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(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.(1007)"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

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New Testament History

Matthew

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Matthew Chapter 1

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Jesus’ Genealogy
  1. The genealogy scroll of Jesus the Anointed;(1)Most translations say “Jesus Christ” here. Contrary to popular belief, “Christ” is not Jesus’ last name; it’s a descriptive title. “Christ” is a transliteration of the Greek word “Χριστός” (Christos), with “Christ” being the Greek word and the “os” ending indicating its function in the sentence. Christ(os) literally means “anointed one” or “one who has been anointed”. the son of David, the son of Abraham.
  2. Abraham fathered Isaac. And Isaac fathered Jacob. And Jacob fathered Judah and his brothers.
  3. And Judah fathered Perez and Zerah from Tamar. And Perez fathered Hezron. And Hezron fathered Ram.
  4. And Ram fathered Amminadab. And Amminadab fathered Nahshon. And Nahshon fathered Salmon.
  5. And Salmon fathered Boaz from Rahab. And Boaz fathered Obed from Ruth. And Obed fathered Jesse.
  6. And Jesse fathered David the king. And David fathered Solomon from the widow of Uriah.
  7. And Solomon fathered Rehoboam. And Rehoboam fathered Abijah. And Abijah fathered Asa.
  8. And Asa fathered Jehoshaphat. And Jehoshaphat fathered Joram. And Joram fathered Uzziah.
  9. And Uzziah fathered Jotham. And Jotham fathered Ahaz. And Ahaz fathered Hezekiah.
  10. And Hezekiah fathered Manasseh. And Manasseh fathered Amos. And Amos fathered Josiah.
  11. And Josiah fathered Jeconiah and his brothers before the deportation to Babylon.
  12. And after the deportation to Babylon, Jeconiah fathered Shealtiel. And Shealtiel fathered Zerubbabel.
  13. And Zerubbabel fathered Abiud. And Abiud fathered Eliakim. And Eliakim fathered Azor.
  14. And Azor fathered Zadok. And Zadok fathered Achim. And Achim fathered Eliud.
  15. And Eliud fathered Eleazar. And Eleazar fathered Matthan. And Matthan fathered Jacob.
  16. And Jacob fathered Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, the One who is called “the Anointed”.
  17. Therefore, all the generations from Abraham until David were 14 generations. And from David until the deportation to Babylon were 14 generations. And from the deportation to Babylon until the Anointed were 14 generations.
Jesus’ Conception and Birth
  1. Now, the birth of Jesus the Anointed was like this: having been betrothed to Joseph, His mother Mary was found having a child in her womb from the Holy Spirit before they came together.
  2. Yet Joseph her husband – being righteous and not wishing to publicly disgrace her – resolved to send her away secretly.
  3. And having been greatly troubled(2)“having been greatly troubled” is a single word in Greek. This difficult to translate word literally means being in a state of passionate response/thinking, typically producing inner turmoil. by these things, behold; an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream saying; “Joseph, son of David, don’t be afraid to take Mary as your wife. For the child which was conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.
  4. “She will bear a son, and you will call his name Jesus because He will save His people from their sins.
  5. “And all this has happened so it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying:
  6. Behold! The virgin will carry a child in her womb and will bear a son. And they will call His name Immanuel;”(3)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 7:14 which is translated: “God with us”.
  7. And having been woken from his sleep, Joseph did as the angel of the Lord commanded and took her as his wife.
  8. Also, he wasn’t knowing her intimately until she gave birth to a son, and he called His name Jesus.

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Matthew Chapter 2

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The Magi Visit
  1. Now, Jesus was born in Bethlehem(4)the Hebrew word “Bethlehem” translates as “house of bread”, aka: a bakery. God arranged it so the bread of life (Jesus) was born in a town named “bakery”. of Judea in the days of Herod the king. And Behold, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem
  2. saying: “Where is the One who was born king of the Jews? For we perceived His star in the east and came to bow down at His feet.”(5)“bow down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered.
  3. And having heard this, King Herod was perplexed and deeply shaken,(6)“perplexed and deeply shaken” is a single word in Greek, with that exact definition. and all Jerusalem with him.
  4. And having gathered all the chief priests and scribes(7)“scribes” In the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. of the people, he was asking them where the Anointed is born.
  5. And they answered him, “In Bethlehem of Judea.  For it’s *written through the prophet:
  6. And you Bethlehem, land of Judah, are by no means least among the leaders of Judah. For He will go out from you leading; He who will shepherd My people Israel.”(8)quotation/allusion to Micah 5:2
  7. Then having secretly called the Magi, Herod learned from them the precise time that the star appears.
  8. And having sent them to Bethlehem, he said; “Having traveled there, search very carefully all around for the young child. And as soon as you find him, report back to me so that I too may come, and bow down at His feet.”(9)“bow down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered.
  9. And they listened to the king and traveled there.  And behold, the star which they saw in the east was going before them until it arrived; then it stood over where the child was.
  10. And having see the star, they rejoiced with extremely great joy.
  11. And having gone into the house, they saw the child with Mary His mother. And falling down, they bowed low at His feet.(10)“bowed low at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. And having opened their store of treasures, they offered Him gifts of gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
  12. And having been divinely warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they returned to their land by another way.
The Escape to Egypt
  1. Now, after they left, behold; an angel of the Lord appears in a dream to Joseph saying, “After waking up, take the child and His mother and flee to Egypt and live there until I tell you, for Herod intends to seek the child to kill Him.”
  2. And having been woken, he took the child and His mother by night and fled into Egypt.
  3. And he was living there until the death of Herod so it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by The Lord through the prophet, saying; “From out of Egypt I called My son.”(11)quotation/allusion to Hosea 11:1
Herod’s wrath
  1. Then Herod – having seen that he mocked by the magi – was greatly enraged.  And having sent orders, he killed all the boys in Bethlehem and all in the region, from two years old and under; according to the precise time he learned from the magi.
  2. Then it was fulfilled: what was spoken through the prophet Jeremiah, saying;
  3. A voice in Rhama was heard weeping and much wailing. Rachel is weeping for her children and doesn’t want to be comforted, because they are no more.”(12)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:15
  4. Now, when Herod died, behold; an angel of the Lord appears in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,
  5. saying: “After waking up, take the child and His mother and travel into the land of Israel, for the men who seek the life of the child have died.
  6. And having been woken, he took the child and His mother and entered into the land of Israel.
  7. But having heard that Archelaus reigned as king over Judea in place of his father Herod, he feared going there. And having been divinely warned in a dream, he departed into the regions of Galilee.
  8. And having arrived, he settled down in a city called Nazareth, so what was spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled; that He will be called a Nazarene.

