.
  8. And the men who are in the flesh aren’t able to please God.
  9. But you aren’t in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed God’s Spirit dwells in you.  But if someone doesn’t have the Spirit of the Anointed, this man isn’t of Him.
  10. But if the Anointed is in you, your body is dead because of sin.  But the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
  11. But if the Spirit who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the One who raised Jesus the Anointed [from the dead] will also resurrect your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.
  12. So then brothers, we aren’t debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.
  13. For if you live according to the flesh, you’re about to die.  But if you put the deeds of the body to death by the Spirit, you will live.
Adoption as Sons
  1. For as many as are led by God’s Spirit, these are sons of God.
  2. For you didn’t receive a spirit of slavery to fear again, but you received the Spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry “Abba,(448)“Abba” is a Greek form of the Hebrew word for father.  It is a term of greater closeness and familiarity than “father”, though the degree of closeness is widely debated.  Some think “Papa” or “Daddy” is appropriate, while others say that’s is too familiar and prefer “Dad” or perhaps “Pa”.  Some of the latter group prefer to render as an adjective and would translate it “dear father”. Father.”
  3. The same Spirit testifies together with our spirit that we are children of God.
  4. And if children, also heirs; indeed, we’re heirs of God and co-heirs with the Anointed, if indeed we suffer with Him so we might also be glorified with Him.
  5. For I conclude that the sufferings of the present season aren’t worthy of comparison to the glory which is about to be revealed to us.
  6. For the creation eagerly awaits in earnest expectation for the revelation of the sons of God.
  7. For the creation was subjected to futility; not voluntarily, but because of the One who subjected it in the confidence
  8. that the creation itself will be freed from the slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
  9. For we did – and do – know that all creation groans together and suffers birthing pains until now.
  10. And not only that, but even we ourselves – though having the firstfruit of the Spirit – even we ourselves groan in ourselves eagerly awaiting the adoption as sons; the ransoming back(449)“ransoming back” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”.  It properly refers to a released secured by paying a ransom. of our body.
  11. For we were saved in this hope.  But hope that’s seen isn’t hope, for does someone hope for what he sees?
  12. but if we hope for what we don’t see, we eagerly await through patient endurance.
  13. And likewise also, the Spirit helps in our weakness, for we didn’t – and don’t – know which things we should pray for as is proper, but the Spirit Himself intercedes with groanings that can’t be expressed in words.
  14. And the One who searches hearts did – and does – know what’s in the mind of the Spirit, because He intercedes on behalf of the saints before God.
  15. And we did – and do – know that all things work together for good to the men who show preference(450)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s).  Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó does not center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to God; to the men who are called according to His purpose,
  16. because who He knew beforehand, He also appointed beforehand to be conformed to the image of His Son, for Him to be the firstborn among many brothers.
  17. And who He appointed beforehand, these He also called.  And who He called, these He also made righteous.  And who He made righteous, these He also glorified.
Nothing can separate us from God
  1. What then will we say to these things?  For if God is for us, who can be against us?
  2. Indeed, He who didn’t spare His own Son but handed Him over for all our sake, how won’t He also freely give all things to us with Him?
  3. Who will bring a charge against God’s chosen?  God is the One who makes righteous.
  4. Who is the man who condemns?  For Jesus the Anointed – the One who died and was raised [from the dead] and who is at the right hand of God – also intercedes on our behalf.
  5. Who will separate us from the love of the Anointed?  Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword?
  6. Just as it was – and is – written: “We are put to death all day long for your sake; we were considered like sheep to slaughter.”(451)quotation/allusion to Psalm 4:22
  7. But in all these things, we are more than conquerors through the One who loved to us.
  8. For I was – and am – convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things which were – and are – present, nor things to come, nor powers,
  9. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing will be able to separate us from the love of God in Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.

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Romans Chapter 9

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Concern for Jews
  1. I speak the truth in the Anointed.  I don’t lie; my conscience is testifying with me in the Holy Spirit
  2. that my grief is great, and the deep sorrow in my heart is unceasing.
  3. For I’m wishing myself to be anathema(452)“anathema” likely because of the Bible, this Greek word has entered the English vocabulary.  In Greek it literally means to curse someone, or more specifically to offer a curse to them to devote them to God’ destruction.  It can also have the connotation of being abominable and/or detestable.separated from the Anointed – for the sake of my brothers; my kinsmen according to the flesh
  4. who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory, and the covenants, and the Mosaic legislation, and the sacred service, and the promises;
  5. to whom belongs the forefathers, and from whom came the Anointed according to the flesh; the One who is God over all and blessed through the ages, Amen.
  6. But it’s not that the word of God did – or does – fail.  For not all the men of Israel are these men of Israel.
  7. Nor are all children because they’re Abraham’s seed, but “In Isaac your seed will be called.”(453)quotation/allusion to Genesis 21:12
  8. That is, these children of the flesh aren’t children of God; but the children of the promise are considered as seed.
  9. For the word of promise was this: “At this time, I will come and there will be a son through Sarah.”(454)quotation/allusion to Genesis 18:10
  10. And not only that, but also Rebecca had her conception by one man; Isaac our father.
  11. For while not yet being born nor having done anything good or evil – so the purpose of God in regards to His elect might remain not from works, but from the One who calls –
  12. it was said to her: “The older will serve the younger.”(455)quotation/allusion to Genesis 25:23
  13. Just as it was – and is – written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”(456)quotation/allusion to Malachi 1:2
The Potter and the Clay
  1. Then what will we say?  There isn’t injustice with God is there?  May it never be!
  2. For He says to Moses: “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”(457)quotation/allusion to Exodus 33:15
  3. So then it’s not up to the men who desire, nor the men who run; but to God who has mercy.
  4. For the Scripture says of Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this thing: so that I might demonstrate My power in you, and so that My name might be proclaimed in all the Earth.”(458)quotation/allusion to Exodus 9:16
  5. So then He has mercy on who He desires, but He also hardens who He desires.
  6. Therefore you say to me: “Then why does He still find fault?  For who did – or does – resist His will?”
  7. On the contrary O man, who are you?  The man who contradicts God?  The molded thing won’t say to the man who molded it: “Why did you make me this way?”, will it?
  8. Or doesn’t the potter have the authority over the clay, to make from the same lump one vessel for honor and another for dishonor?
  9. What if God – desiring to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known – bore in much patience the vessels of wrath which were – and are – being prepared for destruction?
  10. And also so he might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory;
  11. who He also called us; not only from the Jews, but also from the gentiles.
  12. Just as in Hosea, He says: “I will call the men who aren’t my people, my people; and the woman who wasn’t – and isn’t – loved, the woman who was – and is – loved.”(459)quotation/allusion to Hosea 2:23
  13. And: “it will be in the place where it was said, “you aren’t my people”, there they will be called sons of the living God.” (460)quotation/allusion to Hosea 1:10
  14. Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel might be as the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved.
  15. For the Lord will do His word; fulfilling and swiftly executing it upon the land.”(461)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 10:22
  16. And as it was – and is – foretold to Isaiah: “Unless the Lord of hosts had left us descendants, we would’ve become like Sodom, and we would’ve been made like Gomorrah.” (462)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 1:9
  17. Then what will we say?  That the gentiles which weren’t pursuing righteousness have attained righteousness?  (The righteousness from faith)
  18. But Israel pursuing a law of righteousness didn’t attain that law?
  19. Why?  Because it wasn’t from faith, but as from works.  They stumbled at the stone of stumbling,
  20. just as it was – and is – written: “Behold, I placed a stone of stumbling in Zion, and a rock of offense.  The man who believes in on Him won’t be made ashamed.” (463)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16

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Romans Chapter 10

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Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved
  1. Brothers, the delight of my heart and earnest prayer to God on their behalf is for their salvation.
  2. For I testify about them that they have zeal for God, but it’s not according to accurate knowledge.
  3. For not knowing God’s righteousness and seeking to establish their own [righteousness], they weren’t submitted to the righteousness of God.
  4. For the end of the law is the Anointed, for righteousness to every man who believes.
  5. For Moses writes of the righteousness from the law: “The man who does them, he will live by them.”(464)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 18:5
  6. But of the righteousness from faith speaks this way: “You shouldn’t say in your heart “who will ascend into heaven?”(465)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:12 (that is, to bring the Anointed down.)
  7. or “Who will descend into the abyss?”(466)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:13; the Greek word for “abyss” here can refer to anything for which the bottom is not known.  In the Septuagint, it was used for the deep sea in several places. (That is, to bring the Anointed up from the dead)
  8. But what does it say?  “The spoken word is near you; in your mouth and in your heart.”(467)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:14  That is the spoken word which we proclaim.
  9. That if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.
  10. For the heart believes for righteousness, and the mouth confesses for salvation.
  11. For the Scripture says: “Every man who believes on Him won’t be put to shame.”(468)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16
  12. For there’s no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all the men who call on Him.
  13. For “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”(469)quotation/allusion to Joel 2:32
  14. Therefore, how could they call on Him who they didn’t believe?  And how could they believe in Him who they haven’t heard?  And how could they hear without someone proclaiming?
  15. And how could they proclaim if they weren’t sent?  Just as it was – and is – written: “How beautiful are the feet [of the men who proclaim the good news of peace;] of the men who proclaim the good news of good things.”(470)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:7
Not all Listened
  1. But not all listened to the good news.  For Isaiah says: “Lord, who believed our report?”(471)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 53:1
  2. So faith is from hearing, and hearing through a spoken word about the Anointed.
  3. But I say: “Didn’t they hear?”  Indeed; “Their voice has gone into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.”(472)quotation/allusion to Psalm 19:4
  4. But I say: “Didn’t Israel know?”  First, Moses says: “I will make you jealous by those who aren’t a nation; I will anger you by a nation without understanding.”(473)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:21
  5. Then Isaiah is very bold and says: “I was found by the men who didn’t seek Me; I became manifest to the men who didn’t inquire after Me.”(474)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 65:1
  6. But to Israel he says: “I extended My hand the whole day to a people disobeying and contradicting Me.”(475)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 65:2

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Romans Chapter 11

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Israel’s Remnant
  1. Therefore I say: “Didn’t God reject His people?”  May it never be!  For I’m also an Israelite of Abraham’s seed, of Benjamin’s tribe.
  2. God didn’t reject His people who He knew beforehand.  Or didn’t – and don’t – you know what the Scripture says in Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel:
  3. Lord, they’ve killed your prophets, they’ve torn down your altars, and I alone remain, and they are seeking my life.”(476)quotation/allusion to 1 Kings 19:10
  4. But what does the divine response to him say?  “I have reserved seven thousand men for Myself who haven’t bowed the knee to Baal.” (477)quotation/allusion to 1 Kings 19:18
  5. Then in this way also, there was – and is – a remnant in the present season according to the election of grace.
  6. And if its by grace, it’s no longer from works; otherwise grace is no longer grace.  [And if its from works, it’s no longer grace; otherwise, the work is no longer work.](478)the accuracy of this textual variant is disputed.
  7. What then?  What Israel is seeking, they haven’t obtained it.  But the elect obtained it and the rest were hardened,
  8. just as it was – and is – written: “God gave them a spirit of stupor; to not see with the eyes, and to not hear with the ears, until the present day.”(479)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 29:4, and Isaiah 29:10
  9. And David says: “Let their table be a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling block, and a recompense for them.
  10. Let their eyes be darkened to not see, and their backs oppressively bent through all time.”(480)quotation/allusion to Psalm 69:22-23
  11. Therefore I say: “Didn’t they stumble so they might fall?”  May it never be!  But by their sinful slip-up,(481) “sinful slip-up”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. salvation came to the gentiles to make them jealous.
  12. But if their sinful slip-up brought riches to the world, and their loss brought riches to the gentiles, how much more will their fullness bring?
  13. But I speak to you, the gentiles.  In as much as I’m indeed an apostle to the gentiles, I magnify my ministry
  14. if somehow it will make my kinsmen of flesh jealous and I will save some of them.
  15. For if their rejection brought the world’s reconciliation, what could their acceptance bring, except life from the dead?
Grafting in
  1. And if the firstfruit is holy, the whole lump is also.  And if the root is holy, the branches are also.
  2. But if some of the branches were broken off and you – though being a wild olive tree – were grafted in among them, and became a fellow partaker of the richness of the olive tree’s root,
  3. don’t boast over the branches. But if you exalt yourself over them, remember that you don’t sustain the root, but the root sustains you.
  4. Then you will say: “Branches were broken off so I might be grafted in.”
  5. Rightly so; they were broken off in unbelief; but you did – and do – stand by faith.  Don’t be high-minded, but fear:
  6. for if God didn’t spare the natural branches, neither will He spare you.
  7. Therefore, behold the benevolence and severity of God.  Indeed, severity upon the men who fell; but the benevolence of God to you if you remain in benevolence, otherwise you also will be cut off.
  8. And yet if they don’t continue in unbelief, they will be grafted in.  For God is able to graft them in again.
  9. For if you were from a wild olive tree by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will those who are natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree?
All Israel will be saved
  1. For brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant of this mystery so you won’t be wise in your own estimation; that a partial hardening of Israel did – and does – happen until the fullness of the gentiles might come in.
  2. And all Israel will be saved in this way, just as it was – and is – written: “He will come out of Zion; the One who delivers by drawing to Himself.(482)“delivers by drawing to Himself” is one word in Greek.  It properly means to rescue or deliver someone by pulling them out of danger toward yourself.  He will remove ungodliness from Jacob.”(483)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 59:20
  3. And “This is My covenant with them, when I take away their sins.”(484)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:33-34
  4. As it concerns the gospel, they are indeed enemies because of you.  But as it concerns the election, they are beloved because of the forefathers.
  5. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.
  6. For just as you were once disobedient to God but now were shown mercy because of the disobedience of these men,
  7. in this way also, these men are now disobedient for your mercy, so now they also might be shown mercy.
  8. For God enclosed all in disobedience so He might show mercy on all.
  9. O, the depths of the riches, and wisdom, and knowledge of God!  How unsearchable are His judgements and unfathomable are His ways!
  10. For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been His advisor?
  11. Or “Who has given to Him first, and it will be repaid to him?”(485)quotation/allusion to Job 41:11
  12. Because all things are from Him, and through Him, and for Him.  To Him be the glory through the ages!  Amen.

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Romans Chapter 12

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Living Sacrifices
  1. Therefore brothers, because of the compassions of God, I urge you to present your bodies as a living sacrifice; holy and pleasing to God as your reasonable service in response.
  2. And don’t be conformed to this age, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, for you to prove by testing what is the good, and pleasing, and perfect will of God.
  3. For through the grace which was given to me, I tell all the men among you not to be overly proud beyond what’s proper to think, but to think so as to be sober-minded; to each as God distributed a measure of faith.
  4. For Just as we have many parts in one body, but all the parts don’t have the same function,
  5. in this way, we the many parts are one body in The Anointed, and individually parts of one another,
  6. but having different gifts of grace according to the grace which was given to us.  If prophecy, in proportion to the faith;
  7. if service, in serving; or the man who teaches in teaching;
  8. or the man who exhorts in exhortation; the man who gives in generosity; the man who leads with diligent zeal; the man who shows mercy with cheerfulness.
  9. Let love be without hypocrisy; abhorring evil, adhering to good.
  10. Be tenderly devoted to one another in brotherly love, preferring one another in honor,
  11. not slothful in diligent zeal, being fervent in spirit, serving the Lord,
  12. rejoicing in hope, enduring tribulation, constantly persevering in prayer,
  13. contributing to the needs of the saints, and pursuing hospitality.
  14. Bless the men who persecute you; bless and don’t curse.
  15. You are to rejoice with those who are rejoicing, to weep with those who are weeping;
  16. being of the same mind toward one another, not minding haughty things, but associating with humble men.  Don’t become wise in your own estimation.
  17. Repaying evil for evil to no one, but respecting good in the sight of all men.
  18. If possible, as much as it depends on you, be living in peace with all men;
  19. not avenging yourselves beloved, but give a place for God’s wrath.  For it was – and is – written: “Vengeance is Mine; I will repay.”(486)quotation/allusion to Proverbs 24:29 says the Lord.
  20. But “If your enemy hungers, feed him.  If he thirsts, give him a drink.  For in doing this, you will heap fiery coals on his head.”(487)quotation/allusion to Proverbs 25:21-22
  21. Don’t be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good.

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Romans Chapter 13

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Submission to Authorities
  1. Let every soul be submitted to the authorities over them.  For there’s no authority except under God, and those that exist were – and are – appointed by God.
  2. Therefore, the man who sets himself against the authority did – and does – resist the mandate of God; and the men who did – and do – resist shall incur judgement on themselves.
  3. For the rulers aren’t a terror to good works, but to evil.  And do you want to not fear the authority?  Do good and you will have praise from the authority.
  4. For he is a servant to you for good.  But if you do evil, be afraid; for he doesn’t bear the sword in vain.  For he is a servant of God; an avenger for wrath to the man who practices evil.
  5. Therefore, it’s necessary to be submitted; not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience.
  6. For because of this, you also pay taxes; for they are servants of God, continually attending on this same thing.
  7. Repay to all what is owed; tax to whom tax is due; the toll to whom the toll is due, fear to whom fear is due, honor to whom honor is due.
  8. Owe nothing to anyone, except to show preference(488)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s).  Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó does not center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to one another; for the man who shows preference to another did – and does – fulfill the law.
  9. For “You shall not have sex with another man’s wife.”(489)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14 and Deuteronomy 5:18.  “have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication.You shall not murder(490)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13 and Deuteronomy 5:17You shall not steal(491)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:15 and Deuteronomy 5:19You shall not covet“,(492)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21 and if there’s any other commandment, it is summarized in this statement: “You shall show preference(493)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s).  Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó does not center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to your neighbor as yourself.”(494)Quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  10. Love(495)The Greek word here “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) doesn’t do evil to its neighbor.  Therefore, love is the fulfillment of the law.
Clothe yourselves in the Anointed
  1. And do this, having known – and knowing – the season; that it’s already the hour for you to awaken from sleep.  For now, our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.
  2. The night has advanced and the day did – and does – drawn near.  Therefore, we should cast off the works of darkness and clothe ourselves in the war equipment(496)“war equipment” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the various tools, implements, and weapons used to wage war.  The Greek word is “ὅπλον” (hoplon), which was one name for the large wooden shield from which the “Hoplites” in the ancient Grecian military got their name. of light.
  3. We should walk properly as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in immoral sex and licentiousness, not in strife and jealousy.
  4. But clothe yourselves in the Anointed Lord Jesus, and don’t make provision for the cravings of the flesh.

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Romans Chapter 14

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The weaker brother
  1. Now, welcome the man who is weak in faith, but not to make a judgement on his reasonings.
  2. Indeed, a man who believes is able to eat all things; but the man who is weak eats only vegetables.
  3. Let the man who eats not disdain the man who doesn’t eat.  And let the man who doesn’t eat not judge the man who does eat, for God welcomed him.
  4. Who are you to judge the servant of another?  He stands or falls by his own master, but he will stand; for the Lord is able to make him stand.  Let each man be fully convinced in his own mind.
  5. For indeed, one esteems a day above another day, but another esteems every day evenly.
  6. The man who observes the day, observes it to the Lord.  [And the man who doesn’t observe the day, doesn’t observe it to the Lord.]  The man who eats, eats to the Lord for he thanks God.  And the man who doesn’t eat, doesn’t eat to the Lord and he thanks God.
  7. For none of us lives for himself, and none dies for himself.
  8. For if we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we also die for the Lord.  Therefore, both if we live and if we die, we are the Lord’s.
  9. For the Anointed died and lived for this: so He might rule over both the living and the dead.
  10. But you, why do you judge your brother?  Or also, why do you disdain your brother?  For we will all stand before the judgement seat of God.
  11. For it was – and is – written: “As I live says the Lord: every knee will bow, and every tongue will confess to God.”(497)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 45:23
  12. So then, each of us will give an account of himself to God.
  13. Therefore, we should no longer judge one another, but rather resolve this: to not put a stumbling block or bait that ensnares(498)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or to someone stumbling. before your brother.
  14. I did – and do – know, and was – and am – convinced in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean because of itself…  except to the man who considers something to be unclean; to that man, it’s unclean.
  15. For if your brother is grieved because of food, you no longer walk according to love.  Don’t utterly ruin with your food that man for whose sake the Anointed died.
  16. Therefore, don’t let your good be slandered as evil.
  17. For the Kingdom of God isn’t eating and drinking, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit.
  18. For the man who serves the Anointed in these things is pleasing to God and approved by men.
  19. So then, we should pursue the things of peace, and the things for building up into one another.
  20. Don’t demolish(499)“demolish” this Greek word is often translated “destroy” here.  It can refer to the tearing down of a buildings, though it has many other nuances of meaning depending on the context. the work of God for the sake of food.  All things are indeed clean, but they are evil for the man who eats because of bait that ensnares.(500)“bait that ensnares” see note on verse 13.
  21. Its good neither to eat meat, nor to drink wine, nor anything by which your brother stumbles, or is ensnared, or is weak.
  22. The faith that you have, have it in yourself in the sight of God.  Blessed is the man who doesn’t condemn himself in what he approves.
  23. But if the man who doubts eats, he did – and does – condemn himself because it’s not from faith, and everything that’s not from faith is sin.

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Romans Chapter 15

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The weaker brother (continued)
  1. Now, we (the strong) ought to bear with the weaknesses of the weak and not to please ourselves.
  2. Let each of us please his neighbor for his good for building him up.
  3. For even the Anointed didn’t please Himself, but just as it was – and is – written: “The slander of the men who slandered you fell on Me.” (501)quotation/allusion Psalm 69:9
  4. For whatever was previously written, it was [all] written for our instruction, so through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures, we might have hope.
  5. And may the God of endurance and encouragement grant you to be of the same mind in one another according to Jesus the Anointed,
  6. so that single-mindedly and with one mouth, you might glorify the God and Father of our Anointed Lord Jesus.
  7. Therefore, accept one another just as the Anointed also accepted you, to the glory of God.
The work of the Anointed
  1. For I say that the Anointed has become a servant to the circumcision for the truth in God, in order to confirm the promise to the fathers.
  2. and to the gentiles for the sake of mercy, to glorify God.  Just as it was – and is – written: “Because of this, I will confess praise to you among the gentiles, and I will sing of your name.”(502)quotation/allusion to 2 Samuel 22:50 and Psalm 18:49
  3. And again it says: “Gentiles, be merry with His people.”(503)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:43
  4. And again: “Praise the Lord All you gentiles; and exalt Him all peoples.”(504)quotation/allusion to Psalm 117:1
  5. And again, Isaiah says: “There will be the root of Jesse; and the One who arises to rule over the gentiles, and in Him gentiles will hope.”(505)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 11:10
  6. And may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace among you to believe, for you to overflow in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.
  7. And my brothers, I myself was – and am – convinced concerning you, that you yourselves are full of goodness; having been – and being – filled with all knowledge and being able to admonish one another.
  8. And I wrote to you more boldly, in part reminding you because of the grace which was given to me by God,
  9. for me to be a minister of Jesus the Anointed to the gentiles, ministering as a priest of the gospel of God, so the offering of the gentiles might become acceptable; having been – and being – made holy by the Holy Spirit.
  10. Therefore in Jesus the Anointed, I have a reason for boasting of things pertaining to God.
  11. For I won’t dare to speak of anything that the Anointed didn’t accomplished through me for the obedience of the gentiles in word and deed,
  12. by the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the Spirit [of God], in order to fulfill the proclamation of the Anointed’s gospel from Jerusalem and around as far as Illyricum.
  13. And so I’m earnestly desiring to proclaim the gospel where the Anointed hasn’t been named, so I won’t build on another man’s foundation.
  14. But just as it was – and is – written: “They will see Him about whom it wasn’t reported, and men who didn’t – and don’t – hear will understand.”(506)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:15
  15. And because of which, I’ve often been hindered from coming to you.
Paul’s travel plans
  1. But now – no longer having a place in these regions and having a yearning to come to you for many years –
  2. I hope to see you while passing through when I travel into Spain; and to be equipped by you there, so I might be satisfied by your company first.
  3. But now I travel to Jerusalem, ministering to the saints.
  4. For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a contribution to the poor saints in Jerusalem.
  5. For, they were pleased and they are debtors of them.  For if they shared their spiritual things with the gentiles, they ought to minister to them in earthly things also.
  6. Therefore, after accomplishing this and sealing this fruit to them, I will depart through you into Spain.
  7. And I did – and do – know that in coming to you, I will come in the fullness of the Anointed’s blessing.
  8. And brothers, I urge you now because of our Anointed Lord Jesus and because of the love of the Spirit, to strive together with me in prayers to God for me,
  9. so I might be delivered from the men in Judea who refuse to believe, and so my service in Jerusalem might be acceptable to the saints,
  10. so that coming to you with joy through the will of God, I might be refreshed in spirit with you.
  11. And the God of peace be with you all.  Amen.

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Romans Chapter 16

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Personal Greetings
  1. Now, I commend our sister Phoebe to you, (who’s also being a servant of the church in Cenchrea)
  2. so you might receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and you might stand by her in what she might need of you in the matter;(507)“matter” the Greek word here is singular, apparently indicating that Phoebe was dealing with some matter affecting her personally.  Given her status as a patroness, it’s possible she had some business which required attention, and the church of Rome was to “stand by” her in this matter. for she also has become a patroness of many, even of me myself.
  3. Greet Prisca(508)“Prisca” is the proper form of “Priscilla”, the latter being more informal and familiar. and Aquila, my fellow workers in Jesus the Anointed –
  4. who risked their neck for my life; whom not only I thank, but also all the churches of the gentiles –
  5. and also greet the church at their house.  Greet Epenetus, my beloved who is the firsttfruit of Asia for the Anointed.
  6. Greet Mary, who often laboriously toiled for you.
  7. Greet Andronicus and Junia,(509)“Junia” there is some debate whether this name is feminine or masculine.  The only way to tell is with the accents on the Greek letters, but manuscripts lacked accents until the late first millennium.   Most of the early church fathers seemed to think she was female, while most of the (later) manuscripts with accents support the masculine reading.  Both the feminine and masculine forms are rare in Greek, but the masculine form is almost unheard of.  The evidence certainly tilts toward feminine, but masculine cannot be wholly ruled out. my kinsmen and fellow prisoners with me, who are notable among(510)“who are notable among the apostles”.  There is a great debate as to how this phrase should be translated, because one of the people being discussed is likely a woman (see note on “Junia”).  Egalitarian Christians argue it should be translated: “who are notable among the apostles”, making Junia/Junias an apostle and – they argue – a woman in authority in the early church.  Complementarian and Patriarchal Christians prefer “who are well known by the apostles”, which excludes Junia/Junias from being an apostle.  The latter translation is less likely as the former can cite Matt 2:6 and Acts 4:34 as passage with similar construction.  More importantly: the Greek word “ἀπόστολος” (apostolos, almost exclusively translated “apostle”) is used primarily in the sense of “missionary” when not speaking of the “the twelve apostles” (Jesus disciples).  In fact, the Latin Vulgate translated apostolos into the root of our English word “missionary.  “Missionary” wasn’t ever a positions of authority in the church.  Further, in 2 Cor 1:24, Paul – who always identifies as an apostle – makes it clear that he has no authority, even over churches that he planted.  Thus – whether Junia/Junias was an apostle or not – he or she didn’t possess any authority, but was “merely” a missionary. the apostles, and who were – and are – in the Anointed earlier than me.
  8. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord.
  9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in the Anointed, and my beloved Stachys.
  10. Greet Apelles, who’s proved as genuine in the Anointed.  Greet the men of Aristobulus’ household.
  11. Greet Herodion my kinsman.  Greet the men of Narcissus’ household who are in the Lord.
  12. Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa; women who laboriously toil in the Lord. Greet the beloved Persis, who has often laboriously toiled in the Lord.
  13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, also his mother and mine.
  14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers with them.
  15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the saints with them.
  16. Greet one another with a holy kiss.  All the churches of the Anointed greet you.
Beware divisive men
  1. Now brothers, I urge you to watch out for men causing divisions and snares contrary to the teaching that you learned and turn away from them.
  2. For such men don’t serve our Lord the Anointed, but their own appetite; and they thoroughly deceive the hearts of the naive through smooth speech, flattery and blessings.
  3. For word of your obedience has gone forth to all.  Therefore, I rejoice over you.  But I desire you to be wise in good, but innocent in evil.
  4. And the God of peace will soon crush the Adversary under your feet.  The grace of our Anointed Lord Jesus be with you.  Amen.
Final greetings and closing
  1. My fellow worker Timothy greets you, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater my kinsmen.
  2. I, Tertius – the man who wrote down this letter – greet you in the Lord.
  3. Gaius my host greets you, and all the church.  The steward of the city Erastus greets you, and the brother Quartus.
  4. The grace of our Anointed Lord Jesus be with you all.  Amen.
  5. Now, to the One who is able to strengthen you according my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus the Anointed, according to the revelation of the mystery; having been – and being – kept secret during the time of ages,
  6. but now having been revealed through prophetic Scriptures; according to the command of the God of ages, having been made known to all the gentiles for the obedience of faith
  7. to the only wise God through Jesus the Anointed, to whom be the glory through the ages.  Amen.

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1 Corinthians

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1 Corinthians Chapter 1

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Greeting From Paul and Sosthenes
  1. Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus the Anointed through God’s will, and Sosthenes our brother,
  2. to the church of God living in Corinth, (who were – and are – being made holy in Jesus the Anointed) called to be holy with all the men who call on the name of the Anointed Lord Jesus in every place, both theirs and ours;
  3. grace(511)“grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis) for someone.  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. and peace to you from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
  4. I thank My God always concerning you, for God’s grace which was given to you in Jesus the Anointed,
  5. because in everything you’ve been made rich in Him; in every word and all knowledge,
  6. even as the testimony of the Anointed was secured in you,
  7. so you won’t lack – not even in one gift(513)or “grace”, see note on verse 3.as you’re eagerly awaiting the unveiling of our Anointed Lord Jesus,
  8. who will also secure you until the end; blameless in the day of our Anointed Lord Jesus.
  9. God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
Call for Unity
  1. But brothers, I urge you by the name of our Anointed Lord Jesus that you all speak the same things, and that there wouldn’t be divisions among you, and that you’d be joining together(512)“joining together” is a single difficult-to-translate word in Greek. It properly means to “fully adjust” so the object is prepared and in a proper working order.  Thus, it can also have the sense of repairing/mending something which was already prepared so it’s prepared again, or joining two things together a first time so they function properly.  Further, the passive and middle voice of this verb share the same ending.  Therefore, Paul could be saying they should “join themselves together” (middle voice) or “be joined together” (passive voice).  Either or both could’ve been intended. in the same mind and in the same opinion.(514)“opinion” or “judgement”, in the sense of making a decision between two or more things
  2. For about you my brothers, it was revealed to me by Chloe’s men that there are quarrels among you.
  3. Now, I mean this: each of you says: “I’m following Paul.” or “I’m following Apollos.” or “I’m following Cephas.”(515)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. or “I’m following the Anointed.”
  4. Was – or is – the Anointed divided?  Paul wasn’t crucified for you, was he?”  Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?
  5. I thank God that I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius,
  6. so someone can’t say that you were baptized in my name.
  7. Now, I also baptized the household of Stephanas.  But about the rest, I didn’t – and don’t – remember if I baptized any other.
  8. For the Anointed didn’t send me to baptize, but to proclaim the Gospel.  And not in wise speech, so the cross of the Anointed won’t be emptied of its power and value.(516)“emptied of its power and value” is one word in Greek.  It’s in the passive form here, which means to be emptied out, which can carry the connotation of losing power, losing value, or both.  I.e. it becomes powerless and/or valueless.
Wisdom of God and Foolishness of Man
  1. For the preaching of the cross is indeed foolishness to the men who perish; but it’s the power of God to us, the men who are saved.
  2. For it was – and is – written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will nullify the intelligence of the intelligent.”(517)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 29:14
  3. Where is the wise man?  Where is the Scribe?  Where is the debater of this age?  Didn’t God surely prove the wisdom of the world foolish?(518)“prove… …foolish” is one word in Greek.  It can also mean to make something foolish; either or both senses might’ve been intended.
  4. For since in God’s wisdom, the world didn’t know God through wisdom, God was pleased to save the men who believe through the foolishness of the gospel’s proclamation.
  5. And since Jews ask for miraculous signs and the Greeks seek wisdom,
  6. we preach the Anointed who was – and is – crucified, (which indeed is a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles)
  7. but to the called(519)literally “but to they the called” – both Jews and Greeks – God’s Anointed is the power and wisdom of God.
  8. For the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
  9. For look at your calling brothers; that not many are wise according to the flesh,(520)“flesh” The Greek word here literally means the “flesh”, as in the muscle or skin that covers the bones.  Metaphorically, it refers to things done without God, especially those things done in our own strength or ability. not many are powerful, and not many are of noble birth.
  10. But God chose the world’s foolish so He might shame the wise.  And God chose the world’s weak so He might shame the strong.  (521)Verse note: many translations add the word “things” to the items on this list, eliminating the possibility that Paul is talking about people (Christians) here.  The probable reason is they are all in the neuter gender, making that translation not necessarily wrong.  However, Paul might’ve been referring to both people and/or things.
  11. And God chose the world’s low-born; and those who were – and are – despised; and those who are not, so He might abolish those who are…
  12. so that no flesh might boast before God
  13. But because of Him, you are in Jesus the Anointed, who became wisdom to us from God, and also righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption,
  14. so just as it was – and is – written; “The man who boasts, let him boast in the Lord.(522)Quotation/allusion to 9:23-23