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Matthew Chapter 3

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John The Baptizer
  1. Then in those days, John the Baptizer comes preaching in the desert of Judea,
  2. saying: “Repent!(13)“Repent” this Greek word doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. for the kingdom of the heavens has drawn near.”
  3. For this is the man spoken of through the prophet Isaiah, saying; “The voice urgently pleading in the desert: prepare the way of the Lord. Make His way straight.”(15)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:3
  4. And John himself was wearing a robe made from camel’s hair and had a leather belt around his waist,(14)quotation/allusion to 2 Kings 1:8, which describes the prophet Elijah as “a hairy man with a leather belt around his waist”. and his food was locusts and wild honey.
  5. At that time, Jerusalem was going out to him; and all Judea, and all the area around the Jordan.
  6. They were being baptized by him in the Jordan River and openly confessing their sins.
  7. And having seen many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them; “You offspring of serpents!(16)“You offspring of serpents!” This isn’t mere name calling. Satan is always represented as a serpent. Therefore, calling them the “offspring of serpents” is akin to saying they are Satan’s children/followers. Further, this understanding makes John’s comment in 3:9 make much more sense. Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?”(17)“wrath” the Greek word refers to anger or wrath that has built up over a longer period. This isn’t an outburst of anger in the moment; it’s matured over time.
  8. “Therefore, produce fruit worthy of repentance.”(18)See note on 3:2
  9. “And don’t presume to say among yourselves; “We have Abraham as a father”. For I tell you that God has the power to raise up children of Abraham from these stones.”
  10. “Already, the axe is laid near the root(19)“root” the Greek word here can also mean “descendant”, which is quite relevant considering the context. of the trees. Therefore, every tree not producing good fruit is cut off and thrown into the fire.”
  11. “Indeed, I baptize you in water toward repentance.  But the One who comes after me is mightier than I; He whose sandals I’m not worthy to carry.  He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire.”
  12. “He whose winnowing fork(20)“winnowing fork” is a literal translation of the Greek word here. A “winnowing fork” is used for “winnowing”. Winnowing is the process of separating the useful/edible grain from the useless chaff. Chaff is the husks and stem fragments of a grain plant that are useless for anything. You “winnow” by using a winnowing fork to throw the mixture up into the air. The wind blows away the lighter chaff, while the heavier grain falls back down to be collected. This process was done on a “threshing floor”, which had to be cleaned prior to use because food was prepared (winnowed) there. is in His hand. And He will thoroughly cleanse His threshing floor and will gather His grain into the barn.  But the chaff He will burn completely with unquenchable fire.
Jesus’ baptism
  1. Then Jesus comes from Galilee to the Jordan, to John to be baptized by(21)“by” the Greek word here can also mean “under”, sometimes with the connotation of authority; i.e. “under” in the sense of authority. him.
  2. But John was stubbornly hindering Him, saying; “I have a need to be baptized by(22)see previous note. you, and you come to me?”
  3. But answering, Jesus said to him; “Let that go, just for now. For it’s proper for us to fulfill all righteousness in this way.”  Then he lets it go.
  4. And having been baptized, Jesus immediately came up away from the water.  And behold; the heavens were opened [to Him] and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming upon Him.
  5. And behold; there was a voice from the heavens saying; “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

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Matthew Chapter 4

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Jesus’ Temptation
  1. Then Jesus was led up into the wilderness by the Spirit to be tempted by the Accuser.(23)“Accuser” The Greek word used here is “διάβολος” (diabolos), and it’s the root of our English word “devil”. Much like “Christ” (see note on Matt 1:1) “devil” isn’t a name but a descriptive title.
  2. And having fasted(25)“fasting” doesn’t always refer to a complete denial of food.  Long fasts were often done with little or unpleasant food.  Jesus might not have forgone food and drink entirely, but rather was living on little or unpleasant food. forty days and forty nights, He was hungry afterwards.
  3. And having approached, the one who tempts told Him; “If you are God’s Son, command these stones so they become bread.
  4. But answering, He said; “It is *written: Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every spoken word(24)“spoken word” the Greek word here refers only to words that are spoken, never to words that are written. proceeding from God’s mouth.”(26)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 8:3
  5. Then, the Accuser takes Him to the holy city and stood Him on the pinnacle of the Temple.
  6. And he tells Him; “If you are God’s Son, throw yourself down. For it is *written: “He will give orders to His angels concerning you.”(27)quotation/allusion to Psalm 91:11 Also, “They will raise you up on their hands, so you don’t stumble when your foot struck against a stone.”(28)quotation/allusion to Psalm 91:12
  7. Jesus was declaring to him; “Again, it is *written: you shall not test the Lord your God.”(29)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:16
  8. Again, the Accuser takes Him to a very high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory.
  9. And he told Him; “I will give you all these things if, having bowed down, you worshiped me.”
  10. Then Jesus tells him; “Depart Satan! For it is *written: You shall worship the Lord your God, and you shall serve Him alone.”(30)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:13
  11. Then the Accuser leaves, and behold; angels came and were serving Him.
  12. Now, because he heard that John was arrested, He went back into Galilee.
  13. And having left Nazareth, He came and settled down in Capernaum by the sea in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali,
  14. so the word which was spoken by Isaiah the Prophet might be fulfilled, saying;
  15. Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali. The way of the sea across the Jordan; Galilee of the Gentiles.
  16. The people who sit in darkness saw a great light. And to the men who sat in the land and shadow of death, a light rose on them.”(31)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 9:1-2
Jesus Begins Teaching and Healing
  1. From that time on, Jesus began to proclaim and say; “Repent!(32)“Repent” this Greek word doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. All that meaning is captured by a single Greek word here. or the kingdom of the heavens has drawn near.”
  2. Now, He saw two brothers while walking beside the Sea of Galilee: Simon who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother.  They were casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
  3. And He tells them; “Come! Follow Me and I will make you fishers of men.”
  4. And immediately dropping the nets, they followed Him.
  5. And having gone forward from there, He saw others. Two brothers – James the son of Zebedee and John his brother – were in a boat with Zebedee their father adjusting their nets. And He called them.
  6. And having immediately left the boat and their father, they followed Him.
  7. Further, He was going through all Galilee; teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every chronic disease and sickness in the people.
  8. Now, the news about Him went out into all of Syria and they brought Him all the sick: those having various chronic diseases, and persisting torments, and being demon possessed, and having seizures, and paralytics, and He cured them.
  9. Further, many crowds followed Him from Galilee, and Decapolis, and Jerusalem, and Judea, and beyond the Jordan.