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1 Corinthians Chapter 2

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God’s Wisdom (Continued)
  1. And when I came to you brothers, I didn’t come with excellent speech or wisdom; I was proclaiming the testimony of God to you.
  2. For I decided I didn’t – and don’t – know anything among you except Jesus the Anointed, and that He was – and is –crucified.
  3. And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling.
  4. And my words and my preaching weren’t in persuasive words of wisdom; but in a demonstration(523)“demonstration” the Greek word here means to demonstrate something as proof of something else. of the Spirit and power,
  5. so your faith wouldn’t be in man’s wisdom, but in God’s power.
  6. Now, we do speak wisdom among the mature; but not the wisdom of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, who come to nothing.(524)“who come to nothing” is literally “the men who come to nothing” (being a definite article + participle phrase which matches case, number, and gender).  It refers to rendering something completely inactive or inert, so it’s without force, ability or power; to do away with something completely.
  7. But we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, which was – and is – hidden; which God predestined before the ages for our glory,
  8. which none of the rulers of this age did – or do – understand.  For if they understood it, they wouldn’t have crucified the Lord of glory.
  9. But just as it was – and is – written; “which the eye hasn’t seen, and ear hasn’t heard, and it hasn’t entered(525)literally “sprung up” or “arisen” into the heart of man how much God prepared for the men who show preference(526)The Greek word used here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings. to Him.”
  10. For God revealed it to us through the Spirit, for the Spirit searches everything; even the depths of God.
  11. For who among men did – or does – know the depths of the man, except the man’s spirit within him?   And likewise, no man did – or does – know the depths of God, except the Spirit of God.
  12. But we haven’t received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit from God.  So by God gracing us, we did – and do – know these things,(527)literally “so we did – and do – know the things by the God being given grace to us.”  The phrase “being given grace” is a single word in Greek.  It’s a passive participle (which we don’t really have in English), so it was made an active participle with God as the agent and “us” as the recipient, which retains the sense as much as possible in English.
  13. which we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but taught by the Spirit, who’s interpreting(528)“interpreting” This Greek word has the root meaning of “judging together”, with the idea of putting two things together and comparing them, which leads to a proper understanding of what’s being compared.  Thus it can be translated as combine, compare, or interpret depending on the context. spiritual things with spiritual wisdom.
  14. But the natural man doesn’t welcome the things of God’s Spirit, for they are foolishness to him and he isn’t able to understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.
  15. But the spiritual man, he discerns everything but is discerned by no one.
  16. For who understands the Lord’s mind?  Who will instruct Him?(529)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:13 But we have the mind of the Anointed.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 3

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Spirit and Flesh
  1. And brothers, I couldn’t talk to you as spiritual men, but as men of flesh; like infants in the Anointed.
  2. I gave you milk to drink not solid food, for you couldn’t receive it yet.  But you still can’t even now…
  3. for you’re still of the flesh.   For where jealousy and quarrels are among you, aren’t you of the flesh?  And don’t you walk according to man?
  4. For when someone says, “I’m of Paul.” but another says, “I’m of Apollos.” aren’t you in the flesh?
  5. Therefore, who is Apollos?  And who is Paul?  Servants through whom you believed, and each one just as the Lord gave.
  6. I planted, Apollos watered, but God is causing the growth.
  7. So neither the man who plants nor the man who waters is anyone, but only the One who causes the growth: God.
  8. Now, the man who plants and the man who waters are one, and each will receive his own reward, according to his own labor.
  9. For we are fellow workers of God – of God’s field – and you are God’s building.
Christ is the Foundation, and Testing by Fire
  1. According to the grace of God which was given to me, I laid the foundation like a wise master craftsman, but another builds on it.  And each man must carefully examine how he builds on it.
  2. For no one can lay another foundation besides the one already laid, which is Jesus the Anointed.
  3. Now if anyone builds gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw on the foundation, then
  4. the work of each will become obvious.  For the day will make it clear because it’s revealed in fire, and the fire itself will test what sort of work each is.
  5. If anyone’s work which he built remains, he will receive his wages.(530)wages is literal.  It’s traditionally translated “reward” here (which isn’t wrong) but is less literal.
  6. If anyone’s work burns up, he will suffer loss.  However he will be saved, but like as through a fire.
  7. Didn’t – and don’t – you know that you are God’s temple, and the Spirit of God dwells in you?
  8. If someone ruinously corrupts(531)“ruinously corrupts” is one word in Greek, typically translated “destroy” here.  It literally means to corrupt, rot, or spoil something so that it wastes away to ruin.  It’s typically associated with moral corruption/decay leading to ruin. the temple of God, God will ruinously corrupt(532)“ruinously corrupt” is one word in Greek, typically translated “destroy” here.  It literally means to corrupt, rot, or spoil something so that it wastes away to ruin.  It’s typically associated with moral corruption/decay leading to ruin him.  For whoever you are, God’s temple is holy.
  9. Let no one utterly deceive himself: if someone among you thinks he is wise in this age, let him become foolish so he might become wise.
  10. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God, for it was – and is – written; “He’s the One who traps the wise in their craftiness.”(533)quotation/allusion to Job 5:13
  11. And again, “the Lord knows the reasonings of the wise, that they are futile.(534)quotation/allusion to Psalm 94:11
  12. So then, let no one boast in men, for all things are yours.
  13. Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas,(535)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. or the world, or life, or death, or what was – and is – present, or what will be; all are yours.
  14. But you belong to the Anointed, and the Anointed belongs to God.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 4

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Judging and being judged
  1. Let any man consider us like this: as servants of the Anointed and stewards of God’s mysteries.
  2. Furthermore,(536)literally “in this case furthermore” it’s required that someone among the stewards be found faithful.
  3. But to me, it’s a most trivial thing that I’m examined by you, or by a human court.  But I don’t examine myself either,
  4. for I was – and am – aware of nothing against myself.  But I was not – and am not – made righteous by this, but the One who examines me is the Lord.
  5. So then, don’t judge anything before the proper time – until the Lord has come – who will also reveal the hidden things of darkness and will expose the plans(537)“plans”, The Greek word here could also be translated “motives”, “counsel”, “purposes”, etc. of their hearts.  And then appropriate praise will come to each from God.
Don’t go beyond what’s written
  1. And brothers, I’ve applied these things to myself and Apollos because of you, so that in us you might learn not to go beyond what was – and is –written; so not even one of you will be puffed up, favoring one over another.
  2. For why are you distinguished?  And what do you have that you didn’t receive?  But if you received it, why do you boast like you didn’t receive it?
  3. Already you were – and are – being satisfied.(538)“were – and are – being satisfied” is one  word in Greek.  Here it’s a participle in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.  It literally means to eat enough food so that you are satisfied.  You were already rich.  You reigned without us, and I truly wish you did reign so we might reign with you.
  4. For my opinion is that God displayed us (the apostles) last as proof,(539)“displayed… …as proof” is one word in Greek.  It means to prove that something is what it appears to be, like men about to die,(540)“about to die” is one word in Greek, which could also be translated “condemned to death”. because we became a spectacle(541)“spectacle” The Greek word here is “θέατρον” (theatron), which both means “theater” and is the root of our English word “theater”.  It can also mean a “spectacle”, like one would see in a theater. to the world, both to angels and men.
  5. We’re foolish for the Anointed, but you’re prudent in the Anointed.  We’re weak, you’re strong.  You’re greatly honored, but we’re without honor.
  6. Up to this present hour, we both hunger and thirst, and are poorly clothed, and are beaten(542)“beaten” This Greek word specifically refers to being struck with a closed fist; i.e. “punched”, and wander without a home,
  7. and we exhaust ourselves working with our own hands. Being insulted, we bless; being persecuted, we endure;
  8. being slandered, we encourage.  Like the scum of the earth, we all became like dregs until now.
  9. I’m not shaming you by writing these things, but admonishing you as my beloved children.
  10. For since you have ten thousand(543)“Ten thousand” this Greek word was also to indicate “countless” so that would also be an accurate translation here. tutors(544)“tutors” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a legally appointed instructor who had charge over a boy, and especially his moral development.  It was usually a slave, and typically the boy couldn’t even leave the house without this tutor’s permission. in the Anointed but not many fathers, I indeed fathered you in Jesus the Anointed through the Gospel.
  11. Therefore I urge you: become imitators of me,
  12. Because of this, I sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways in Jesus the Anointed, just like I teach everywhere, in every church.
  13. But some of you are puffed up like I’m not coming to you.
  14. But I will come to you very soon, if the Lord wills.  And I will know; not the words of the men who were – and are – puffed up, but the power.
  15. For the kingdom of God isn’t in word, but in power.
  16. What do you wish?  That I come to you with a rod?  Or in love(545)The Greek word here is “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings. and a spirit of gentle strength?(546)“gentle strength” is one word in Greek.  It comes from the root “pra-” which is typically translated “meek”.  It more accurately refers to power that’s exercised gently, without harshness.  Our English word “meek” lacks the Greeks word’s blend of gentleness, reserve, and strength.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 5

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Rebuking Fornication
  1. Fornication is actually reported among you.  And fornication of such a kind, it’s not even done among the pagans, as someone has the wife of his father.
  2. And you were – and are – puffed up.  And what’s more, you haven’t grieved at all, so the man doing this deed might be removed from your midst.
  3. For indeed I’m absent in body, but present in spirit. And like I’m present, I have already judged the man who’s committing this deed(547)“deed” is more literally “in this manner”
  4. When you (and I in spirit) are assembled with the power of our Lord Jesus, then in the name of our Lord Jesus(548)There are four ways to assemble the three significant parts of this verse with the infinitive verb “to deliver” in the beginning of the next verse. The principle parts are: the phrase “in the name” (of our Lord Jesus), the participle “being assembled”, the phrase “with the power” (of our Lord Jesus).   In a shortened form, here are the ways to look at it: (1) “Assembled in the name… with the power of Jesus deliver…”  (2) “Assembled in the name and with the power…  deliver…”  (3) “Assembled… in the name and with the power deliver…”  (4) “Assembled with the power… in the name of Jesus deliver…”  Versions #2 and #3 seem out of place because they repeat the authority/power twice in the same clause.  While #1 has no obvious issues, the phrase “in the name” is more commonly used of pronouncements in the New Testament, (as in 2 Thessalonians 3:6; Acts 3:6; Acts 16:18).  Therefore (#4) was chosen.
  5. you are to deliver such a man to Satan for the ruin of the flesh, so that his spirit might be saved in the day of the Lord.
  6. Your boast isn’t good.  Didn’t – and don’t – you know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump of dough?
  7. Purge the old leaven so you might be a new lump of dough, just as you are unleavened.  For also our Passover Lamb was sacrificed – the Anointed –
  8. so we might observe the feast;(549)During the Feast of Unleavened Bread (The Passover), the Jews were required by the Mosaic Law to remove all the leaven/yeast from their houses, and to abstain from eating leaven. (Exodus 12:15-20)  Those who ate leaven during this period were “cut off” from the people.   In the law, there was a symbolic connection between leaven and sin, which Jesus also alluded to. (Matthew 16:6-12).  Thus, being “unleavened” can symbolize righteousness or being without the stain of sin. not in old leaven, nor in leaven of malice and wickedness, but in unleavened purity and truth.
Don’t socialize with “Christian” fornicators
  1. I wrote in my letter that you aren’t to socialize(550)“Socialize” the Greek word here means to associate with, especially closely. with fornicators…
  2. not at all meaning the fornicators of this world – or the covetous, and robbers, or idolaters – since then you’d need to leave(551)literally “leave from” the world.
  3. But now, I wrote telling you not to socialize with anyone calling himself a brother if he’s a fornicator, or a coveter, or idolater, or slanderer, or drunkard, or robber.  Don’t even eat with such a man.
  4. For why is it my place to judge the men outside the church?  Don’t you judge the men inside the church?
  5. However, God judges the men outside.  Remove the wicked man from among you.(552)quotation/allusion to several verses in Deuteronomy, namely: 13:5, 17:7, 21:21, 22:21

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1 Corinthians Chapter 6

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Lawsuits Among Believers
  1. Does any of you – when he has a case against another brother – dare to bring it to court before the unjust and not before the saints?
  2. Or didn’t – and don’t – you know that the saints will judge the world?  And if the world is judged by you, are you unworthy of the smallest court cases?
  3. Didn’t – and don’t – you know that we will judge angels?  How much more the ordinary things of life?
  4. Therefore, if you indeed have judgement in the ordinary things of life, why appoint the men who didn’t – and don’t – have any standing in the church to judge?
  5. I say this to your shame.  So isn’t there a wise man among you who’s able to discriminate between his brothers?
  6. But instead, brother goes to court against brother, and this before unbelievers!
  7. Therefore, it’s actually already a loss for you that you have lawsuits among one another.  Why not suffer wrong instead?  Why not be defrauded instead?
  8. But you do wrong and defraud… and do these things to brothers!
Fornication And The Body
  1. Or didn’t – and don’t – you know that the unrighteous won’t inherit the kingdom of God?  Don’t be misled; neither fornicators,(553)“fornicators” the Greek word here refers to any two people who aren’t married having sex.  It can also mean prostitutes, and especially male prostitutes because the masculine form of this word is used here. nor idolaters, nor men who have sex with other men’s wives,(554)“men who have sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, usually translated “adulterers” in this verse. However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife. Whereas the English word “adultery” means either spouse engaging in sex with someone else. The Hebrews divided sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman. A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery. A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication. Both are serious sins, but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words. nor effeminate men,(555)“effeminate men” This Greek word usually has the meaning of “soft”, but when used in a negative sense it can refer to “perversely effeminate” men.  This has two connotations.  The first being men who behave like women, possibly an allusion to early transgenderism.  We have Sumerian and Akkadian texts from ~2500 BC which document transgender or transvestite priests.  There are other accounts of transgenderism scattered throughout ancient history as well.  The second connotation is a (typically pubescent) boy who was the sexual companion – voluntary or not – of an adult man (pederasty).  In this sense, the boy is “perversely effeminate” because he is serving the function of a woman during sex (being penetrated; see Romans 1:26-27 and footnotes.).  Either meaning could be intended, and it’s likely both were intended. nor men who sleep with other men,(556)“men who sleep with other men” is one word in Greek.  It literally means “a man in bed with another man“, but is more properly “a man engaging in sexual activity with another man“.  Male homosexuality is also mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:10 (using the same word in a similar list), in Romans 1:27 by description, and in Leviticus 18:22, and Leviticus 20:13.  Male homosexuality is always considered wicked in the Bible.  In the Law, it was one of only three sexual sins which warranted the death penalty, the other two being adultery (a man having sex with another man’s wife) and bestiality.
  2. Nor thieves, nor coveters, nor drunkards, nor slanderers, nor robbers, will inherit the kingdom of God.
  3. And some of you were these things; but you washed yourselves;(557)“you washed yourselves” is one word in the Greek middle voice, however virtually all modern translations change it to the passive voice (you were washed) with no justification.  English doesn’t have the middle voice, but it’s similar to our active voice except the agent is more involved with the result.  For example: “I sacrificed a cow” is in the active voice. “I sacrificed a cow for my benefit” or “…for myself” is the middle voice.  Given that the verb here for “wash” includes the connotation of water, it could refer to baptism.  Or it could refer to being washed in the “water of life” at the point of salvation.  Or, more likely that the believers in question have “washed themselves” of the sins mentioned in the previous two verses. but you were made holy; but you were declared righteous, in the name of our Lord Jesus the Anointed, and by the Spirit of our God.
  4. All things are lawful for me, but all things aren’t profitable.  All things are lawful for me, but I won’t be mastered by anything.
  5. The stomach is for foods, and foods for the stomach; but God will nullify(558)“nullify” the Greek word here means to make something completely idle and/or to no effect, which can have a peripheral meaning of abolishing something (by making it of no effect). both of them.(559)literally “both it and them”, referring to the stomach and foods respectively.  And the body isn’t for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord is for the body.
  6. And God both raised the Lord and will fully raise us through His power.
  7. Didn’t – and don’t – you know that your bodies are parts of the Anointed?  Then taking the parts of the Anointed, should I make them parts of a prostitute?  May it never happen!
  8. Or didn’t – and don’t – you know that the man who joins to a prostitute is one body with her?  For it says: the two will become one flesh.(560)Quotation allusion to Genesis 2:24.
  9. But the man who joins to the Lord is one spirit with Him.
  10. Flee fornication.  Every sin that a man commits is outside the body.  But the man who fornicates sins against his own body.
  11. Or didn’t – and don’t – you know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit in you, who you have from God?  And you don’t belong to yourself,(561)literally “and not are you to yourself”.  The final word in this verse is a 3rd person masculine reflexive pronoun (himself) which is also used for the second person reflexive pronoun (yourself).
  12. for you were bought with a price.  So then, glorify God in your body [and in your spirit, which are both God’s]