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Matthew Chapter 5

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The Sermon on the Mountain
  1. Then having seen the crowds, He went up to the mountain.  And having sat down, His disciples approached Him.
  2. And opening His mouth, He was teaching them, saying;
  3. “Blessed are the poor in spirit, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.
  4. “Blessed are the men who mourn, because they will be comforted.
  5. “Blessed are the strong but gentle,(33)“strong but gentle” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness. i.e. some who is strong but applies their strength gently. because they will inherit the land.
  6. “Blessed are the men who hunger and thirst for righteousness, because they will be satisfied.
  7. “Blessed are the merciful, because they will receive mercy.
  8. “Blessed are the pure of heart, because they will see God.
  9. “Blessed are the peacemakers, because they will be called sons of God.
  10. “Blessed are the men who have been persecuted on account of righteousness, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.
  11. “Blessed are you when they disgrace and accuse(34)“disgrace and accuse” is one word in the Greek.  It can mean either, but both definitions were included because they both fit the context, and it seems likely that both were intended. you, and persecute you, and say every evil thing against you; lying about you on account of Me.
  12. “Rejoice and jump for joy; because your wages are many in the heavens. In the same way, they persecuted the prophets before you.
  13. “You are the salt of the land. But if the salt has become tasteless,(35)“become tasteless” is literally “become foolish”, as in “a fool is tasteless”. The double meaning here of foolish and tasteless is probably intended, and demonstrates some clever wordplay on Jesus’ part. by what will it be salted?  For it’s no longer potent enough for anything, except being thrown outside to be trampled under foot by men.
  14. “You are the light of the world. A city laying on a hill isn’t able to be hidden.
  15. “And they don’t light a lamp and put it under a measuring basket, but on the lampstand and shines light to everyone in the house.
  16. “In the same way, let your light shine before men so they might see your good works, and might glorify your Father in the heavens.
Jesus and the Law
  1. “Don’t think that I came to relax(36)“relax” the Greek word here literally means “loosen thoroughly”, often with the connotation of overthrowing or destroying because “loosen” can also mean dissolve. It comes from “thoroughly loosening” the straps of a pack animal at the end of a night or journey. Thus, it also has the connotation of ending something. The translation “relax” was chosen here because it best fits the context. Jesus spend the rest of the chapter “tightening” the moral standard of God’s (moral) law. the law or the prophets. I didn’t come to relax; but to fulfill.(37)“fulfill” could also be translated “complete”. The following verses do not touch on the Mosaic Law, but rather moral behavior.  Jesus “completed” God’s moral law in this passage because He extended guilt to our hearts, not just our actions.  Jesus didn’t relax God’s moral standard as revealed by the law and the prophets here; He completed it.
  2. “For amen I tell you; until heaven and earth pass away, one iota(38)“iota” is the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, and the term can be applied to the smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet (yod) as well. or one diacritic mark(39)“diacritic marks” are little lines or dots that change the meaning or sound of a word. For example, in the word “fiancé”, the little line above the “e” indicates a change of pronunciation. English rarely uses them, but Greek does.  Hebrew sometimes does, but they weren’t introduced into Hebrew until the mid first millennium.  However, this more likely refers to the slight extensions on certain Hebrew letters that distinguish them from other letters. definitely won’t pass away from the law until all happens.
  3. “Therefore, if someone relaxes(40)“relaxes” literally “loosens”; see note on verse 17. the least one of these commandments – and teaches others the same – he will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. But, whoever keeps and teaches it; he will be called great in the kingdom of the heavens.
  4. “For I tell you; unless your righteousness abounds greater than the Scribes(41)“Scribes” In the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. and Pharisees, then you definitely won’t enter into the kingdom of the heavens.
  5. “You heard that the ancients were told: “you shall not murder“,(42)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13 and whoever commits murder will be liable to judgement.
  6. “But I tell you; every man who is angry with his brother will be liable to judgement. And whoever might say to his brother “You airhead”(43)“airhead” the word used here is transliterated, apparently from Aramaic. It literally means “empty-headed”, or a fellow who is stupid or without sense. will be liable to the Sanhedrin.(44)The Sanhedrin was the highest Jewish court of the day. And whoever might say “You Fool” will be liable to the fire of the Valley of Hinnom.(45)Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  But this might refer to Israel’s history instead. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst sentence/judgement Israel had yet seen.  This happened again a few decades after Jesus’ death when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD.
  7. “Therefore, if you offer your gift on the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you,
  8. “leave your gift there before the altar and depart; first be reconciled to your brother and then go offer your gift.
  9. “Be reconciling quickly with your opponent at law while you are with him on the way to court, lest your accuser hand you over to the judge; and the judge to the officer, to be thrown into prison.
  10. “Amen I tell you; you won’t leave that place until you pay the last penny.(46)“penny” the Greek word here refers to the smallest Roman coin, made from copper.
  11. “You heard it was said: “You shall not have sex with another man’s wife.”(47)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14.  “have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was typically called fornication.
  12. “But I tell you; every man who looks at a wife(48)“wife” in Greek, there is no separate word for “woman” versus “wife”. They are the exact same word, and only context determines which is meant. Given the context of the preceding verse (see note on previous verse) “wife” is contextually more likely. in order to covet(49)“covet” the Greek word used here was also used twice in quoting the 10th commandment. (Romans 7:7 and Romans 13:9)  It properly refers to any strong desire whether good or bad, and is typically translated “craving” in the BOS Bible. her, already had sex with the other man’s wife(50)“had sex with the other man’s wife” see note on previous verse. in his heart.
  13. “And, if your right eye makes you stumble; remove it and throw it away from you. For it’s better that one of your organs might perish, instead of your whole body being thrown into the Valley of Hinnom.(51)“Valley of Hinnom” is literal; see note on Matthew 5:22.
  14. “And if your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it away from you. For it’s better that one of your organs might perish, and not have your whole body go into the Valley of Hinnom.(52)“Valley of Hinnom” is literal; see note on Matthew 5:22.
  15. “And it was said: “whoever sends away(53)“send away” is literal here, though it’s typically translated divorce in this passage. The same word is used of Jesus “sending away” crowds and Pilate “sending away” (releasing) Barabbas. Paul uses a different Greek word when talking about divorce in 1 Corinthians. For the relation between “send away” and divorce, see note(s) in next verse. his wife must give her a divorce certificate.(54)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 24:1
  16. “And I tell you: every man who only sends away(55)“send away” is literal; see note on previous verse his wife – except for the reason of fornication – makes her commit adultery.(56)The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and had three parts: 1) write a divorce certificate. 2) Give it to your wife. 3) Send her away from your house. However, if a man “sent her away” (kicked her out of his house) without a divorce certificate in that culture, she was destitute. She was still legally married because she didn’t have a divorce certificate, so she couldn’t marry anyone else without being an adulteress. Often, her only resort to feed herself was prostitution… which resulted in her committing adultery anyway. He “makes her commit adultery” (sex with another man while still married) to feed herself.  And whoever might marry a woman who has been merely(57)“merely” see previous note sent away; he is guilty of sex with another man’s wife.(58)“he is guilty of sex with another man’s wife” see note on Matthew 5:27
  17. “Again, you heard that the ancients were told: “You shall not make false oaths.”(59)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:12 And: “You shall fulfill your oaths to the Lord.(60)quotation/allusion to Numbers 30:2, and Deuteronomy 23:21-23
  18. “But I tell you not to make oaths at all. Not by heaven, because it’s the throne of God;
  19. “nor by the land, because it is a footstool for His feet; nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the Great King.
  20. “Nor shall you make an oath on your head, because you aren’t able to make one hair white or black.
  21. “So, let your word be meaningful; yes, if yes – no, if no.  More than these is from evil.
  22. “You heard it was said: “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.”(61)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 24:20
  23. “But I tell you not to forcefully resist(62)“forcefully resist” the Greek word used here is also a military term referring to troops “holding the line” against the opposing army, typically by fighting back. i.e. taking a firm stand and refusing to be moved. the wicked. On the contrary; whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn and offer him the other.(63)“the one who strikes your right cheek”.  Jesus was almost certainly side-specific on purpose. In that culture, the right hand was used for clean tasks at the left was used for “dirty” tasks. (Such as wiping yourself; remember, there was no toilet paper.) Therefore, you would never hit someone with your left hand. If someone strikes your right cheek with their right (clean) hand, they must be giving you a backhanded slap. Backhanded slaps are only given to inferiors; never equals. If you offer your other cheek (your left) they are faced with a dilemma. If they strike you again with their right hand, they’ve slapped you as one slaps an equal, essentially making you their equal. But to backhand you as an inferior, they must use their left (unclean) hand– which would dishonor them as much as you. This was a non-violent way of resisting and simultaneously asserting your humanity.
  24. “And to the man who intends to sue you and take your tunic; give him your cloak also.
  25. “And whoever will force you to go one mile, go with him two.
  26. “Give to the man who asks you, and don’t turn away the man who wants to borrow from you.
  27. “You heard it was said: ^love your neighbor(64)quotation/allusion to Lev 19:18 and hate your enemy.
  28. “But I tell you; ^love your enemies and pray for the men who persecute you. [Bless the men who curse you. Do good to the men who insult and slander(65)“insult and slander” is one word in Greek.  It can mean either, and both meanings were likely intended. you, and to the men who hate you]
  29. “so that you might become sons of your Father in the heavens. For He makes the sun rise on evil and good; and He sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.
  30. “For if you ^love the men who ^love you, what wages do you have? Don’t even the tax collectors do the same?
  31. “And if you only greet your brothers, what abundance do you have? Don’t even the pagans do that?
  32. “Therefore, you shall be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.

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Matthew Chapter 6

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Don’t Seek the praise of men
  1. “Now, beware not to do your righteousness in front of men in order to be seen(66)“be seen” The Greek word here is “θεάομαι” (theaomai), which refers to spectators who watch something, like a theater. In fact, theaomai is the root of the Greek word “θέατρον” (theatron); which both means “theater” and is the root of our English word “theater”. by them. Otherwise, you have no wages from your Father in the heavens.
  2. “Therefore, when you do charitable deeds, don’t sound a trumpet in front of you like the hypocrites(68)“hypocrites” the Greek word here literally refers to a “theater actor”. In those days, actors often wore masks during their performances and thus were (figuratively) a “two-faced” person; i.e. they say one thing and do another. Jesus was using some clever wordplay here. (see note on previous verse) do in the synagogues and on the crowded streets so they might be glorified by men.  Amen I tell you; they trade away(67)“trade away” is a single word in Greek meaning “to have something, because far away from something else“. their wages.
  3. “But when you’re doing charitable deeds, don’t let your left hand know what your right hand does,
  4. “so your charitable deeds might be done in secret.  And your Father  – the One who sees in secret – will reward(69)“reward” the Greek word here literally means “to give back” or “return”; especially what is due in payment. you.
  5. “And when you pray, you shall not be like the hypocrites.  For they *love standing to pray in the synagogues and on the corners of wide streets so they might be seen by men. Amen I tell you; they trade away(70)“trade away” is a single word in Greek meaning “to have something, because far away from something else“. their wages.
  6. “But when you pray, go into your inner room. And having shut your door, pray to your Father in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.
  7. “And, when praying, don’t prattle endlessly like the pagans, for they assume that they will be listened to in their many words.
  8. “Therefore, don’t become like them, for God your Father has seen what you have a need for before you ask Him.
The Lord’s Prayer
  1. “Therefore, you pray this way; “Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified.
  2. “Let your kingdom come.   Let your will be done on earth, even as it is in heaven.
  3. “Give us today, our daily bread,
  4. “and forgive us our debts,(71)“debts” the Greek word used here can also have the connotation of a sin or offense. just as we also forgive those indebted to us.
  5. “And don’t lead us into temptation, but rescue us from evil. [For yours is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory through the ages. Amen.]
  6. “For if you forgive men their missteps,(72)“missteps”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) which is also used in Ephesians 2:1 in the phrase: “dead in your ‘paraptóma’ and sins”.  It carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. your heavenly Father will also forgive you.
  7. “But if you don’t forgive men [their missteps], neither will your Father forgive your missteps.
  8. “Now, when you fast; don’t become gloomy like the hypocrites. For they neglect their faces so they might be seen as fasting to men.  Amen I tell you; they trade away(73)“trade away” is a single word in Greek meaning “to have something, because far away from something else“. their wages.
  9. “When you’re fasting however, anoint your head with oil and wash your face,
  10. “So that you might not appear as fasting to men, but to your Father in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you.
Treasure in heaven
  1. “Don’t store up your treasures on the earth where moth and eating consume, and where thieves break in and steal.
  2. “But, store up treasures in heaven; where neither moth nor eating consume, and where thieves don’t break in or steal.
  3. “For wherever your treasure is, your heart will be there also.
  4. “The lamp of the body is the eye.  Therefore, if your eye isn’t warped,(74)“eye isn’t warped” According to some sources, this is an idiom which means “to be generous”, in the sense of giving to others/charity.  This makes excellent sense when you consider the context.  The phrase is literally “is not warped”, with “not warped” being a single Greek word that literally means “without folds” (Thayers).   It carries a similar moral connotation of “upright”, in the sense of not being crooked, bent, evil, etc.  While “isn’t folded” would be more literally correct, it would be confusing because we don’t associate “folding” with crooked morals.  However, we do associate “warped” with them; hence the translation choice here. your whole body will be full of light.
  5. “But if your eye is evil,(75)“eye is evil” according to some sources, this is an idiom which means “to be stingy”.  i.e. hoarding your wealth in an unhealthy way. your whole body will be full of darkness.  Therefore, if the light within you is darkness, how great is that darkness?(76)In Greek, an interrogative pronoun (similar to our word “how”) is used, making it a question.  Many translations end this sentence with an exclamation point, which makes it a statement rather than a true question.  Jesus may have intended it as a rhetorical question, but it’s hard to be certain from the text.  Therefore, it has been translated as a question here.
  6. “No one can serve as a slave for two lords.  For either he will hate one and he will ^love the other, or he will be devoted to one and despise the other.  You cannot serve as a slave to God and the treasure you trust in.(77)“the treasure you trust in” is a single word in Greek, with that exact meaning.
Don’t be anxious
  1. “Because of this I tell you: don’t be anxious about your life, what you might eat or what you might drink; nor about your body and how you might clothe yourself.  Isn’t life more than food and the body more than clothes?
  2. “Look at the birds of the sky, that they don’t plant, nor harvest, nor gather into barns, and your heavenly Father feeds them.  Aren’t you more valuable than they are?
  3. “And who among you is able to add one hour to his life by being anxious?
  4. “And about clothes; why are you anxious?  Study to fully understand(78)“Study to fully understand” is one word in Greek.  It means to understand something by studying it thoroughly.  This word is related to the Greek word for “disciple”, but has the added force of an intensifying prefix. the lilies of the field; how do they grow?  They don’t exhaust themselves with work nor do they spin.(79)Spinning is an ancient process of turning animal fibers (hair) into thread, which was then woven into fabric, which was made into clothes.  Spinning was a very labor intensive process before modern machinery.
  5. “But I tell you: not even Solomon in all his glory clothed himself like one of these.
  6. “And, if God clothes the grass of the field like this – which exists today and tomorrow is thrown into a furnace – won’t He much more clothe you, O you of little faith?
  7. “Therefore don’t be anxious, saying: what will we eat?  Or, what will we drink?  Or, how will we clothe ourselves?
  8. “For the nations diligently seek all of these, for your heavenly Father *knows that you need them all.
  9. “But seek first the kingdom [of God] and His righteousness, and all these will be added to you.
  10. “Therefore, don’t be anxious about tomorrow, because tomorrow will be anxious itself.  Each day has enough trouble on its own.