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1 Corinthians Chapter 7

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Marriage and Sex
  1. Now, about what you wrote.  It’s good for a man not to touch a woman.(562)“touch” this Greek word has the basic meaning of “touch” It’s most often used to indicate a simple touch, like Jesus “touching” various sick people to heal them.  However, it can vary considerably in nuance depending on the context.  At the other end of the spectrum, it can mean to “touch sexually”, which is interesting considering the same word can also be used of kindling a fire.  It can also mean to “fasten or adhere to” perhaps in an affectionate sense, like how we would use the words “snuggle” or cuddle”.  It can also mean to feel around with the fingers; i.e. to “grope”.
  2. But because of temptation to fornication, let each man have the wife to himself,(565)“to himself” is literal, though most translations render it “his own wife” making it more similar to Paul’s statement in the second half of the verse regarding wives (see following footnote).  This alteration is completely without basis in the Greek.  The Greek word translated “himself” here is “ἑαυτοῦ” (heautou).  In this verse, it’s a 3rd person singular masculine reflexive pronoun, of which English has exactly one: “himself”.  For some reason, Paul made a distinction between how husbands “have” their wives vs. how wives “have” their husbands.  This difference has been accurately translated here, but we won’t speculate on why Paul made the two clauses different. and let each wife have her husband.(563)literally “her own husband”, but not in the sense of ownership, like the wife “owns” the husband.  Rather, it’s an emphatic way to refer to the wife’s ‘own’ husband, as opposed to a man/husband who isn’t her husband.  (Note: the Greek word translated “own” here is often used of ownership in a non-exclusive sense.  Example: “his own city” in Matthew 9:1, “his own country” in John 4:44, “his own language” in Acts 2:6, and “on their own” in Matthew 17:1, plus many similar passages.  It refers to something that definitely ‘belongs’ to someone, but not necessarily uniquely/exclusively to that person.)
  3. Let the husband give what is owed(564)“give what is owed” is literal, and the two Greek words used here implies the payment (or repayment) of a debt, or – more likely – the fulfillment of an obligation which they are required to fulfill. to the wife, and likewise also the wife to the husband.
  4. The wife doesn’t have authority over her own body, but the husband does.  And likewise also, the husband doesn’t have authority over his own body, but the wife does.
  5. Don’t defraud(566)“defraud” is literal.  The Greek word literally means to take away or deprive someone of something that is rightfully theirs. each other, except by agreement for a suitable time, that you might devote yourselves to prayer; and then be together again so Satan won’t tempt you through your lack of self-control.
  6. But I say this as a concession not as a command.
  7. Now, I wish all men were like myself, but each has his own gift from God.  Indeed, one man has this gift, but another man that.
  8. But I tell the unmarried and the widows that it’s good if they remain single like I am.
  9. But if they can’t exercise self-control, let them marry; for it’s better to marry than to burn.
On Divorce
  1. And to the men who were – and are – married,(567)“the men who were – and are – married” is an definite article + participle phrase in Greek.   (See the BOS Bible translation theory and Principles page for explanation of rendering).  Nearly all translations change the gender of this (masculine) definite article + participle phrase at the beginning of the verse (changing it from “the men who are married” into the genderless “the married”). I command (not I, but the Lord) that a wife isn’t to be separated(568)“to be separated” is literal, as the Greek verb is a passive infinitive.  Nearly all translations change this verb to an active verb, often with the imperative sense (“must not separate from”), making the wife the active agent of the verb. In this word specifically, it can have reflexive force (“to separates herself” in some cases. from her husband.
  2. But if she was indeed separated, let her remain unmarried or be reconciled to the husband.  Also, a husband isn’t to divorce his wife.
  3. And to the rest, I say (I, not the Lord) if any brother has an unbelieving wife and she happily agrees(569)“happily agrees” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It could also be translated “happily consents” or “happily approves”.  It’s only used 6 times; once here, once in the following verse, plus in Luke 11:48, Acts 8:1, Acts 20:22, and Romans 1:32.  The latter three of which clearly mean enthusiastic approval of something, and Luke 11:48 clearly leans that way also. to live with him, let him not divorce her.
  4. And if any wife has an unbelieving husband and he happily agrees(570)“happily agrees” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It could also be translated “happily consents” or “happily approves”.  It’s only used 6 times; once here, once in the previous verse, plus in Luke 11:48, Acts 8:1, Acts 20:22, and Romans 1:32.  The latter three of which clearly mean enthusiastic approval of something, and Luke 11:48 clearly leans that way also. to live with her, let her not divorce the husband.
  5. For the unbelieving husband was – and is – made holy by the wife, and the unbelieving wife was – and is – made holy by the husband.  For otherwise your children are unclean; but now they’re holy.
  6. But if the unbeliever separates himself,(571)“separates himself” is literally “is separated”.  However, this Greek word can have reflexive force (himself/herself/itself) even in the passive voice. let him be separated.  The brother or sister wasn’t – and isn’t – under bondage in such cases.  But God did – and does – call you to peace.
  7. For wife, how do you know(572)literally “did – or do – you know”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. if you will save the husband?  Or husband, how do you know(573)literally “did – or do – you know”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. if you will save the wife?
Walk in Your Calling
  1. Only as the Lord assigned to each; only as God did – and does – call each; so he must walk.  And I give instruction like this in all the churches.
  2. Was someone called who was – and is – circumcised?  He shouldn’t become uncircumcised.(574)“become uncircumcised” is one word in Greek, with a literal meaning of “to draw out/over”.  Some Jews would use implements to stretch the foreskin so it would again cover the glans, thus simulating what an uncircumcised male would look like.  This was done for multiple reasons, but one was to participate in the Olympic Games (in which competitors were traditionally nude). Was someone called while uncircumcised?   He shouldn’t be circumcised.
  3. Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing; but observing God’s commandments is what matters.
  4. Let each man remain in the calling in which he was called.
  5. Were you called as a slave?  Don’t let it concern you.  But also, if you’re able to become free, it’s better to make use of the opportunity.
  6. For the slave who was called in the Lord is a freedman(575)“freedman” the Greek word here refers to a slave who has been freed, not a person born into freedom. of the Lord.  Likewise, the free man who was called is a slave of the Anointed.
  7. You were bought with a price; don’t become slaves of men.
  8. Brothers, in whatever each was called, let him remain in that with God.
  9. Now about the virgins, I don’t have a commandment from the Lord.  However, I give counsel as one receiving mercy from the Lord to be trustworthy.
  10. Therefore, I think it’s good(576)Literally” I think this to be good” – because of the present distress – that it’s good for a man to be just as he is.
  11. Are you bound(577)literally “Were – and are – you bound”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. to a wife?  Don’t seek release.  Are you released(578)literally “Were – and are – you released”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. from a wife?  Don’t seek a wife.
  12. But also, you haven’t sinned if you marry.  And if the virgin marries, she hasn’t sinned.  However, such will have trouble in the flesh, and I want to spare you.
  13. Now, I declare this brothers: the opportune moment was – and is – shortened so that from now on, even the men who have wives might be(579)“might be” is in the Greek subjunctive case, indicating the possibility or probability of something. (Hypothetical statements in Greek are always in the subjunctive case) However, it doesn’t carry any imperative force.  Despite this, many translations change this to a command (example: “should be”).  In verse 32, Paul says the unmarried man is solely devoted to the Lord; perhaps his intent is to say married men can now be like that also? like they don’t have a wife,
  14. and the men who are weeping like they aren’t weeping, and the men who rejoice like they aren’t rejoicing, and the men who buy like they aren’t taking possession,
  15. and the men who use this world like they aren’t using it;(580)“using it fully” this Greek word can also have the connotation of “overuse” (in the sense of abuse), likely in the sense of fully using the things of this world to the point of overuse/abuse of themselves.  However, the word used earlier in this clause lacks that connotation. for the form of this world is passing away.
  16. Now, I wish you to be free from care.  The unmarried man cares for the things of the Lord, and how he might please the Lord.
  17. But the man who marries cares for the things of the world, how he might please the wife,
  18. and he did – and does – divide himself.(581)Or “he was – and is – divided”.  The passive and middle endings for this word are identical, so either could be intended.  And the unmarried woman and the virgin cares for the things of the Lord; that she might be holy in both body and spirit.  But the woman who marries cares for the things of the world, how she might please her husband.
  19. Now, I say this for your own benefit, not so I might throw a restraint(582)“restraint” the Greek word here refers to a rope with a slipknot – like a cowboy’s lasso – used to catch animals, and restrain them from escaping after they are caught. on you, but toward the honorable and devoted service to the Lord without distraction.
  20. Now, if someone thinks he acts unjustly over his virgin daughter(583)“daughter” was added for clarity, as the Greek word for “virgin” here is feminine.  Some translations alter verses 36-38 so they refer to a fiancée and his betrothed.  Most translations that pervert these verses will mistranslate “virgin” as “betrothed”, completely leave out the clause “if she is past the bloom of youth”, and add the word “passion” somewhere to make this interpretation fit. – if she is past the bloom of youth(584)“past the bloom of youth” is one word in Greek.  There are two views as to its meaning.  (1) “The bloom of youth” refers to menstruation and “past” this bloom means the girl has not only begun to menstruate, but also has been menstruating long enough to be regular.  Historically, this would’ve happened at 15-16 years old, though women did marry younger.  (2) “Past the bloom of youth” refers to a woman who is past her prime; i.e. an “old maid” who could then become a burden to her father in that culture.  Some ancient sources fixed this at 20 years old. and thus ought(585)“ought” is the weakest possible way to translate the Greek word used here.  It more literally means “is morally/legally obligated” The word was originally a financial term that literally meant to owe or be indebted to. (It’s used of debts in Matthew 18:28, 30, and 34.)  In New Testament times, it referred to anything which someone was legally or morally obligated to do. to be married – let him do as he wishes; he doesn’t sin, let her(586)literally “let them marry” as the verb here is plural, referring either to multiple daughters, or more likely the daughters in general of the men Paul was addressing.  Since English doesn’t have a plural feminine pronoun (they/them in a feminine form) it was changed to “she” to prevent anyone thinking that Paul was condoning a father marrying his daughter, which is incest and thoroughly condemned elsewhere in the Bible. marry.
  21. But a man who did – and does – stand firm in his heart (not having a need, but having authority over his own will) and has judged(587)literally “did – and does – judge”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in his own heart to keep the virgin with himself, he will do well.
  22. And so, the man who lets his virgin marry does well, and the man who doesn’t let her marry will do better.
  23. A wife is bound for as long as her husband lives.  But if her husband dies, she’s free to be married to who she wishes, but only in the Lord.
  24. But in my opinion, she’s more blessed if she remains like she is; and I think I also have God’s Spirit.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 8

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Things Sacrificed to Idols
  1. Now, about things sacrificed to idols.  We did – and do – know that we all have knowledge; knowledge puffs up, but love(588)The Greek word here is “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) builds up.
  2. If anyone thinks he knows(590)literally “did – and does – know”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. anything, he doesn’t yet know as he needs to know.
  3. But if anyone shows preference(591)The Greek word used here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”. to God, he was – and is – known by Him.
  4. Therefore, about food sacrificed to idols; we know(589)literally “did – and do – know”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. that an idol in the world is nothing, and that there’s no God except One.
  5. For indeed, even if some are being called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords),
  6. But to us, there’s one God – the Father – from whom are all things, and we exist for Him; and one Lord – Jesus the Anointed – through(592)or “because of”, as the Greek word can – and does – mean either depending on the context.  It also quite possible Paul left it slightly ambiguous, and intended both meanings. whom all things exist, and we exist through(593)or “because of”, as the Greek word can – and does – mean either depending on the context.  It also quite possible Paul left it slightly ambiguous, and intended both meanings. Him.
  7. But this knowledge isn’t in everyone.  And until now, some are accustomed to eating food sacrificed to an idol as if the idol is real; and their conscience – being weak – is defiled.(594)“is defiled” could also be translated “they defile themselves” as the endings for the passive voice and middle voice are the exact same for this Greek word.  The idea is these Christians with a weak conscience believes the food is consecrated to the idol, and thus eating food consecrated to another god would displease the True God.  While Paul says since the other “god” don’t even exist, the food can’t be consecrated to a god who doesn’t exist.
  8. But food won’t bring us closer to God; we neither fall short if we don’t eat, nor excel if we do eat.
  9. But beware, lest your liberty in this somehow becomes a stumbling block to the weak.
  10. For if someone sees you (the man who has knowledge) reclining(595)In the first century, you didn’t “sit” at a table in chairs. Rather, you laid down with your feet sticking out in a reclining position. at the table in an idol’s temple, with his conscience being weak, won’t he be encouraged to eat the things sacrificed to idols?
  11. For then the man who’s weak is ruined by your knowledge; the brother for whom the Anointed died.
  12. And thus, in sinning against the brothers and wounding their weak conscience, you sin against the Anointed.
  13. Therefore, if food ensnares my brother, I definitely won’t(596)“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. eat meat sacrificed to idols through the age, so I won’t ensnare my brother.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 9

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The Rights of the Apostles
  1. Am I not free?  Am I not an apostle?  Haven’t I seen(597)literally “didn’t – and don’t – I see”, as the Greek verb here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. Jesus our Lord?  Aren’t you my work in the Lord?
  2. If I’m not an apostle to others, then at least I am to you; for you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord.
  3. My defense(598)The Greek word here is “ἀπολογία” (apologia) is the root of our English word “apologetics”.  It specifically refers to a verbal defense, and the term was used for a legal defense in court. It implies providing compelling evidence to answer an accusation or objection that was raised. to the men who examine me is this:
  4. Don’t we absolutely(599)“Don’t… …absolutely”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “absolutely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. have the right to eat and drink?
  5. Don’t we absolutely(600)“Don’t… …absolutely”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “absolutely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. have the right to bring along a believing wife?(601)literally “a sister wife”, with sister indicating a wife who is Christian. (Just as also the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas(602)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. do.)
  6. Or do only Barnabas and I lack the right to not work?
  7. Who ever serves as a soldier at his own expense?  Who plants a vineyard and doesn’t eat of its fruit?  Or who shepherds a flock and doesn’t drink the milk of the flock?
  8. I don’t speak these things according to man, do I?  Doesn’t the law also say these things?
  9. For it was – and is – written in the Law of Moses; “you will not muzzle an ox that’s threshing(603)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:4  Threshing is part of the process for separating chaff from grain.  Threshing involves beating the grain to break the chaff free from the grain.  It was typically done on a “threshing floor” with either a tool or by animals.  Once the chaff is broken free, you then “winnow” the chaff and grain mixture by throwing it in the air so the wind carries away the lighter, useless chaff, while the heavier grain falls back to the earth. Once ground into flour and cooked, the grains are ready to eat.  God isn’t concerned about the oxen, is He?
  10. Or does He speak entirely for our sake?  For it was written for our sake, because the man who plows ought to plow in expectation, and the man who threshes(604)“threshes” is literal. See note on previous verse does so in expectation to partake of the grain.
  11. If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it a great thing if we reap material things from you?
  12. If others partake of their right from you, couldn’t we do so more?  But we didn’t make use of this right, but instead, we patiently endured everything so we wouldn’t put any hindrance on the gospel of the Anointed.
  13. Didn’t – and don’t – you know the men who work in the temple eat the food in the temple?  And don’t the men who serve at the altar have a share in the altar sacrifices?
  14. And in this way, the Lord appointed for the men who proclaim the gospel to live from the gospel.
  15. But I didn’t – and don’t – make use of these rights.  (And I haven’t written these things so it might become this way with me.)  For it’s better for me to die than for anyone to make my boasting empty.
  16. For my boast is nothing if I proclaim the gospel, for a compulsion is placed on me; for woe is me if I don’t proclaim the gospel.
  17. For if I do this willingly, I have a reward; but if unwillingly, I’m merely entrusted with a stewardship.
  18. What then is my reward?  That in preaching the gospel free of charge, I might offer the gospel without needing to use of my right in the gospel.
All things to all men
  1. For while being free from all men, I made myself a slave to all men so I might gain more of them.
  2. And I became like a Jew to the Jews, so I might win the Jews.  To men under the law, like I’m under the law – though not being under the law myself – so I might win men under the law.
  3. To men without the law,(605)“without the law” is one word in Greek.  It can mean “lawless” in the sense of wicked, but it can also refer to those without the Mosaic Law; i.e. Gentiles.  That is likely the intended sense here. like a man without the law – though not being without God’s law, but lawful in the Anointed – so I might win men without the law.
  4. I became weak to the weak, so I might win the weak.  I did – and do – become all things to all men, so that by all means I might save some.
  5. But I do everything for the gospel’s sake, so I might become a fellow partaker in it.
  6. Didn’t – and don’t – you know that the men running in a race all indeed run, but only one receives the prize?  Run like this so you might seize it.
  7. And every man who competes uses self-control in everything. Then these men indeed compete so they might receive a perishable crown, but we an imperishable one.
  8. Therefore, I indeed run like this, but not aimlessly.  I box like this, but not like punching air.
  9. But I discipline my body and make it my slave, lest after preaching to others I might become disqualified.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 10