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Matthew Chapter 7

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Judging Hypocritically
  1. “Do not judge, so you might not be judged.
  2. “For you will be judged by whatever verdict you judge.  And you will be measured by whatever standard you measure.
  3. “And why do you look at the splinter in your brother’s eye but don’t consider the log in your eye?
  4. “Or how will you tell your brother: “Let me remove the splinter from your eye.” and look: the log is in your eye.
  5. “You hypocrite!  First, remove the log from your eye; and then you will see clearly to remove the splinter from your brother’s eye.
Asking, gifts, and the narrow way
  1. “Don’t give holy things to dogs,(80)Wild dogs were regarded as scavengers and loathed much like coyotes or raccoons are today.  The lexicon even mentions that dog could refer to “a man of impure mind, an impudent man” (Thayer’s Greek lexicon) or even a “spiritual predator” (HELPS Word Studies). nor throw your pearls in front of pigs, lest they will trample them with their feet and having turned, they might tear you to pieces.
  2. “Ask and it will be given to you.  Seek and you will find.  Knock and it will be opened to you.
  3. “For every man who asks, receives; and the man who seeks, finds; and to the man who knocks, it will be opened.
  4. “Or what man is among you who – when his son asks for bread – he won’t give him a stone will he?
  5. “Or if he will ask for a fish, he won’t give him a snake will he?
  6. “Therefore, if you being evil *know to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in the heavens give good things to the men who ask Him?
  7. In all things therefore – whatever you desire that men might do for you – you must also do for them, for this is the law and the prophets.
  8. “Enter through the narrow gate, because wide is the gate, and broad is the way leading to ruin,(81)“ruin” this word is often translated “destruction”, but it more accurately implies a “loss of well-being” rather than a “loss of being” (Vine’s Expository Dictionary).   i.e. they don’t cease to exist (which would be “destruction”) but rather their quality of life is destroyed.  The word “destruction” can also have that connotation, but “ruin” seems to fit the Greek word better. and the men who enter through it are many.
  9. “For narrow is the gate, and *constricting is(82)“constricting is” is a single word in the Greek.  It refers to compressing via pressure, in a way that makes you feel constricted, restricted, or hemmed in. the way leading to life, and the men who find it are few.
Know them by their fruit
  1. “Beware of false prophets who come to you in sheep’s clothes, but inside they are marauding wolves.
  2. “You will know them from their fruit.  They don’t gather grapes from thorn bushes, or figs from thistles do they?
  3. “So every good tree produces noble fruit, but a rotten tree produces bad fruit.
  4. “A good tree isn’t able to produce bad fruit, nor is a rotten tree able to produce noble fruit.
  5. “Every tree not producing noble fruit is cut off and thrown into the fire.
  6. “Therefore, you will know them from their fruits.
  7. “Not every man who says to Me: “Lord, Lord” will enter into the kingdom of the heavens; but only the man who does the will of my Father in the heavens.
  8. “Many will say to Me on that day, “Lord, Lord; didn’t we prophesy in your name, and in your name didn’t we cast out demons, and in your name didn’t we perform many miracles?”
  9. “And then I will agree with them but say: “I never knew you.  Depart from me; you men who work without regard for God’s commands.(83)“without regard God’s commands” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “ignoring God’s law”.  It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who –  either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law. (84)quotation/allusion to Psalm 6:8
Foundations compared
  1. “Therefore, every man who hears these words of Mine and does them will be like a wise man who built his house on the rock.
  2. “And the rains fell down, and the flood came, and the wind blew; and they battered that house.  And it didn’t fall, for its foundation had been built on the rock.
  3. “And every man who hears these words of Mine and doesn’t do them, he will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand.(85)In Israel, heavy rains from the hills cut long “trenches” through the limestone rock.  One of these water-cut trenches is called a “wadi”.  Most of the time, these are essentially dry riverbeds.  However, when heavy rains come, they turn back into streams or rivers for a time.  Often, the water comes through the wadi so fast that it resembles a flash-flood.  At the bottom of a wadi is sand.  Its likely Jesus was talking about someone who built a house in a (temporarily dry) riverbed – a wadi – that is known to flood.  That would be foolish indeed.
  4. “And the rains fell down, and the floods came, and the wind blew; and they battered that house.  And it fell, and its fall was great.
  5. And it happened, when Jesus finished these words, that the crowds were stunned in amazement at His teaching.
  6. For He was teaching them like one having authority,(86)“authority” It’s possible that the “authority” that stunned the crowd was a technical term.   Properly called “semikhah”, the Jewish word literally means “laying on of hands”.  Its origins (as a technical term of authority) go back to Moses.  Moses was given authority by God, and God commanded him to pass some of that “authority” to Joshua by “laying hands on him” in the sight of the people.  (Num27:15-23, Deut 34:9)  The Jews believed this authority was then passed down through “laying on of hands” to Jesus’ day.  Rabbis with semikhah had the authority to make decisions in the meaning of the Law and other spiritual matters.  In Jesus case, that meant a new interpretation of the Law.  However, ordinary scribes (Torah teachers) could only teach what those with semikhah had established. and not like their scribes.(87)This Greek word literally means a “scribe”, or someone who writes as their profession.  However, it’s often used in the New Testament for those learned in the Mosaic Law.

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Matthew Chapter 8

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Jesus heals a leper
  1. And having come down down from the mountain, many crowds followed Him.
  2. And behold, a leper(88)A “leper” is a person suffering from “leprosy” (also called “Hansen’s Disease” in modern times).  The disease is caused by the bacteria “M. leprae“.  Symptoms includes the outbreak of unsightly skin sores and nerve damage. It was a great social stigma in the ancient world and remains so to this day in many places.  The Jews believed that leprosy was caused by sin.  Therefore they believed that only the promised messiah would be able to cure leprosy, because only God could forgive sin.  The leper coming to Jesus could be construed as an act of faith on his part. approached and was bowing down at His feet, saying; “Lord, if you want to, you are able to cleanse me.”
  3. And having extended His hand, He touched him saying, “I want to; be cleansed.”  And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.
  4. And Jesus tells Him, “See that you tell no one.  But go show yourself to the priest and offer the gift that Moses commanded as evidence for them.”
The Centurion’s faith
  1. And having entered Capernaum, a centurion(89)“centurion” was a rank in the Roman military. A normal centurion was in charge of 80 soldiers, plus ~20 support staff. However, there were different levels of centurion.  The highest ranking centurions could be in charge of up to 1000 men. approached Him, imploring Him
  2. and saying: “Lord, my servant boy *is lying sick in the house; paralyzed and being horribly tormented.
  3. And He tells him: “I will go heal him.”
  4. But answering, the centurion was saying; “Lord, I’m not worthy that you might enter under my roof.  But only say the word and my servant boy will be healed.
  5. “For I’m also a man under authority, having soldiers under me.  And I tell this one “Go”, and he goes. And to another “Come”, and he comes.  And to my slave “Do this”, and he does it.”
  6. And having heard this, Jesus marveled and told the men who follow Him; “Amen I tell you; I found no one in Israel with such great faith.
  7. “And, I tell you that many from the east and the west will arrive and will recline at the table(90)“recline” is literal.  In ancient times, they laid down on a low table to eat. Thus, “reclining” in those days is similar to “sitting down” today to share a meal. with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens.
  8. “But the sons of this kingdom will be thrown into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.”
  9. And Jesus told the centurion, “Go; let it happen to you just as you believed.”  And his servant boy was healed in that hour.
Jesus heals many
  1. And having come into Peter’s house, Jesus saw his(91)“his” that is, Peter’s mother-in-law, which is clear in Greek but less so in English. mother-in-law *lying sick with a fever.
  2. And He touched her hand and the fever left her, and she got up and was serving Him.
  3. And when it became evening, they brought Him many demon-possessed men and He cast out the spirits with a word, and He healed all who are sick,
  4. so what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet it might be fulfilled, saying: “He took our infirmities and carried away our diseases.”(92)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 53:4
  5. And having seen a great crowd around him, Jesus gave orders to depart to the other side of the sea.
The Cost of following Jesus
  1. And having approached Him, one scribe told Him: “Teacher, I will follow you wherever you go.”
  2. And Jesus tells him: “The foxes have dens and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere He might rest His head.”
  3. And another of His disciples said to Him; “Lord, first allow me to go and bury my father.”
  4. But Jesus told him; “Follow Me and leave the dead to bury their own dead.”
Jesus Calms the Storm
  1. And having stepped into the boat, His disciples followed Him.
  2. And behold; a great storm began on the sea so that the boat is covered by the waves, but He was sleeping.
  3. And having approached Him, they woke Him up saying; “Lord, save me! We are perishing!”
  4. And He tells them; “Why are you fearful?  O, you men of little faith.”  Then having woken up He scolded the winds and the sea, and a great calm began.
  5. Then the men marveled, saying; “What kind of man(93)“What kind of man” is one word in Greek.  It can also be mean “from what country/region?”  And in that case is used to inquire about someone’s origins.  Thus, they could be asking where He’s from. is this?  Because even the winds and the sea listen to Him.”
Demons sent into pigs
  1. And having come to the other side of the sea to the land of Gadarenes,(94)The Gadarenes lived in the city Gadara, which was south-east of the Sea of Galilee.  It was an important Hellenized (Greek) city, and one of the ten cities of the Decapolis. two demon-possessed men met Him after coming out of the tombs.  They were very violent, so someone isn’t able to pass through that way.
  2. And behold; they cried out saying; “What’s between you and us, Son of God?  Did you come here to torment us before the proper season?”
  3. Now, far away from them was a large herd of pigs feeding.
  4. So the demons were imploring Him, saying; “If you cast us out, send us into the herd of pigs.”
  5. And He told them “Go.”  And having gone out, they went into the pigs.  And behold; all of the herd dashed down the steep bank into the sea and died in the waters.
  6. Now, the men who feed them fled.  And having gone into the city, they reported everything; even about the demon-possessed men.
  7. And behold; all of the city went out to meet Jesus.  And having seen Him, they begged that He might depart from their region.

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Matthew Chapter 9

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Jesus heals a paralyzed man
  1. And having stepped into a boat, He crossed over the sea and came to His own city.
  2. And behold; they were bringing to Him a paralyzed man *lying on a bed mat.  And having seen their faith, Jesus told the paralyzed man: “Have courage child; your sins are forgiven.”
  3. And behold; some of the scribes(95)“scribes” In the New Testament, this word is often used of those learned in the Mosaic Law. said to themselves “This man blasphemes!”
  4. And knowing their thoughts, Jesus said; “Why do you ponder evil in your hearts?
  5. “For which is easier to say: ‘Your sins are forgiven’ or to say; ‘Get up and walk’?
  6. “However, so you might know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins…”  Then He tells the paralyzed man; “After getting up, pick up your bed mat, and go to your house.”
  7. And after getting up, he went to his house.
  8. And having seen this, the crowds were alarmed and they glorified God; the One who gave such authority to men.
Jesus and the Tax Collectors
  1. And passing on from there, Jesus saw a man called Matthew sitting in a tax-collector’s office.  And He says to him: “Follow Me.”  And having stood up, he followed Him.
  2. And it happened that He was reclining(96)“reclining” is literal.  In ancient times, they didn’t sit at a table, they “reclined” at a low table.  Thus, reclining often meant eating together. in the house.  And behold; many tax collectors and sinners came and were reclining at the table with Jesus and His disciples.
  3. And having seen this, the Pharisees were saying His disciples; “Why does your teacher eat with the tax collectors and sinners?”
  4. But having heard this He said; “The men who are healthy don’t have need of a doctor, but the men who are sick do.
  5. “But having departed, learn what is true: ‘I desire mercy and not sacrifice‘,(97)quotation/allusion to Hosea 6:6 for I didn’t come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
Fasting and Wineskins
  1. Then the disciples of John come to Him, saying; “Why do we and the Pharisees often fast, but your disciples don’t fast?”
  2. And Jesus told them; “The groomsmen(98)“groomsmen” is literally “sons of the bridal chamber”.  In that age, this referred to the men who helped the groom prepare whatever was needed for the wedding, especially the “bridal chamber” (honeymoon suite).  The closest modern equivalent is groomsmen. aren’t able to mourn as long as the groom is with them, are they?  But the days will come when the groom is taken away from them, and then they will fast.
  3. And no one puts an unshrunk patch of cloth on an old cloak, for the patch pulls away and it becomes a worse tear.
  4. Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins.(99)“wineskins” is literal, and refers to a leather “bag” used to hold liquids.  The phrase “new wine” refers to un-fermented grape juice.  As it ferments, it releases gas which causes the wineskin to stretch.  However, if an “old wineskin” is used with “new wine” (unfermented grape-juice), the gasses from the fermentation will stretch the already stretched leather bag so that it splits.  This makes the leather bag useless and the wine is spilled out and lost.  Old wineskins could be used for already ferment wine or other liquids, and thus were still useful.  Indeed no; and if they do, the wineskins tear, and the wine spills out, and the wineskins are ruined.  But they put new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved.
Raising the Dead and healing an issue of blood
  1. As He was telling them these things, behold; one of the Jewish elders came.  He was bowing low on his knees before Him, saying: “My daughter died just now.  But come lay your hand on her and she will live.”
  2. And having stood up, Jesus and His disciples were following him.
  3. And behold; there was a woman suffering from constant menstrual bleeding(100)“suffering from constant menstrual bleeding” is one word in the Greek.  It refers to a continuous flow of blood, aka: a hemorrhage.  It doesn’t specifically mean menstrual blood, but this exact word is used to refer to a menstrual blood in the Septuagint in Leviticus 15:33 and by medical writers. for twelve years.  Having approached from behind, she touched the edge of His cloak,
  4. for she was saying within herself; “If I only touch His cloak, I will be healed.”(101)In Malachi 4:2, it says that “the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings.”  The Hebrew word translated “wings” in that verse is “כָּנָף” (kanaph).  It means any extremity, including wings and also the edge of a garment.  It could be accurately translated “healing in the edge of His clothes”.  This woman likely knew this verse, and that’s probably why she specifically touched the edge of His cloak.  The Jews believed Malachi 4:2 was a prophecy about the Messiah, so by touching His cloak, she was almost certainly expressing her faith that Jesus was the Messiah.  This is quite possibly why Jesus said her faith healed her.
  5. And having turned and seen her, Jesus said; “Have courage daughter; your faith has healed you.”  And the woman was healed from that hour on.
  6. And having come to the house of the Jewish elder, and having seen the flute players and the crowds making a noisy outcry,
  7. Jesus was saying; “Leave.  For the girl is not dead, but asleep.”  And they were laughing at Him.
  8. And, when the crowd was sent outside, He entered, grabbed her hand, and the girl was raised up.
  9. And the news of this went through that whole land.
Jesus Heals the Blind and Demon Possessed
  1. And passing on from there, two blind men followed Jesus, crying out and saying; “Show us mercy, Son of David(102)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes.  This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever.  This could be construed as an act of faith by the blind men..”
  2. And having come into the house, the blind men approached Him and Jesus says to them; “Do you believe that I’m able to do this?”  They say to Him; “Definitely Lord.”
  3. Then He touched their eyes, saying; “Let it happen to you according to your faith.”
  4. And their eyes were opened.  And Jesus sternly warned them, saying; “See that no one knows.”
  5. But after going out, they spread the news about Him in that whole land.
  6. And as they were leaving, behold; they brought Him a mute, demon possessed man.
  7. And when the demon was cast out, the mute man spoke.  And the crowds marveled, saying; “Something like this has never been seen in Israel.”
  8. But the Pharisees were saying; “He casts out demons by the ruler of the demons.”
The Harvest
  1. And Jesus was going around to all the cities and villages; teaching in their synagogues, and announcing the good news of the kingdom, and healing every chronic disease and every sickness.
  2. And having seen the crowds, He was moved with compassion for them because they were *troubled and have been cast away; like sheep not having a shepherd.
  3. Then He says to His disciples; “Truly, the harvest is great but the workers are few.”
  4. “Therefore, implore the Lord of the harvest so that He might send out workers into His harvest.”