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Warnings from Israel’s History
  1. For I don’t want you to be ignorant brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea,
  2. and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,
  3. and all ate the same spiritual food,
  4. And all drank the same spiritual drink.  For they were drinking from the spiritual rock following them; and the rock is the Anointed.
  5. But God wasn’t pleased with most of them, for their bodies were scattered in the desert.
  6. Now, these things have become examples to us; for us not to be coveters(606)or “cravers”; either is a correct translation of this Greek word. of wicked things, just as they also coveted.(607)or “craved them“; either is a correct translation of this Greek word.
  7. And don’t become idolaters, just as some of them.  As it was – and is –written; “The people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose to play.”(608)quotation/allusion to Exodus 32:4-6
  8. Nor should we fornicate, just as some of them fornicated and twenty three thousand fell in one day.
  9. Nor should we test the Anointed, just as some of them tested Him and were destroyed by the serpents.
  10. And don’t grumble, just as some of them grumbled and perished(609)“perished” The Greek word here is in the middle voice, not the active voice, making the agent significantly more involved in the result. Translating it “killed themselves” wouldn’t be out of place.  This is likely a reference to Numbers 16:41-49, where all of Israel grumbled against Moses and Arron, ascribing to them the fault of God’s divine judgement on Korah’s rebellion. by the destroyer.
  11. Now, these things happened to them as examples, and were written as a warning to us, to whom the ends of the ages did – and do – come.
  12. Therefore, the man who thinks he did – and does – stand ready; let him beware, lest he fall.
  13. Temptation didn’t – and doesn’t – seize you, except what’s common to man.  But God is faithful, who won’t permit you to be tempted beyond what you can bear, but with the temptation will also make the escape, so you’ll be able to endure it.
  14. Therefore my beloved, flee from idolatry.
  15. I speak as I would to prudent men; you judge what I declare.
Things sacrificed to idols
  1. Isn’t the cup of blessings that we bless sharing in the blood of the Anointed?  Isn’t the bread that we break sharing in the body of the Anointed?
  2. Since there’s one bread, we the many are one body, for all partake from the one bread.
  3. Look at Israel according to the flesh.  Aren’t the men who eat the sacrifices partakers in the altar?
  4. Therefore, what do I mean?   That what is sacrificed to idols is anything?  Or that an idol is anything?
  5. Rather, I mean that what [the gentiles] sacrifice to demons, they don’t sacrifice to God.  Now, I don’t want you to become partakers with demons.
  6. You aren’t able to drink the Lord’s cup and a demon’s cup.  You aren’t able to partake of the Lord’s table and a demon’s table.
  7. Or, do we provoke the Lord to jealousy?  We aren’t stronger than Him, are we?
  8. All things are lawful, but not all things are profitable.  All things are lawful, but not all things edify.
  9. Let no one seek to edify himself, but to edify another. (610)Verse note:  Literally “let no one seek the himself, but the another”  Greek uses the definite article (“the” in English”) far more than English does, and for more purposes, including referring back to something previously mentioned.  While the referent is somewhat ambiguous here, it likely refers back to the previous sentence about edification, and thus “to edify” was chosen here.
Eat everything
  1. Eat everything which is sold in the meat market, investigating nothing for your conscience’ sake.
  2. For “The earth is the Lord’s, and all its fullness.”(611)quotation/allusion to Psalm 24:1
  3. If some unbeliever invites you and you want to go, eat everything which is set before you; investigating nothing for conscience’ sake.
  4. But if someone tells you; “This is sacrificed to an idol.” Don’t eat it because of the man who revealed it, and his conscience. [For The earth is the Lord’s, and all its fullness.(612)quotation/allusion to Psalm 24:1](613)The majority of manuscripts have the bracketed portion in this verse, but it is missing from some early manuscripts that some scholars consider important.  Most modern Bibles don’t include it.
  5. Now, I definitely don’t mean your own conscience,(614)literally “conscience of yourself”, with the 3rd person reflexive pronoun (himself) functioning as the 2nd person reflexive pronoun (yourself) here. but the conscience of the other man.  For why is my freedom decided by another man’s conscience?
  6. If I partake by grace, why am I slandered over the food for which I give thanks?
  7. Therefore, whether you eat, or drink, or whatever you do, do everything to the glory of God.
  8. Become inoffensive, both to Jews and Greeks, and to the church of God,
  9. just as I also please all men in all things; not seeking profit for myself, but the profit of many so they might be saved.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 11

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  1. Become imitators of me, just as I also imitate the Anointed.
On Men and Women
  1. Now, I commend you because you did – and do – remember me in everything, and you hold tightly to the traditions just as I delivered them to you.
  2. And I want you to know(615)literally “to did – and do – know” because the Greek word here is the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past a present tenses. that the Anointed is the head of every man, and the man is the head of woman, and God is the head of the Anointed.
  3. Every man who is praying or prophesying while having something hanging down from(616)hanging down from” is the Greek word “κατὰ” (kata), often translated “on” here.  It primarily means “down” or “down from”, but it has many uses and one of the largest semantic ranges of any Greek word. Here it’s used in the sense of “hanging down from”, of which there are two main interpretations.  (1) Paul is referring to head coverings.  In Rabbinic custom, men wore a prayer shawl called a “Tallit”, which they would drape over their heads while they prayed out of reverence for God, to indicate they weren’t worthy to look on His face.  This shawl would thus “hang down” from their heads.  (2) The second view says Paul is referring to hair which is long enough to “hang down”.  This makes much more sense contextually because verses 2-16 have a chiastic structure, and verse 4’s counterpart in verse 14 is clearly referencing long hair on men. his head dishonors his head.
  4. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head uncovered dishonors her head.  For she is one and the same with the woman who did – and does – shave her head.(617)“the woman who did – and does – shave her head” could also be translated “the woman who was – and is – shaved” because the endings for the Greek middle and passive voice are the same for this word.  This almost certainly refers to the women of the Isle of Lesbos, not terribly far from Corinth.  (It’s likely where the term “lesbian” came from.)  Lucian of Samosata (125 – 180 AD) wrote in Dialogues of the Courtesans about a character named Megilla who was a “rich Lesbian woman” who had the “skin of her head which was shaved close“.  He also writes of: “women like that in Lesbos, with faces like men, and unwilling to consort with men, but only with women, as though they themselves were men“.  These women from the Isle of Lesbos rejected every form of male authority, and signified this partially by shaving off their hair, or cutting it very short like men did.
  5. For if a woman won’t cover her head, let her also cut off her hair.(618)“let her… …cut off her hair” is more literally “sheer herself”, which is a technical term specifically referring to sheering sheep.  After being sheered, a sheep’s hair is extremely short – ideally less than an inch (25mm) – like a modern buzz cut.  But if it’s shameful for a woman to cut off her hair,(619)“to cut off her hair” see previous note. or to be shaved, let her cover her head.
  6. For indeed, man is morally obligated(620)“is morally obligated” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It was originally a financial term that literally meant to owe or be indebted to. (It’s used of debts in Matthew 18:28, 30, and 34.)  This included moral obligations to deities and others.  In New Testament times, it referred to anything which someone was legally or morally obligated to do. not to cover his head since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man.
  7. For man didn’t come from(621)literally “isn’t out from” woman, but woman from man.
  8. For also, man wasn’t created for woman, but woman for man.
  9. Because of this, the woman is morally obligated(622)“is morally obligated” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It was originally a financial term that literally meant to owe or be indebted to. (It’s used of debts in Matthew 18:28, 30, and 34.)  This included moral obligations to deities and others.  In New Testament times, it referred to anything which someone was legally or morally obligated to do. to have(623)Many translations add the phrase “a symbol of” before the word authority, altering the sense to be about a hat or veil.  (Thankfully, some italicize it to show it’s an addition) authority on(624)“on” Some translations pervert this verse by making it sound as if the woman has authority over her own head.  However, that isn’t the intention of the Greek.  The authority on “her head” is another’s authority over her. her head, because of the angels.(625)“because of the angels” These three Greek words (διὰ τοὺς ἀγγέλους) are among the most confusing, and therefore most commented on in the whole Bible.  The most common interpretations are: (1.) The early church believed that angels were present during their gatherings.  Thus this could be either an example for them showing the women were under authority, or because it was fitting because of the angelic presence. (2.)  Paul is using an analogy/example as a warning, and the angels referred to here are the fallen angels before they fell.  They fell because they rebelled by refusing to observe their place in God’s created order. (Jude 1:6)  This theory says Paul is saying women must observe their place in God’s order (under male authority) or else they are rebelling like the angels did. (3.)  This theory says “διὰ ” (dia, here translated “because of”) should be translated “through” which is another one of its primary meanings.  The idea is the authority is conveyed or applied through the angels somehow.  (4.)  This refers to head coverings, and that women should have their heads covered like the angels covered their faces in Isaiah 6:2.
  10. Yet in the Lord, neither is woman separate from man, nor man separate from woman.
  11. For just as the woman came out of the man, so also the man is born through the woman; But everything comes from God.
  12. Judge for yourselves: is it proper for an uncovered woman to pray to God? (626)Most translations move the word “uncovered” to the end of the sentence, and add “with her head” so it reads “…to pray to god with her head uncovered?” However, that changes the word uncovered from adjectival to substantive, which isn’t keeping with the Greek.
  13. And doesn’t nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it’s indeed a disgrace to him?
  14. But if a woman has long hair, it’s a glory to her?  For the long hair was – and is – given to her instead of(627)“instead of” many translations translate this “for” here, which is correct in some cases. (Example: Matthew 5:38, “and eye for an eye”)  However, it more properly means “in exchange for” or “instead of” because the Greek word refers to a substitute.  Thayer’s Greek Lexicon specifically mentions this passage as a place where “instead of” is the correct translation. a cloth covering.(628)“cloth covering” The Greek word used here is specific to clothing of some kind, including veils, mantles, robes, etc.  It is different than the words for covering used earlier, which can indicate any kind of covering, including hair.
  15. But if anyone is inclined to be contentious, we have no other custom; nor do the churches of God.
The Lord’s Supper
  1. Now, in instructing this I don’t commend you because you don’t assemble for the better, but for the worse.
  2. For first: when you’re gathering in the church assembly, I hear there are divisions among you, and in part I believe it.
  3. For it’s necessary for factions(629)“factions” this Greek word refers to a division of a religious group that is separated from the main group and follows its own tenants.  It’s often translated “sect” in the context of the Pharisees and Sadducees being a sect of Judaism.  Modern denominations are a good example of “sects” of Christianity. to be among you so the genuine(630)“genuine” This Greek word was used to describe coins that had been verified to not be counterfeit or corrupted. ones among you might become evident.
  4. Therefore, when you’re assembling at the same place, it’s not to eat the Lord’ supper.
  5. For each takes their own dinner to eat before others have opportunity;(631)“takes… …before others have opportunity” is one word in Greek. and indeed, one is hungry but another is drunk.
  6. Don’t do that!  For don’t you have houses to eat and to drink?  Or do you scorn the church of God and shame the men who have nothing?  What should I tell you?  Should I commend you in this?  I don’t commend you!
  7. For I received from the Lord what I delivered to you; that the Lord Jesus – on the night He was betrayed – took bread.
  8. And giving thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, broken for your benefit; do this in remembrance of Me.”
  9. And likewise after supper He took the cup saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood.  As often as you drink this, do it in remembrance of me.”
  10. For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes.
  11. Therefore, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the Lord’s body and blood.
  12. But let a man examine(632)“examine” The Greek word here doesn’t focus on proving something is bad, but rather on testing and/or examining something to show it’s good. himself, and in this manner let him eat of the bread and let him drink of the cup.
  13. For the man who eats and drinks without considering the body eats and drinks judgement on himself.
  14. Because of this, many among you are weak and sick, and plenty(633)“plenty of you” is more literally “sufficient” or “ample”, and is a different word than is used earlier in this verse. of you sleep.(634)“sleep” the Greek word can also be used of the “sleep” of death, and hence can mean to die.
  15. For if we were evaluating ourselves, we wouldn’t be coming under judgement.
  16. But when we’re being judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so we won’t be condemned with the world.
  17. So my brothers, wait for one another when you’re assembling to eat.
  18. If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home so you won’t be assembled for judgment.  And I will arrange the rest as soon as I come.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 12

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Spiritual Gifts
  1. Now brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant about spiritual things.
  2. You did – and do – know that when you were pagans, you were led to mute idols, just like men being led astray.
  3. Therefore, I declare to you that no one speaking in God’ Spirit says “Jesus is anathema(635)“anathema” likely because of the Bible, this Greek word has entered the English vocabulary.  In Greek it literally means to curse someone, or more specifically to offer a curse to them to devote them to God’ destruction.  It can also have the connotation of being abominable and/or detestable.”, and no one is able to say “Jesus is Lord” except in the Holy Spirit.
  4. Now, there are varieties of gifts but the same Spirit.
  5. And there are varieties of ministries and the same Lord.
  6. And there are varieties of powers but the same God, the One who works everything in everyone.
  7. Now, to each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the benefit of all.
  8. For indeed, one is given a word of wisdom through the Spirit, but to another a word of knowledge by the same Spirit.
  9. A different one is given faith by the same Spirit, but another gifts of healing by the one Spirit.
  10. To another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, and another discernment of spirits, a different one the tongues of various nations,(636)“nations” is more accurately “ethnicities” or “races”.  The Greek word refers to the offspring of a common ancestor, and thus families, races, or nations.  It’s used this way consistently throughout the New Testament, and is sometimes translated “kinds” – as in various kinds of families/races/nations – but it retains the focus on a common ancestor, and thus should be translated accordingly. but another the interpretation of tongues.
  11. But one and the same Spirit works all these things, distributing to each individually just as He wills.
Many Parts, One Body
  1. For just as the body has many parts and is one body; and just as all the parts of the body are one body though being many parts; so also is the Anointed.
  2. For in one Spirit, we were all baptized into one body – whether Jews or Greeks, whether slave or free – we were all given one Spirit to drink.
  3. For also, the body isn’t one part, but many.
  4. If the foot says, “Because I’m not a hand, I’m not part of the body” it doesn’t stop being(637)“doesn’t stop being.” Is literally “is not not”.  However, English rules of grammar don’t permit double negatives. part of the body because of this.
  5. And if the ear says, “Because I’m not an eye, I’m not part of the body” it doesn’t stop being(638)“doesn’t stop being.” Is literally “is not not”.  However, English rules of grammar don’t permit double negatives. part of the body because of this.
  6. If the whole body was an eye, where would the sense of hearing be?  If all were an ear, where would the sense of smell be?
  7. But at this moment, God placed the parts in the body – each one of them – just as He willed.
  8. But if all were one and the same(639)“one and the same” is one word in Greek, typically translated just “one”.  However, it can mean “one and the same” in certain use cases. part, where would the body be?
  9. But now, there are indeed many parts, but only one body.
  10. And the eye can’t say to the hand, “I don’t need you”.  Or again, the head can’t say to the feet, “I don’t need you”.
  11. But rather, the parts of the body which seem to be weaker are essential.
  12. And parts of the body which we presume to be less honorable, these we clothe with far greater honor; and our indecent parts have far greater modesty.
  13. But our presentable parts have no need of that.  But God orchestrated(640)“orchestrated”  The Greek word used here means to mix disparate elements together to produce a unified and harmonious whole. the body, giving far greater honor to the parts which fall short,
  14. so there might not be division in the body, but the parts might have the same concern for one another.
  15. And if one part suffers, all the parts suffer with it.  And if one part is honored, all the parts rejoice with it.
Spiritual Gifts
  1. Now, you are the Anointed’s body and each part receives a share.
  2. And to those(641)literally “whom”; the relative pronoun was changed to a demonstrative pronoun for clarity. in the church, God indeed appointed: first apostles,(642)“first apostles” Some take this to mean that apostles have greater authority because they are first on this list, and then ascribe a descending hierarchy based on a gift’s position on this list.  That is manifestly not Paul’s intent here.  The word used for “first” here is “πρῶτον” (proton) which carries the connotation of time, not authority.  By contrast, the Greek word “ἀρχή” (arché) does mean first in the sense of time and/or authority, and is sometimes translated “ruler”.  Also, see following note on the word “then” second prophets, third teachers, then(643)“then” this Greek word is infrequently used in the New Testament, but every instance indicates a relationship to time, not authority.  See previous note. miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, administration,(644)“administration” This Greek word properly refers to the pilot (though not the captain) of a sailing ship, who guides the ship under the captain’s direction.  This has the idea of directing day-to-day affairs to keep the ship on course; hence “administration”. or tongues of various nations.(645)“nations” is more accurately “ethnicities” or “races”.  The Greek word refers to the offspring of a common ancestor, and thus families, races, or nations.  It’s used this way consistently throughout the New Testament, and is sometimes translated “kinds” – as in various kinds of families/races/nations – but it retains the focus on a common ancestor, and thus should be translated accordingly.
  3. All aren’t apostles are they? All aren’t prophets are they? All aren’t teachers are they? All don’t work miracles do they?
  4. All don’t have gifts of healing do they?  All don’t speak in tongues do they?  All don’t interpret do they?
  5. But zealously desire the greater gifts.  And further, I show you a most excellent way.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 13