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Matthew Chapter 10

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Instructing the Twelve
  1. And having summoned His twelve disciples, He gave them authority over unclean spirits to cast them out, and to heal every chronic disease and every sickness.
  2. And these are the names of the twelve apostles.  First, Simon called Peter and Andrew his brother. Also, James the son of Zebedee and John his brother.
  3. Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Mathew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus;
  4. Simon the Zealot; and Judas Iscariot, the man who betrayed Him.
  5. Jesus sent out these twelve, having commanded them by saying; “Don’t go near the way of the Gentiles, and don’t go into a city of the Samaritans.”
  6. “But rather go to the *lost sheep of the house of Israel.
  7. “And while traveling, proclaim saying; ‘The kingdom of the heavens has drawn near’.
  8. “Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received; freely give.
  9. “Don’t acquire gold, nor silver, nor copper in your money belts.(103)“money belts” in that age, belts were often hollow and used as a safe way to store money.
  10. “Don’t bring a food pouch for the way, nor two cloaks, nor sandals, nor a staff.  For the worker is worthy of his food.
  11. “Now, whatever city or village you enter into, carefully inquire who is worthy in it, and remain there until you leave.
  12. “Then entering into the house, greet it.
  13. “And if the house is truly worthy, let your peace come on it.  But if it’s not worthy, let your peace return to you.
  14. “And whoever won’t welcome you, nor hear your words, then going outside that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet.
  15. “Amen I tell you; it will be more bearable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgement than that city.
Warning about Persecution
  1. “Behold; I send you out like sheep in the midst of wolves.  Therefore, become shrewd as serpents and pure as doves.
  2. “But beware of men, for they will hand you over to the Sanhedrins,(104)A Sanhedrin was a Jewish court that had authority in both civil and religious matters.  There was a lesser Sanhedrin in cities of significant size, and the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.  The Great Sanhedrin functioned like a Supreme Court over the lesser Sanhedrins. and will flog you in their synagogues.
  3. “And also, you’ll be brought to governors and kings because of Me; to be a witness to them and to the gentiles.
  4. “And when they hand you over, don’t be anxious about how or what you might say, for you will be given what to say in that very hour.
  5. “For you aren’t the man who speaks, but the Spirit of your Father is the one who speaks through you.
  6. “And brother will betray brother to death, and a father will betray his child, and children will rise up against parents and will put them to death.
  7. “And you will be hated by all because of My name.  But the man who endured to the end; he will be saved.
  8. “And when they persecute you in that city, flee to another.  For amen I tell you: you definitely won’t have finished fleeing through the cities of Israel until the Son of Man comes.
  9. “A disciple isn’t above the teacher, nor a slave above his master.
  10. It’s enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master.  If they call the master of the house Beelzebub,(105)From the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”.   It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal.  One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”.  Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god.  Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon.  There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon. how much more the members of His household?
Fear God, not Man
  1. “Therefore, don’t be scared of them.  For nothing has been hidden which won’t be uncovered; and there’s nothing secret which won’t be known.
  2. “What I tell you in the dark, speak in the light.  And what you hear whispered in the ear, preach on the rooftops.
  3. “And don’t fear the men who kill the body, but aren’t able to kill the life.(106)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché), usually translated “soul” here.  However, it does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  The exact same word is used in verse 39. where we must lose our psuché to gain it.  But rather, fear the one who is able to destroy(107)“destroy” the Greek word here is “ἀπόλλυμι” (apollumi).  It means to utterly lose (as in Matthew 10:6), to ruin, or to destroy.  Its root word emphasizes the loss incurred, not the destruction. both body and life(108)“life” see note earlier in verse in the Valley of Hinnom.(109)“the Valley of Hinnom” Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  But this might refer to Israel’s history instead. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) This happened again a few centuries later when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. See following note. (110)Verse Note: While Jesus might have been referring to judgement in the afterlife, it’s unlikely. (See note on the word “soul” in this verse.)  He might’ve been referring to the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.  If you look at “soul” here in the sense of “identity” (again, see note) it makes some sense. Some of those trapped inside Jerusalem during the siege became so depraved, what they did isn’t fit to be put into print.  That could count as a destruction of “body and soul/identity”.
  4. “Aren’t two sparrows sold for a brass coin?(111)“a brass coin” is literally and specifically an “assarion”.  It was worth one tenth of a drachma.  And one among them won’t fall to the ground without your Father willing it.
  5. “And even the hairs on your head have all been numbered.
  6. “So don’t fear; you have more value than many sparrows.
  7. “Therefore; everyone who will endorse Me in front of men, I will also endorse him in front of My Father in the heavens.
  8. “But whoever denies Me in front of men, I will also deny him in front of My Father in the heavens.
  9. “Don’t assume that I came to bring peace on the earth. I didn’t come to bring peace, but a sword.
  10. For I came to divide; a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law.
  11. And a man’s enemies will be the members of his household.(112)quotation/allusion to Micah 7:6
  12. “The man who loves his father or mother more than Me isn’t worthy of Me.  And the man who loves his son or daughter more than Me isn’t worthy of Me.
  13. “And whoever doesn’t take his cross and follow after me isn’t worthy of Me.
  14. “The man who found his life(113)“life”The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché); (see note on verse 28 above.)  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  And the man who lost his life(114)“life” see previous note. because of Me will find it.
  15. “The man who welcomes you welcomes Me.  And the man who welcomes Me welcomes the One who sent Me.
  16. “The man who welcomes a prophet because(115)“because” literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was an idiom that was equivalent to “because”. he’s a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward.  And the man who welcomes a righteous man because(116)“because” literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was an idiom that was equivalent to “because”. he’s righteous will receive a righteous man’s reward.
  17. “And whoever gives one of these little ones a cup of cool water to drink, solely because(117)“because” literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was an idiom that was equivalent to “because”. he’s a disciple; amen I tell you; he definitely won’t lose his reward.