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Love
  1. If I speak the tongues of angels and men but don’t have love,(646)The Greek word here “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) I did – and do – become a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal.
  2. And if I have prophecy, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith so as to move mountains, but don’t have love; I am nothing.
  3. And if I give all that I possess to feed(648)“I give… …to feed” Is one word in Greek.  It properly refers to giving out food in small portions to feed someone or something. the poor, and deliver(649)“deliver” this Greek word can also be translated “betray”, often used in the sense of delivering someone over to imprisonment. my body to prison so that I might boast but don’t have love; I gain nothing.
  4. Love is patient, it’s kind.  Love isn’t jealous, love doesn’t boast, it isn’t puffed up,
  5. It doesn’t act indecently, it doesn’t seek things for itself, it isn’t easily angered, it doesn’t take into account wrongs suffered.
  6. it doesn’t rejoice at unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth.
  7. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.
  8. Love never fails.  But if there are prophecies, they will be abolished;(647)“they will be abolished” is one Word in Greek, literally meaning to render something as completely without force or power, making it idle and of no effect.  Thus, it also means to abolish, because the force has been completely removed.  It’s the same word used to refer to knowledge later in the verse. if tongues, they will cease, if knowledge, it will be abolished.(650)“it will be abolished” is one Word in Greek, literally meaning to render something as completely without force or power, making it idle and of no effect.  Thus, it also means to abolish, because the force has been completely removed.  It’s the same word used to refer to prophecies earlier in the verse
  9. For we know in part and we prophesy in part,
  10. But when the perfect comes, the partial will be abolished.
  11. When I was a child, I was talking like a child, I was understanding like a child, I was reasoning like a child.  When I became(651)“became” The Greek word here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.  Thus, Paul was saying that in the past he had become a man, and remained one into the present. a man, I abolished(652)“abolished” The Greek word here is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.  Thus, Paul was saying that in the past he had abolished the childish things, and continued to do so into the present. the childish things.
  12. For now we see through a mirror(653)“mirror” The Greek word here refers to a metallic mirror, not a glass one. in puzzling obscurity,(654)“puzzling obscurity” The Greek word here literally refers to a riddle or enigma which obscures something. but then face to face.  I know in part now, but then I will know Him(655)“Him” this word was added in attempt to convey the nuance of the Greek word “ἐπιγινώσκω” (epiginóskó), here translated “I will know fully”, and the same word is at the end of the sentence (in the passive voice) there translated “I’m fully know”.  It refers to close, personal, intimate knowing in the context of relationship. fully, even as I’m fully known.
  13. But now these three remain: faith, hope, and love; but the greatest of these is love.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 14

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Prophecy and Tongues
  1. Earnestly pursue love, yet zealously desire the spiritual gifts, and especially that you might prophesy.
  2. For the man who speaks in a tongue doesn’t speak to men, but to God.  For no one understands him, but in his spirit(656)his spirit” is literally ” but spirit he speaks mysteries”.  In view of 1 Corinthians 14:14, “spirit” here shouldn’t be understood as the Holy Spirit, but rather the man’s spirit.  Further, this sentence lacks the typical grammatical markers for referencing the Holy Spirit. he speaks mysteries.
  3. But the man who prophesies speaks for building up, and encouragement, and consolation.
  4. The man who speaks in a tongue builds himself up; but the man who prophesies builds up a church.
  5. And I want all of you to speak in tongues, but prefer that you prophesy.  And the man who prophesies is greater than the man who speaks in tongues, unless(657)literally “except unless” he interprets so the church might receive edification.
  6. And now brothers, if I come to you speaking in tongues, how will I benefit you unless I speak to you in revelation, or in knowledge, or in prophecy, or in a teaching?
  7. Even lifeless things which make a sound – whether flute or harp – if the sounds they make aren’t distinct, how will it be recognized what’s played on the flute or harp?
  8. For also, if a trumpet makes an unrecognizable sound, who will prepare himself for battle?
  9. And in the same way, unless you make easily understood(658)“easily understood” The Greek word here more literally means “clear to the understanding” words with your tongue, how will it be known what’s spoken?  For you’ll be speaking into the air.
  10. There are, perhaps, a great many national(659)“national” is more accurately “ethnic” or “racial”.  The Greek word refers to the offspring of a common ancestor, and thus families, races, or nations.  It’s used this way consistently throughout the New Testament, and sometimes translated “kinds” – as in various kinds of families/races/nations – but it retains the focus on a common ancestor, and thus should be translated accordingly. languages in the world, and none is without meaning.
  11. Therefore, if I didn’t – and don’t – know the meaning of the language, I will be an incomprehensible foreigner(660)“incomprehensible foreigner” This Greek word here is “βάρβαρος” (barbaros), which is a technical word referring to anyone who didn’t speak Greek.  The Greek thought themselves so superior, that over time it became nearly an insult, and is the root of our word “barbarian”. to the man who speaks, and the man who speaks an incomprehensible foreigner(661)“incomprehensible foreigner” This Greek word here is “βάρβαρος” (barbaros), which is a technical word referring to anyone who didn’t speak Greek.  The Greek thought themselves so superior, that over time it became nearly an insult, and is the root of our word “barbarian”. to me.
  12. It’s also this way with you.   Since you are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek to make them abound for the building up of the church.
  13. For this reason, let the man who speaks in a tongue pray that he might interpret.
  14. For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays but my mind is unfruitful.
  15. Therefore, what is fruitful?  I will pray with the spirit, but I will also pray with the mind.  I will sing with the spirit, but I will also sing with the mind.
  16. Otherwise if you bless in spirit, how will the man who fills the ungifted place say “Amen” at your thankfulness, since he didn’t – and doesn’t – know what you say?
  17. For you indeed give thanks well, but the other man isn’t built up.
  18. I thank God that I speak in tongues more than all of you.
  19. But in the church, I want to speak five words with my mind so I might teach others, rather than ten thousand words in a tongue.
  20. Brothers, don’t become children in your thoughts – yet be infants in evil – but become mature in your thoughts.
  21. It was – and is – written in the law; “By other tongues, and by other men’s lips I will speak to this people; and they won’t even listen to Me this way, says the Lord.”(662)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:11-12
  22. So then, tongues aren’t a sign to the men who believe, but to the unbelievers.  But prophecy isn’t for the unbelievers, but for the men who believe.
  23. Therefore, if the whole church assembles at the same place and all speak in tongues, but ungifted men or unbelievers enter, won’t they say that you’re mad?
  24. But if all prophesy and some unbelievers or ungifted men enter, he is convicted by all and examined by all.
  25. The secrets of his heart become revealed, and falling on his face he will worship(663)“worship” This Greek word comes from the words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. God, declaring that God is truly among you.
Be Orderly When You Assemble
  1. Therefore brothers, what is proper?  Whenever you assemble, each has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has a tongue, has an interpretation; let everything be done to build up one another.
  2. And if someone speaks in a tongue, it must be by two (or at the most three) and each in turn; and one must interpret.
  3. But if there’s no interpreter, he must be silent in the church; and let him speak to himself and to God.
  4. And let two or three prophets speak and let the others(664)“others” In Greek, this is a single word which means “another of the same kind”, which contextually refers to prophets. judge what’s prophesied.
  5. But if something is revealed to another who’s sitting, let the first be silent.
  6. For you are all able to prophecy one by one, so that all might learn and all might be strengthened.(665)“strengthened” Other possible interpretations of this word in this context include: exhorted, encouraged, instructed, admonished.
  7. And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.
  8. For God isn’t the God of chaos, but peace, as in all the churches of the saints.
  9. The women must be silent in the church assemblies.  For it’s not allowed for them to speak, but they must submit themselves,(666)“submit themselves” The Greek word here is “ὑποτάσσω” (hupotassó) The endings for its middle and passive voice are the same, so either could’ve been intended.  In the middle voice, it contains reflexive force and thus has the connotation of voluntary obedience, so “wives must obey” is more accurate to the intended sense (though less literal, despite this meaning being in the lexicons).  In the passive voice it could be translated “must be submitted”.  The middle voice is more likely because the passive voice could indicate that their submission/obedience is being done to them (i.e. they’re being made to submit). just as the law also says.(667)“just as the law also says” Paul might be referring to the submission aspect here.  In that case, the only verse in the law that might fit is Genesis 3:16.
  10. But if they want to learn something, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it’s shameful for a woman to speak in the church assembly.  (668)Verse Note: in the list of things done in the assembly (verses 26-32), the Greek words which could be used to determine the genders of the teachers, prophets, etc. are all masculine.  None of them are feminine or neuter.
  11. Or did the word of God come from you?  Or did it only come to you?
  12. If someone thinks himself to be a prophet or spiritual, he must recognize that the things I write to you are the Lord’s command.
  13. But if someone won’t know this, let him not be known.(669)The Greek word “ἀγνοέω” (agnoeó) is used twice in this verse; once in the indicative (factual declaration = “won’t know”) and once in the 3rd person imperative (command = “let him not be known”).  It literally means to “not know” or to “be ignorant” and can refer to willful ignorance.  In this latter sense it carries the connotation of sinning.  In this view, the command to not know the man is likely pointing to church discipline because of his “willful ignorance”.
  14. So my brothers, zealously desire to prophesy and don’t forbid speaking in tongues,
  15. yet do everything properly and with order.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 15

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The Gospel
  1. Now brothers, I make known to you the gospel that I preached to you, which you also received and in which you did – and do – stand.
  2. Through which you’re also saved by the word that I preached to you – if you hold fast to it – otherwise(670)“otherwise you believed in vain” There are two ways to take this clause, centering on how to translate the phrase “ἐκτός εἰ μή” (here translated “otherwise”).  The word “ἐκτός” means “outside” or “without” or “except”, while “εἰ μή” when used together this way means “unless” or “except”.  The first way to take this clause – used in the BOS Bible – is to translate it “without unless”, (shortened to “otherwise” for readability”) and the meaning is clear: unless they hold fast to the Gospel their faith is in vain.  The second way to take this clause is to translate it “unless except”, which is typically taken to mean that if the Gospel Paul preached isn’t true, then their faith is in vain. The first view has a much stronger contextual argument in this passage (and is also supported by Romans 11:17-24, especially verse 22) and thus was chosen here. you believed in vain.
  3. For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received; that the Anointed died for our sins according to the scriptures,
  4. and that He was buried, and that He was – and is – raised on the third day according to the scriptures,
  5. and that He was seen by Cephas,(673)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. and then the twelve.
  6. Afterwards, He was seen by more than five hundred brothers at once; of whom many remain, but some were put to sleep.
  7. Afterwards, He was seen by James, then by all the apostles.
  8. And last of all – as if to one born at the wrong time – He was also seen by me.
  9. For I’m the least of the apostles, who isn’t worthy to be called an apostle because I persecuted the church of God.
  10. But by God’s grace,(671)“Grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis).  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. I am what I am; and His grace to me hasn’t become void.   But I toiled far more than all of them; yet not I, but the grace of God with me.
  11. Therefore we preach like this – whether I or they – and you believed like this.
The Necessity of Resurrection
  1. Now, if it’s preached that the Anointed was – and is – raised from the dead, how can some among you say that there’s no resurrection of the dead?
  2. But if there’s no resurrection of the dead, not even the Anointed was – or is – raised.
  3. And if the Anointed wasn’t – and isn’t – raised, then our preaching is worthless and your faith is worthless.
  4. Then we’re even found to be false witnesses of God, because we testified about God that He raised the Anointed, who wasn’t raised if the dead aren’t raised.
  5. For if the dead aren’t raised, not even the Anointed was – or is – raised.
  6. And if the Anointed wasn’t – and isn’t – raised, your faith is useless; you’re still in your sins.
  7. Then also, the men who were put to sleep in the Anointed have perished.
  8. If we were – and are – hoping in the Anointed in this life only, we’re more pitiable than all men.
  9. Now then, the Anointed was – and is – raised from the dead; the firstfruit of the men who were – and are – put to sleep.
  10. For since death came through a man, resurrection of the dead also came through a man.
  11. For just as in Adam all die, thus also in the Anointed, all will be made alive,
  12. but each in their own order: the Anointed as the firstfruit, then the Anointed’s men at His coming.
  13. Then comes the end, when He hands the kingdom over to the God and Father, when He’s abolished every ruler and every authority and power.
  14. For He must reign until He has put all the enemies under His feet.
  15. The last enemy to be abolished is death.
  16. For He put all things in subjection under His feet.(672)quotation/allusion to Psalm 8:6  But when He said “He did – and does – put all things in subjection”, it’s obvious that the One who put all things in subjection to Him is the exception.
  17. And when all things have been made subject to Him, then even the Son Himself will be made subject to the One who made all things subject to Him, so that God might all in all.
  18. So then, what will the men who are baptized for the dead do?  If the dead really aren’t raised, why are they even baptized for them?  (674)Verse Note: Just north of Corinth, there was a town called “Eleusis”.  The Eleusian mystery religion practiced a rite in the sea that was similar to baptism.  They did this for the dead in order to “guarantee” a good afterlife.  Notice, Paul uses the word “them” and the first sentence does create a sense of distance as if he was talking about those outside the church.  Paul virtually never uses “them” to refer to Christians, only those outside the church.  It’s like Paul was referring to the Eleusian’s practice, saying in effect “even the pagans believe in the resurrection of the dead.”
  19. Also, why are we in peril every hour?
  20. As sure as my boast in you brothers – which I have in our Anointed Lord Jesus – I die every day,
  21. If I fought wild beasts in Ephesus for(675)“for” this Greek preposition – “κατά” (kata) – has a very large range of meanings.  It could also be translated “according to”, “in the manner of”, “as a”, and a few others. man, what does it gain me?  If the dead aren’t raised, we could eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.
  22. Don’t be misled; bad company ruinously corrupts(676)“ruinously corrupts” is one word in Greek.  It literally means to corrupt, rot, or spoil something so that it wastes away to ruin.  It’s typically associated with moral corruption/decay leading to ruin. good moral habits.(677)“moral habits” The Greek word here refers to the habits, customs, and behavior patterns that a person exercises on a daily basis.  It especially refers to ones that are good, moral, and ethical. The Greek word here is “ἦθος” (éthos), which is the root of our word “ethics”.
  23. Sober up righteously and don’t sin, for some have willful ignorance of God.  I say this to your shame.
The Manner of Resurrection
  1. But some will say, “How are the dead raised?”  And, “What kind of body do they come with?”
  2. You fool!  What you sow doesn’t come to life unless it dies.
  3. And what you sow isn’t the body it will become after you sow, but a bare seed.  (Perhaps of wheat or one of the others.)
  4. But God gives it a body just as He willed, and He gives each of the seeds its own body.
  5. Not all flesh is the same flesh, but indeed there’s one of men, but another flesh of cattle, yet another flesh of birds, and another of fish.
  6. And there are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies.  But indeed, the glory of the heavenly is one kind, but the earthly another.
  7. The sun’s glory is one kind, and the moon’s glory another, and the stars’ glory another. (For star differs from star in glory.)
  8. The resurrection of the dead is also like this.  It’s sown in decay, it’s raised incorruptible.
  9. It’s sown in shame, it’s raised in glory.  It’s sown in weakness, it’s raised in power.
  10. It’s sown a natural body, it’s raised a spiritual body.  If there’s a natural body, there’s also a spiritual one.
  11. And as it was – and is – written, “the first man – Adam – became a living being;(678)Quotation/allusion to Genesis 2:7.  The Greek word translated “being” here is “ψυχή” (psuché), which sometimes translated “soul”.  It doesn’t mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is often translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity. the last Adam a life-giving spirit.
  12. But the spiritual wasn’t first, but the natural; afterwards came the spiritual.
  13. The first man was made from the dust of the earth; the second man came from heaven.
  14. Just as the man made of dust was, so also the men made of dust are; and just as the man of heaven is, so also the men of heaven are.
  15. And just as we bear the image of the man made of dust, we will also bear the image of the man of heaven.
  16. Now I declare this brothers: flesh and blood can’t inherit the kingdom of God, nor can the incorruptible inherit decay.
  17. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We won’t all be put to sleep, but we’ll all be changed
  18. in an instant – in the blink of an eye – at the last trumpet.  For the trumpet will sound and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we will be changed.
  19. For the corruptible must clothe itself in incorruptibility, and the mortal clothe itself in immortality.
  20. And when the corruptible has clothed itself in incorruptibility, and the mortal has clothed itself in immortality; then it will happen, the word which was – and is – written, “Death was swallowed in victory.(679)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 25:8
  21. O Death, where is your victory?  O death, where is your sting?(680)quotation/allusion to Hosea 13:14
  22. Now the sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.
  23. But grace(681)“grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis).  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude.  Paul is not only talking about being grateful to God, but also “being faithful”; i.e. to reciprocate charis to God in return for His charis to us. be to God; the One who gives us the victory through our Anointed Lord Jesus.
  24. Therefore my beloved brothers, become steadfast; immovable, always overflowing in the Lord’s work, knowing(682)“knowing” is literally “did – and do – knowing”, as the Greek verb is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. that your exhausting labor isn’t in worthless in the Lord.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 16

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The Collection for the Saints
  1. Now, about the collection for the saints.(683)We know from elsewhere in Bible that this collection was for the poor believers in Jerusalem.  This is almost certainly because of the famine prophetically predicted in Acts 11:28.  In Acts 11:29-30 they decided to take up a collection for the relief of the brothers in Judea.  In verse 30, Barnabas and Paul (still called “Saul” there) were put in charge of collecting it.  Just as I directed the churches in Galatia, you also do likewise.
  2. Every first of the week, let each of you set something aside, saving as he prospers so there won’t be any collections when I come.
  3. And when I arrive, I will send whoever you approve with letters to carry your gift(684)“gift” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis) for someone.  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. to Jerusalem.
  4. And if it’s appropriate for me also to go, they will travel with me.
  5. Now, I’ll come to you after I travel through Macedonia, for I’m traveling through Macedonia.
  6. Then perhaps I will remain with you, or even spend the winter so you might equip me for wherever I might travel.
  7. For I don’t want to see you only in passing right now.  Indeed, I hope to remain with you some time, if the Lord allows.
  8. But I will remain in Ephesus until Pentecost.
  9. For a great and effective door was and – and is – opened to me, and many are opposing it.
Closing Exhortations
  1. Now if Timothy comes, see that he becomes without fear toward you, for he’s doing the Lord’s work, just as I am also.
  2. Therefore, no one should treat him with contempt, but equip him in peace so he might come to me, for I expect him with the brothers.
  3. Now about the brother Apollos.  I greatly encouraged him to come to you with the brothers, and it was altogether not his will that he comes now; but he will come he has a good opportunity.
  4. Be vigilant; stand firm in the faith; act like men; become strong.
  5. Let everything you do, be done in love.
  6. Now I encourage you brothers.  You did – and do – know the household of Stephanus, that it’s the firstfruit of Achaia,(685)“Achaia” was a province of Rome which included most of Greece. and they have set themselves to the service of the saints.
  7. So also, submit yourselves to men like these, and every man who works together and labors.
  8. But I rejoice at the coming of Stephanus, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus because these men filled the void you left,
  9. for they refreshed my spirit and yours.  Therefore, recognize men like these.
  10. The churches of Asia greet you.  Aquila and Priscilla greet you heartily in the Lord, with the church at their house.
  11. All the brothers greet you. Greet one another with a holy kiss.
  12. This greeting is by my own hand – Paul.
  13. If someone doesn’t love(686)“love” the Greek word for love here isn’t the usual “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape,) and denotes “showing preference” for someone or something. (See note on Matthew 23:37)  Here it’s “φιλέω” (phileó) which indicates brotherly affection and warm feelings of friendship or intimacy. the Lord, let him be anathema.(687)“anathema” likely because of the Bible, this Greek word has entered the English vocabulary.  In Greek it literally means to curse someone, and more specifically to offer a curse on them to devote them to God’s destruction.  It can also have the connotation of being abominable and/or detestable.  Our Lord, come!(688)“Our Lord, come!” this is an Aramaic phrase transliterated into Greek.  It very likely refers to judgement, as the phrase “come” is often applied to mean “come in judgement” in both the Old and New Testaments.
  14. The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you.
  15. My love is with all of you in the Anointed Jesus.  [Amen.]

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2 Corinthians

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2 Corinthians Chapter 1

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Greetings from Paul and Timothy
  1. Paul, an apostle of Jesus the Anointed through the will of God, and Timothy our brother: to the church of God living in Corinth, together with all the saints who are in the whole of Achaia.(689)“Achaia” was a province of Rome which included most of Greece.
  2. Grace(690)“Grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis).  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. and peace to you from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
  3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord, Jesus the Anointed, the Father of compassion(692)literally “compassions” as the Greek word here is plural.  It could also be translated “mercies” and God of all comfort.
  4. He’s the One who comforts us in all our tribulation, so we can comfort the men in every tribulation, through the comfort which we ourselves are comforted by God,
  5. Because just as the sufferings of the Anointed overflow into us, likewise our comfort also overflows through the Anointed.
  6. But if we’re afflicted, it’s for your comfort and salvation.  If we’re comforted, it’s for your comfort, which works in the endurance of the same sufferings that we also suffer.
  7. And our hope for you is unshakeable, having known – and knowing – that as you’re partakers in the suffering, so also you’re partakers in the comfort.
  8. For brothers, we don’t want you to be ignorant of our affliction which happened in Asia; that we were burdened so excessively beyond our strength that we despaired even of life.
  9. But we did – and do – have the sentence of death in ourselves.  So we weren’t – and aren’t – trusting in ourselves but in God; the One who raises the dead,
  10. who rescued us from so great a death, (and will rescue us) in whom we also did – and do – still hope that He will rescue us.
  11. And you join in, helping us by prayer so thanks may be given for us by many people,(691)“people” is literally “faces” for the grace given to us through many.
  12. For our boast is this: the testimony of our conscience that in God’s purity and simplicity – not in the wisdom of the flesh but with the grace of God – we acted in the world; and more abundantly towards you.
  13. For we don’t write other things to you except what you already read and understand.  But I hope that you will understand until the end,
  14. just as you also understood us in part.  So we’re boasting of you, just as you also will boast of us in the day of our Lord Jesus.
A Change of Travel Plans
  1. And with this confidence, I previously decided to come to you so you might have grace a second time,
  2. and then to pass into Macedonia through you.  And again from Macedonia to come to you, and be sent by you into Judea.
  3. Therefore, did I make light in deciding this?  Or do I decide what I decide according to the flesh, so with me there’s both “definitely yes”(693)“definitely yes” is literally “Yes! Yes!”  It’s a repetition of an affirmative that can have emphatic sense. It was here translated “definitely yes” to more accurately convey the parallelism with the follow statement (see following note). and “definitely no”?(694)“definitely no”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, no) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek.
  4. But God is faithful because our word to you wasn’t both “Yes” and “No”.
  5. For the Son of God, Jesus the Anointed, the One who was proclaimed among you through us – through me, and Silvanus, and Timothy – wasn’t both “Yes” and “No”.  But in Him it did – and does – become “Yes.”
  6. For as many as God’s promises are, the “Yes” is in Him.  Therefore, the “Amen” is also through Him for the glory of God through us.
  7. But the One who confirmed us with you in the Anointed (and anointed us) is God.
  8. He’s the One who set His seal on us and gave us the down payment(695)“down payment” is literal.  The Greek word here is imported from Hebrew and refers to “earnest money” given as a surety that the rest of the payment will be given. of the Holy Spirit in our hearts.
  9. And I call upon my soul as a witness of God, that I haven’t come to Corinth yet to spare you.
  10. Not that we have authority over(696)“we have authority over” is one word in Greek.  Often – and incorrectly – translated “lord it over”.  It comes from “κύριος” (kurios), which is typically translated “Lord” (as in “the Lord Jesus”) and literally means “to be lord of” in the sense of “to have authority over”.  There are Greek words which indicate oppressive authority which could be translated “lord it over”, but they aren’t used here. you in the faith, but we’re fellow workers for your joy.  For you did – and do – stand firm in the faith.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 2

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Not Coming in Grief
  1. For I decided this within myself: I won’t come to you in grief again.
  2. For if I grieve you again, who will make me glad(697)“who will make me glad” is literally “who is the man who makes me glad“, because the underlined portion is an article + participle phrase. except the man who was grieved by me?
  3. And I wrote this same thing, so in coming I won’t have grief from men who ought to rejoice with me.  I was – and am – trusting in you all, that my joy is the joy of you all.
  4. For I wrote to you from much distress and anguish, through many tears.  Not so you might be grieved, but so you might know the love I have so abundantly for you.
  5. But if someone did – or does – grieve anyone, he didn’t – and doesn’t – grieve me (so I’m not putting a burden on(698)“I’m… …putting a burden on” is one word in Greek with that exact meaning, though it can also mean “to be burdensome”.  It can mean to “overload” someone in a figurative sense, and thus can mean to be “severe”. you), but in part he grieves all of you.
  6. This punishment by the many(699)“This punishment by the many” is likely a reference to Church discipline which Jesus set forth in Matthew 18:15-20.  In Paul’s previous letter to the Corinthians, He mentioned an immoral man who was sleeping with his father’s wife.  Paul told the Corinthians to put him out of the church and shun him (as Jesus directed).  This certainly was a “punishment by the many” and Paul says that’s sufficient, probably recognizing that God Himself will deal with the man. is sufficient for such a man
  7. So on the contrary, it’s better for you to forgive and to comfort him; lest somehow such a man be swallowed by abundant grief.
  8. For this reason, I encourage(700)or “urge” you to reaffirm your love to him.
  9. I also wrote for this reason: so I might test you and know the result,(701)“test you and… …the result ” is one word in Greek.  It properly refers to the process or result of a test/trial, and can include the evidence used to come to the result. whether you’re obedient to everything.
  10. And whoever you forgive for anything, I do also.  For whatever I did – and do – forgive (if I did – and do – forgive anything) it’s for your sake in the sight of the Anointed,
  11. so we aren’t taken advantage of by The Adversary (Satan(702)“Adversary (Satan)” is one word in Greek, typically translated just “Satan”.  While it’s used as a proper name, it’s actually a noun of Hebrew origin which means “adversary”.  In the Old Testament, it’s used of any adversary.  In the New Testament, it’s used exclusively of Satan.), for we aren’t ignorant of his schemes.
  12. And coming to Troas for the gospel of the Anointed, a door was – and is – opened for me by the Lord.
  13. But I didn’t – and don’t – have rest in my spirit because I didn’t find Titus my brother.  But saying farewell, I departed into Macedonia.
  14. But grace be to God, the One who always leads us in triumph(703)“leads… …in triumph” is one word in Greek.  It properly refers a victor parading around to celebrate their victory, and displaying the defeated enemy as part of the procession. in the Anointed.  And the fragrance of the knowledge of Him is being made visible through us in every place.
  15. For we are a sweet fragrance of the Anointed to God in the men who are saved and in the men who are perishing.(704)“are perishing” is more literally “are perish”, though that’s terrible English grammar. Further, rendering it merely “perish” implies the future tense, which is even less correct.  Thus, it has been rendered as the least incorrect option.
  16. Indeed, one is an odor from death leading into death; but another is an odor from life leading into life.  And who is fit for these things?
  17. For we aren’t like the many who are peddling the word of God.  But as from purity, but as from God, we speak before God in the Anointed.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 3

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The New and Old Covenants
  1. Do we begin to commend ourselves again?  Or do we need letters of commendation for you (or from you) as some do?
  2. You’re our letter, which was – and is – written in our hearts, being known and being read by all men,
  3. revealing that you’re a letter to the Anointed, being served by us, who were – and are – writing… yet not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God.  Not on stone tablets, but on flesh tablets of the heart.
  4. And we have confidence like this toward God through the Anointed.
  5. Not that from ourselves we’re fit to conclude anything about(705)“about” is literally “as of”.  However, it could also be translated “as from”, in the sense of them doing things in their own ability or their own “fitness” ourselves.  But our fitness is from God,
  6. who also made us fit servants of a new covenant; not of the letter, but of the Spirit.  For the letter kills, but the Spirit brings to life.
  7. But if the ministry of death (in letters that were – and are – engraved on stone) happened in such glory that the sons of Israel weren’t able to gaze into the face of Moses because of the glory on his face (which is nullified),
  8. won’t the ministry of the Spirit have much(706)“have much” is literally “be in how much” not merely asking if it has glory, but also asking “how much more” more glory?
  9. For if the ministry of condemnation had glory, the ministry of righteousness overflows much more in glory.
  10. For even what was – and is – glorified, wasn’t – and isn’t – glorified in this case because of the glory which surpasses it.
  11. For if what is nullified came through glory, what remains is much more in glory.
  12. And having such a hope, we therefore employ much boldness.(707)“boldness” The Greek word here can especially refer to boldness in speaking.
  13. And not like Moses, who was putting a veil on his face so the sons of Israel couldn’t gaze into the glory which was nullified at the end.
  14. But their minds were hardened.(708)“were hardened” could also be translated “were made calloused”.  The Greek word refers to making something harder, which carries the connotation of being insensate; like a callous.  For the same veil remains until this present day, not being unveiled by the reading of the old covenant because it’s being nullified in the Anointed.
  15. But whenever Moses is read until today, a veil lies over their hearts.
  16. And whenever someone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away.
  17. Now the Lord is Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
  18. But with a face that was – and is – being unveiled, we’re all transformed from glory to glory into the same image, reflecting the glory of the Lord as from the Spirit of the Lord.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 4

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Cost and Reward of the Gospel
  1. Because of this, we don’t lose heart (just as we received mercy in having this ministry).
  2. But we renounced the hidden things of shame; not walking in craftiness nor deceitfully corrupting(709)“deceitfully corrupting” is one word in Greek.  It properly refers to using deceptive bait to ensnare, like concealing a fishhook with a worm, and the resulting corruption that results from being ensnared. the word of God, but by manifestation of truth are commending ourselves to every conscience of men in the sight of God.
  3. But even if our gospel was – and is – veiled, it was – and is – veiled to the men who are perishing
  4. by the god of this age, who blinded the unbeliever’s minds so they won’t clearly see the light of the gospel of the glory of the Anointed, who is the image of God.
  5. For we don’t preach about ourselves, but about the Anointed Lord Jesus.  But we ourselves are your slaves for the sake of Jesus.
  6. For God is the One who said, “Out of darkness, light will shine”, who shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of God’s glory in the face of Jesus the Anointed.
  7. And we have this treasure in earthen vessels so the surpassing power is God’s and not from us.
  8. In everything we’re being pressed, but not being crushed; being perplexed, but not despairing;
  9. Being persecuted, but not being abandoned; being struck down, but not being destroyed;
  10. Always carrying the death of Jesus in our body, so the life of Jesus might also be apparent in our body.
  11. For we – the men who live – are continually delivered to death for Jesus’ sake, so the life of Jesus might also be apparent in our mortal flesh.
  12. So then death works in us, but life in you.
  13. But having the same Spirit of faith according to what was – and is – written, “I believed, therefore I spoke(710)quotation/allusion to Psalm 116:10 we also believe, therefore we also speak,
  14. knowing that the One who raised the Lord Jesus will also raise us through Jesus and will present us with you.
  15. For all things are for your sake, so thanksgiving might overflow to the glory of God through the grace which overflowed to more men.
  16. Therefore, we don’t lose heart.  But indeed, our outward man decays but our inner man is renewed day by day.
  17. For our momentary, light persecution is producing for us the weight of the glory of ages, which is abundantly beyond measure.
  18. We aren’t keeping our eyes on the things we see, but on the things we don’t see.  For the things we see only last for a season; but the things we don’t see last for ages.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 5

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Cost and Reward of the Gospel
  1. We did – and do – know that if our earthly house (the tent of our body(711)“tent of our body” is one word in Greek. It literally means “tent”, but figuratively means the body in which our spirit dwells.) is destroyed, we have a building from God; a house of ages in the heavens which is made without hands.
  2. For we also groan in this tent, longing to clothe ourselves in our dwelling from heaven.
  3. And if indeed we clothe ourselves, we won’t be found naked.
  4. For also, we groan as the men who are in the tent; being burdened since we don’t want to unclothe ourselves, but to clothe ourselves so the mortal might be swallowed by the life.
  5. But the One who prepared us for this same thing is God, who gave us the down payment(712)“down payment” is literal.  The Greek word here is imported from Hebrew and refers to “earnest money” given as a surety that the rest of the payment will be given. of the Holy Spirit.
  6. Therefore, we’re always being courageous and knowing(713)literally “were – and are – knowing” as this verb is in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. that being at home in the body, we’re away from our home with the Lord.
  7. For we walk by faith, not by sight.
  8. Yet we’re courageous, and think it better to be away from home in the body and to be at home with the Lord.
  9. Therefore, we’re also zealous to please(714)literally “be pleasing to” Him, whether being at home or being away from home.
  10. For all of us must be revealed before the judgement seat of the Anointed so each might receive back the things done through the body, whether good or evil; to each according to what he’s done,
  11. Therefore, knowing the reverent fear(715)“reverent fear” is one word in Greek.  It’s primary meaning is “fear”, but it can also mean “awe” or “reverence” depending on the context.  (The Hebrew word for “fear” has the same range of meaning)  Since both fear and reverence are appropriate toward God, both definitions were included.  Further, the word can mean both, and both were likely intended. of the Lord, we convince men.  And we were – and are – made known to God, and I also hope your consciences were – and are – made known to Him.
Jesus’ death and Reconciliation
  1. We aren’t commending ourselves to you again; but giving you an opportunity to boast on our behalf, so you might have an answer to the men who boast in appearance, but not in the heart.
  2. For if we’re beside ourselves, it’s for God; if we’re of sound mind, it’s for you.
  3. For the love(716)The Greek word here “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) of the Anointed compels us, judging this: that One died for the sake of all, therefore all died.
  4. And He died for the sake of all, so the men who live might no longer live for themselves; but for the sake of the One who died and was raised for them.
  5. So then, from now on we did – and do – view no one according to the flesh.  Even if we did – and do – know the Anointed according to the flesh, yet now we don’t know Him that way anymore.
  6. Therefore, if anyone is in the Anointed, he’s a new creation. The original things have passed away; behold, he did – and does – become new.
  7. And all things are from God, the One who reconciled us to Himself through the Anointed, and gave us the ministry of reconciliation.
  8. so that in the Anointed, God is reconciling the world to Himself, not taking their accidental sins(717)“accidental sins”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and is also used in Ephesians 2:1 in the phrase: “dead in your ‘paraptóma’ and sins”. It carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. into account against them, and putting in us the message of reconciliation.
  9. Therefore, we are ambassadors on behalf of the Anointed.  As God is calling through us, we plead on behalf of the Anointed, “Be reconciled to God”
  10. He made the One who didn’t know sin into sin for our sake, so we might become God’s righteousness in Him.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 6

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Grace Through Trials
  1. And working together with Him, we also encourage you not to receive the grace of God in vain.
  2. For He says, “I heard you in an ideal, acceptable season; and I rushed to your aid in a day of salvation.(718)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 49:8  Behold; now is the ideal season of favor.  Behold; now is the day of salvation.
  3. We’re putting nothing offensive in anyone’s(719)nothing offensive in anyone’s” is literally “nothing offensive in no one’s“, with “nothing” and “no one” being the same Greek word. However, “no one’s” was changed to “anyone’s” because English double negatives cancel each other out.  Therefore, keeping it a double negative would make it sound like someone was putting an offense in someone’s way. way, so the ministry won’t be discredited.
  4. But in everything we’re establishing ourselves as God’s servants by much endurance in afflictions, in distresses, in calamities,
  5. in beatings, in imprisonments, in chaos, in exhaustion, in sleepless nights, in fasts,
  6. in purity, in knowledge, in patience, in benevolence,(720)“benevolence” this Greek word refers to kindness that is both practical (meeting real needs) and morally upright.  It also contains the idea of integrity. in the Holy Spirit, in sincere love,(721)The Greek word here “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.)
  7. in the word of truth, in God’s power through the war equipment(722)“war equipment” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the various tools, implements, and weapons used to wage war.  The Greek word is “ὅπλον” (hoplon), which was one name for the large wooden shield from which the “Hoplites” in the ancient Grecian military got their name. of righteousness in the right hand and the left hand.
  8. Through glory and disgrace, through praise and slander, regarded as deceivers and yet true,
  9. Being unknown and yet being fully known, as dying and behold we live, being disciplined, and not being put to death.
  10. As being grieved, but always rejoicing; as poor, but making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.
  11. Our mouth did – and does – speak(723)“did – and does – speak openly” is more literally “was – and is – opened”.  The phrase “mouth was opened” is an idiom meaning to speak freely. openly to you Corinthians; our heart did – and does – grow for you.
  12. You aren’t restrained by us, but you’re restrained in your feelings.
  13. And in return for the same, (I speak as to children) you must also be grown.
Don’t Become Unequally Yoked
  1. Don’t become unequally yoked(724)“unequally yoked” is literal. A “yoke” is a contoured wooden beam used to join two beast of burden (cows, oxen, etc.) together so they can pull a heavy load together. with unbelievers.  For what alliance do righteousness and lawlessness have? Or what association does light have with darkness ?
  2. And what harmony does the Anointed have with Belial?(725)“Belial” is likely a reference to Satan.  It likely comes from a Hebrew word which means “worthlessness”.  This could also be a play on words with a double meaning, asking: “what does someone who’s anointed (to God) have in common with worthlessness?”  Or what portion(726)“portion” this Greek word sometimes referred to the division of an inheritance, which is likely the sense here.  Unbelievers and believers have a different “inheritance”, and thus can’t share it. can a believer share with an unbeliever?
  3. And what agreement does God’s temple have with idols?  For we are the living God’s temple, just as God said, “I will live in them and will walk among them.  And I will be their God and they will be My people.(727)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 26:11-12, & Ezekiel 37:27
  4. Therefore, “come out from their midst and be separate(728)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:11 says the Lord.  “Don’t touch an impure thing(729)continued quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:11 and I will welcome you.
  5. And “I will be a Father to you, and you will be sons and daughters to Me says the Lord Almighty.”

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2 Corinthians Chapter 7

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Perfecting Holiness
  1. Therefore, having these promises beloved, we should cleanse ourselves from every defilement of flesh and spirit, completing holiness in the reverent fear(730)“reverent fear” is one word in Greek.  Its primary meaning is “fear”, but it can also mean “awe” or “reverence” depending on the context.  (The Hebrew word for “fear” has the same range of meaning)  Since both fear and reverence are appropriate toward God (and both were likely intended) both definitions were included. of God.
  2. Make room for us in your heart; we’ve wronged no one, we’ve corrupted no one, we’ve exploited no one.
  3. I don’t speak to condemn you(731)“to condemn you” is more literally “for your condemnation”.  For I did – and do – predict that you’re in our hearts, to die with and to live with.
  4. My confidence in you is great; my boast on your behalf is great; I was – and am – filled with comforting encouragement;(732)“comforting encouragement” is on word in Greek.  It typically translated one or the other based on context, but the context here is slightly ambiguous so both were included. I exceedingly overflow with joy at all our affliction.
  5. For also, at our coming into Macedonia no one did – or does – have rest for our flesh.  But we’re being hard pressed in everything; conflicts are outside, fears are within.
  6. But God – the One who comforts the lowly – comforted us by the arrival of Titus.
  7. And not only by his arrival, but also by the comfort which he was comforted by you, reporting to us your longing, your mourning, and your zeal for me, for me to rejoice more.
  8. Because even if I grieved you in the letter, I don’t regret it (even if I was regretting it).  For I see that the letter grieved you, even if only for a while.
  9. I rejoice now; not that you were grieved, but that you were grieved into changed minds, and thus changed deeds.(733)“Changed your minds, and thus changed deeds” is one word in Greek, typically translated “repentance”. However, it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. All that meaning is captured by a single Greek word here.  For you were grieved according to God’s will, so that through us you might suffer loss in nothing.
  10. For the grief according to God’s will produces changed minds and thus deeds,(734)see previous note. leading into salvation without regret; but the world’s grief produces death.
  11. This same thing – to be grieved according to God’s will – produced much diligence in you, much verbal defense, much indignation, much fear, much longing, much zeal, and much vindication.  In everything, you proved yourselves to be innocent in the matter.
  12. So even though I wrote to you, it wasn’t for the man who did wrong, nor for the man who suffered wrong; but for your diligence to be revealed to you on our behalf in the sight of God.
  13. Because of this, we were – and are – encouraged.(735)or “comforted” the Greek word here can mean either depending on the context.  And by our encouragement, we rejoiced even more abundantly at the joy of Titus, because his spirit was – and is – refreshed by all of you.
  14. For if I did – and do – boast anything to him about you, I wasn’t put to shame.  But just as we spoke everything to you in truth, so also our boast to Titus became truth.
  15. And his affection are toward you is abundant, remembering the obedience of you all, and how you welcomed him with fear and trembling.
  16. I rejoice that I’m confident of you in everything.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 8

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Macedonia Generosity
  1. Now, we declare to you brothers, the grace of God which was – and is – given among the churches of Macedonia,
  2. That in much testing through affliction, the abundance of their joy and the depth of their poverty overflowed into the wealth of their generosity.
  3. For I testify that according to their ability – even beyond their ability – they gave voluntarily,
  4. imploring us with much supplication to let them join in the grace and partnership in the ministry of the saints.
  5. And not only as we hoped, but they gave of themselves, first to the Lord and then to us through God’s will.
  6. We encouraged Titus so just as he began before you, so also he might complete this grace in you.
  7. But just as you overflow in everything – in faith, and word, and knowledge, and all eager diligence, and the love from us to you – so you should overflow in this grace also.
  8. I don’t speak as a command, but because of the eager diligence of others and to prove your love is genuine.
  9. For you know the grace of our Anointed Lord Jesus.  That while being rich, He became poor for your sakes, so through His poverty you might become rich.
  10. And I give an opinion on this matter; for this is beneficial for you, who since last year had already begun not only to work, but also to desire to work.
  11. Now then, also complete the work; so just as you had the eagerness to desire, so also you’ll have the eagerness to complete what you have.
  12. For if the eagerness is present, it’s acceptable according to what a man has; not according to what he doesn’t have.
  13. For this isn’t so others have ease but you have affliction, but so there is equality.
  14. At the present season, your overflow would go to those in need, so also their overflow might go into your need, so there might be equality.
  15. Just as it was – and is – written, “The man who gathered much didn’t have abundance; the man who gathered little didn’t lack.(736)quotation/allusion to Exodus 16:18
Praising Titus
  1. But grace be to God, the One who put the same eagerness for you into the heart of Titus.
  2. For he indeed welcomed our appeal; and being more eager, he went out to you of his own accord.
  3. And we sent with him the brother whose praise in the gospel is throughout all the churches.
  4. And not only that, but he was also elected(737)“he was… …elected” is one word in Greek.  It literally means “to vote by stretching out the hand”, or to “elect by a show of hands”, sometimes with the idea of appointing someone to an office or position. by the churches as our fellow traveler in this act of grace, which is administered by us for our readiness and the Lord’s glory.
  5. We’re taking care of this gift, lest someone discredit us through this abundant gift which is administered by us.
  6. For we take care to be noble; not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men.
  7. And we sent with them our brother who we proved to be eagerly diligent many times, in many things, and now he’s more eagerly diligent because of his great trust in you.
  8. Whether concerning Titus – who’s my partner and a fellow worker to you – or our brothers who are messengers of the churches, they’re a glory to the Anointed
  9. Therefore, show them proof of your love and the reason for our boast about you in front of the churches.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 9

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Arrangements for the Gift
  1. For indeed, it’s superfluous for me to write to you about service to the saints.
  2. For I did – and do – know your eagerness, which I boast about on your behalf to the Macedonians; that Achaia was – and is – prepared since last year, and your zeal has provoked more of them.
  3. But I sent the brothers so our boast about you won’t be empty in this matter, so you might be prepared; just as I was saying.
  4. Lest if the Macedonians come with me and find you unprepared, we – not to mention you – would be put to shame in this confidence.
  5. Therefore, I thought it was essential to urge the brothers so they might go to you and prepare beforehand this blessing from you which was – and is – already promised.  Thus, it’s ready to be given as a blessing and not as from reluctant greed.(738)“greed” could also be translated “covetousness”.  Paul seems to be saying the gift should freely given without a greedy wish they didn’t have to give what they’d promised.
  6. Yet remember this: the man who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and the man who sows blessings will also reap blessings.
  7. just as each did – and does – decide in the heart; not from grief or from compulsion, for God shows preference(739)The Greek word used here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to a joyful and voluntary(740)“joyful and voluntary” is one word in Greek, which properly means joyful and not under compulsion; i.e. voluntary and happy about it. giver.
  8. And God can make all grace overflow into you, so having all you need always in everything, you might overflow in every good work.
  9. Just as it was – and is – written, “He scattered abroad, He gave to the poor, His righteousness endures through the age.”(741)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 112:9.  “Through the age” is typically translated “eternal” here.  But the Greek word translated “age” here is “αἰών” (aion), which means a time span with a beginning and an end.  It’s also used in Matthew 24:3 to talk about the “culmination (end) of the age.”
  10. And the One who supplies seed for the man who sows, and bread for food will abundantly provide, and will multiply your seed for sowing, and will grow the fruits of your righteousness,
  11. enriching you in everything; into all generosity which through us produces thanksgiving to God.
  12. For the ministry of this service is not only completely supplying needs of the saints, but also is overflowing through much thanksgiving(742)literally “many thanksgivings” to God.
  13. Because this service is proof of your genuineness,(743)“proof of your genuineness” is one word in Greek.  It’s a noun, derived from the adjective “δόκιμος” (dokimos) which means something that has been tested to prove it’s genuine.  It was used of testing coins to prove they weren’t counterfeit or mixed with lesser metals. they’re glorifying God at the submission of your confession to the gospel of the Anointed, and the generosity of your partnership to them and to all men.
  14. And their earnest prayer is on your behalf; longing for you because of the surpassing grace of God upon you.
  15. Grace(744)“Grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis) for someone.  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. be to God for His indescribable gift!

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2 Corinthians Chapter 10

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Paul Defends His Ministry
  1. And I myself urge you through gentle strength and kindness of the Anointed; I Paul whose face is indeed humble when I’m among you, but being absent I’m bold to you.
  2. Now I implore you while not being present to be bold in the confidence that I consider to be daring, to some of the men who consider us like men who are walking according to the flesh.
  3. For though we’re walking in the flesh, we don’t wage war according to the flesh.
  4. For the weapons(745)“weapons” this Greek word refers to the various tools, implements, and especially weapons used to wage war.  The Greek word is “ὅπλον” (hoplon), which was one name for the large wooden shield from which the “Hoplites” in the ancient Grecian military got their name. of our warfare aren’t carnal, but powerful through God to tear down strongholds,
  5. tearing down arguments and every battlement rising up against the knowledge of God, and taking every thought captive to the obedience of the Anointed,
  6. and in being ready to avenge all disobedience when your obedience might be completed.
  7. You see things according to outward appearance.  If someone did – and does – persuade himself to be of the Anointed, let him consider this about himself again; that just as he’s in Christ, so also are we.
  8. For even if I boast somewhat more abundantly about our authority – which the Lord gave to build up and not to tear you down – I won’t be ashamed,
  9. so I won’t seem like I desire to frighten you through the letters.
  10. For indeed they declare, “The letters are weighty and strong, but his bodily presence is weak and his words were – and are – worthless.”(746)“worthless” The Greek word here literally means to treat something as having no value, and thus to despise it or treat it with contempt.
  11. Let such a man consider this: That just as we are in word through letters while being absent, so also we are in action while being present.
  12. For we don’t dare to classify or to compare ourselves with some who are commending themselves.  But they – measuring themselves by themselves and comparing themselves to themselves – they don’t understand.
  13. But we won’t boast about things beyond our measure, but only according to the measure of the region that God allotted to us; a measure which reaches as far as you.
  14. For we don’t overextend ourselves like we aren’t reaching to you.  For as far as you came, we came before you in the gospel of the Anointed.
  15. We aren’t boasting in things beyond our measure (in labors which belong to another).  But we’re hoping to be abundantly enlarged among you in your growing faith according to our region,
  16. to proclaim the gospel in the regions beyond you; not to boast in the readiness of another’s region.
  17. Yet “The man who boasts, let him boast in the Lord.(747)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 9:24
  18. For it’s not the man who commends himself who is proved genuine,(748)“proved genuine” this Greek word is an adjective.  It was used of coins that had been tested to prove they were genuine coins, and not counterfeit or mixed with lesser metals (corrupted) but that man who the Lords commends.

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2 Corinthians Chapter 11

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Paul’s Further Defense
  1. O, I wish you were bearing with me in a little foolishness; and yet you do bear with me.
  2. For I’m jealous over you with a Godly Jealousy.  For I betrothed you to one husband, to present you as a pure virgin to the Anointed.
  3. But I fear that somehow – just as the serpent in his cunning thoroughly deceived Eve – your minds might be ruinously corrupted away from the simplicity and the purity in the Anointed.
  4. For indeed, if the man who comes preaches another Jesus who we didn’t preach; or you receive a different spirit which you hadn’t received; or a different gospel which you didn’t accept; you bear it well.
  5. For I think I did – and do – fall short in nothing compared to these ‘super apostles’.
  6. But even if I’m unskilled in speech, yet I’m not in knowledge.  But we made this clear to you in every way in everything.
  7. Or did I sin in humbling myself so you might be exalted, because I preached the gospel of God to you freely.
  8. I robbed other churches by accepting provisions from them for my service to you.
  9. And while being present with you and being in need I didn’t burden anyone,(749)“I didn’t burden anyone” is more literally “I didn’t burden no one”.  But since double negative cancel each other out in English (but not Greek) “no one” was change to “anyone” to retain the sense of the Greek. for my need was supplied by the brothers coming from Macedonia.  And in everything I kept – and will keep – myself not burdensome to you.
  10. The truth of the Anointed is in me, so this boast of mine won’t be stopped in the regions of Achaia.
  11. Why?  Because I don’t love(750)The Greek word used here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapao), which is the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) you?  God did – and does – know I do!
  12. But what I do – and will do – I do so I might cut off the opportunity of the men who desire an opportunity to be found just as we are in what they boast about.
  13. For such men are false apostles; treacherous workers disguising themselves as apostles of the Anointed.
  14. And no wonder, for Satan himself disguises himself as an angel of light.
  15. Therefore, it’s no great surprise if his servants disguise themselves as servants of righteousness; whose end will be according to their deeds.
Paul’s Sarcastic and “Foolish” Boasting
  1. Again I say: no one should think I’m(751)“I’m” is literally “me to be” foolish.  But even if I’m otherwise, receive me like a foolish man so I also might boast a little.
  2. What I say in this confident boasting I don’t say according to the Lord, but like in foolishness.
  3. Since many boast according to the flesh, I also will boast.
  4. For being wise, you gladly tolerate foolish men.
  5. For you tolerate it if someone enslaves you, if someone devours you, if someone takes from you, if someone exults himself, if someone hits your face.
  6. I speak in shame because it’s like we were – and are – weak.  But in whatever someone might dare (I speak in foolishness) I also dare.
  7. Are they Hebrews?  I am too.  Are they Israelites? I am too.  Are they descendants of Abraham?  I am too.
  8. Are they servants of the Anointed?  I am more so.  (I speak like I’m insane)  In abundant labors, in abunda