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Matthew Chapter 11

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  1. And it happened, when Jesus finished instructing His twelve disciples, He left there to teach and to proclaim in their cities.
John the Baptizer’s Question
  1. Now John – having heard of the works of the Anointed while in prison – sent two of his disciples and
  2. said to Him; “Are you The Coming One,(118)“The Coming One” There are several Old Testament passages that the Jews believed referred to the messiah, which talk of Him “coming”.  (For example, Psalm 118:26, Psalm 40:7-8, and Malachi 3:1).  John was probably referring to Zechariah 9:9, which talks about the “coming King”, and in verse 11 speaks of setting prisoners free. Therefore, John was probably asking if Jesus was the messiah, and if so would he be freed. or should we wait for another?”
  3. And answering them, Jesus said; “When you go, report to John what you hear and see:
  4. The blind see, and the lame walk; the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised, and the poor are given good news.(119)Verse note: Jesus answered John’s question using a Jewish Rabbinic method called “remez” (or hint).  Jesus quotes portions of Isaiah 35:5-6, (blind, lame, deaf), Isaiah 42:6-7 (blind again) and Isaiah 61:1 (good news).  All three passages refer to the coming messiah/king, so Jesus was confirming that He was indeed Him.  However, in all three passages Jesus left off a part about setting prisoners free.  This was likely Jesus telling John that He was indeed the messiah, but John wouldn’t be set free.  This last part explains the following verse.
  5. “And blessed is he who doesn’t stumble at Me.”
  6. And while those men are leaving, Jesus began to tell the crowds about John: “What did you come out to the desert to watch?(120)“to watch” The Greek word here is “θεάομαι” (theaomai), which refers to spectators who watch something, like in a theater. In fact, theaomai is the root of the Greek word “θέατρον” (theatron); which both means “theater” and is the root of our English word “theater”. A reed shaken by the wind?
  7. But what did you go out to see?  A man clothed in soft clothes?  Look; the men wearing soft clothes are in the houses of kings.
  8. But what did you go out to see?  A prophet?  I tell you, yes!  And far more than a prophet.
  9. “This is he about whom it is *written; “Behold; I send out My messenger before your presence; he who will carefully prepare your way before you.”(121)quotation/allusion to Malachi 3:1
  10. “Amen I tell you: among those born to women, none has risen greater than John the Baptizer.  Yet the least in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than him.
  11. “And from the days of John the Baptizer until now, men force their way into(122)men force their way into” is a single word in Greek.  Most translations render it in the passive voice here (“suffers violence”).  However, the endings for the Greek middle voice and passive voice are the same in many verbs, this one included.  Therefore, it can be accurately translated as either passive or middle voice.  In the middle voice, it means to “use force” or to “force your way”.  When compared with a parallel passage in Luke 16:16 (which uses a verb that’s definitely middle voice) it seems the middle voice was intended.  However, that’s not certain and the passive voice is a legitimate translation here. the kingdom of the heavens, and zealous men seize it. (123)Verse note: the latter half of this verse likely refer to the zeal with which John’s (and later Jesus’) disciples followed them.  In Luke 5:18-19, some men literally tore up a roof to get someone to Jesus.  In John 6:15, they wanted to make Jesus king by force.
  12. “For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.
  13. “And if you desire to accept it, he is Elijah; the man who is about to come.
  14. “He who has ears, let him hear.
This Wicked Generation
  1. “And to what will I compare this generation?  It’s like small children sitting in the markets who are calling to others,
  2. “saying; ‘We played the flute for you and you didn’t dance.  We cried out in mourning and you didn’t grieve.’
  3. “For John came neither eating nor drinking and they say; ‘he has a demon.’
  4. “The Son of Man came eating and drinking and they say; ‘Look; this man is a glutton and a drunkard, and a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’  Indeed, wisdom is declared righteous by her deeds.”
  5. Then He started to condemn the cities in which most of His miracles had happened because they didn’t repent.(124)“”Repent” this Greek word doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second.
  6. “Woe to you Chorazin!  Woe to you Bethsaida!  For if the miracles which happened in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon,(125)Tyre and Sidon were ancient cities against which God prophesied destruction at length, especially against Tyre.  (Isaiah 23, Ezekiel chapters 26-28) then long ago in sackcloth and ashes(126)Sackcloth and ashes was a common way for Jews to mourn or express great regret.  The “sackcloth” was a rough weave, probably equivalent to modern day burlap or canvas.  They would throw ashes on their heads and clothes to indicate the regret or grief. they would’ve repented.
  7. “Further I tell you: it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgement than for you.
  8. “And you Capernaum.  You won’t be raised up to heaven, but will go down to the underworld,(127)The Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”. because if the miracles which happened in you had happened in Sodom, it would remain to this day.
  9. “Further I tell you that it will be more bearable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgement than for you.
Rest for the Weary
  1. At that time, Jesus began to speak and said; “I praise(128)“Praise”.  The Greek word here has a primary connotation of confession and agreement.  It also has a nuanced meaning of praise and thanks.  Given the context, “praise” was chosen.  However, the other meanings are certainly applicable and probably intended. you, Father – Lord of heaven and earth – because you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to children.
  2. “Yes Father, because it happening this way was pleasing before you.
  3. “All things were delivered to Me by the Father.  And no one truly knows the Son except the Father, nor does anyone truly know the Father except the Son, and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him.
  4. “Come to Me, all who exhaust themselves working(129)“who exhaust themselves with work” is one word in Greek.  It literally means to tire yourself out – to become weary – from doing hard work or labor.  Interestingly, this doesn’t say working is bad.  It refers to exhausting yourself from working. and who have been overloaded with burdens, and I will give you rest.(130)quotation/allusion to Exodus 33:14, which says (in context it’s Yahweh/God speaking) “and He said; “My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”  Jesus was making a claim to His deity by saying He would do what God promised to do.
  5. “Take up My yoke(131)A “yoke” is shaped like an upside-down “U”, and was put over the necks of oxen to enable them to pull with their shoulders. It’s what enables them to do hard work, because they can put their full strength into the effort. upon you and learn from me.  For I’m strong but gentle, and humble of heart;(132)this is a double quotation/allusion to two different verses. In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses says that God will raise up a prophet like him, and concludes with “you must listen to him.”  The Jews believed this was a messianic prophecy.  Numbers 12:3 says that Moses was the most humble man on the earth.  By quoting Moses here, Jesus was saying He was the promised Messiah, and that they should listen to/obey Him. and you will find rest for your soul.(133)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 6:16.  Jesus statement here cannot be properly understood without reading that verse.  The verse reads: “Thus says Yahweh; “Stand at the road and look. Ask for the ancient paths – the good way – and walk in it, and you will find rest for your soul. But they said, “We won’t walk in it.” Jesus was saying they would only find rest if they were obedient.  Further, the ending of the verse is “we won’t walk in it”, which is likely an allusion to their disobedience.
  6. “For My yoke(134)see note on previous verse. is pleasant and My burden easy to bear.

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Matthew Chapter 12

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Working on the Sabbath
  1. At that time, Jesus went through the grain fields on the Sabbaths, and His disciples were hungry and began to pick and eat heads of grain.
  2. And having seen this, the Pharisees said to Him; “Look, your disciples are doing what isn’t lawful to do on the Sabbath.”
  3. So He told them; “Haven’t you read what David did when he and the men with him were hungry?”
  4. “How he entered God’s house and they ate the consecrated bread, which wasn’t lawful for him nor the men with him to eat, but was only for the priests?
  5. “Or didn’t you read in the law that the priests in the temple violate the Sabbath(135)The Mosaic law required sacrifices to be made in the temple twice a day, every day. (Exodus 29:38) Even on the Sabbath they were offered.  Of course, the priests had to work to perform the sacrifice. on the Sabbath and yet are innocent?
  6. “And I tell you that One greater than the temple is here.
  7. “And if you had understood what is written: “I desire mercy and not sacrifice.”(136)quotation/allusion to Hosea 6:6 you wouldn’t have condemned the innocent.
  8. “For the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.”
Healing on the Sabbath
  1. And having departed from there, He went into their synagogue.
  2. And behold; a man having a withered hand was there.  And so they might accuse Him, they asked Him saying; “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?”
  3. Then He said to them; “What will any man among you who only has one sheep do if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath?  Won’t he grab it and lift it out?
  4. “Therefore, how much more valuable is a man than a sheep?  So then, it’s lawful to do good on the Sabbath.”
  5. Then He told the man, “Reach out your hand.”  And he reached it out and it was restored to health like his other.
  6. And having gone out, the Pharisees held a council against Him, so they might destroy Him.
  7. But having known this, Jesus departed from there.  And many crowds followed Him and He healed them all.
  8. And He warned them, so they might not make Him known.
  9. This was so it might be fulfilled; what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying:
  10. Behold; My servant whom I chose.  My beloved, in whom My soul is well pleased. I will put My Spirit on Him and He will announce justice to the nations.
  11. He won’t argue angrily, nor will He cry out,(137)“cry out” Is one word in Greek.  It can mean any sort of loud “cry”, shout, or shriek; but especially those made by animals. It’s root comes from the “caw” sound a raven makes. nor will someone hear His voice in the wide streets.
  12. He won’t crush a reed that has been broken, and He won’t quench a smoldering wick until He leads justice into victory.(138)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 42:1-4
  13. “And in His name, the gentiles will hope.”
A Divided House
  1. Then a blind and mute demon-possessed man was brought to Him, and He healed him so the mute man was able to speak and to see.
  2. And all the crowds were marveling and were saying; “This man can’t be the Son of David,(139)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes.  This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. can He?”
  3. But having heard this, the Pharisees said; “This man doesn’t cast out demons except by Beelzebub,(140)From the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”.   It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal.  One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”.  Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god.  Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon.  There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon (see following note). a ruler(141)“a ruler” The Greek word here could mean the one of greatest authority, but it doesn’t have to.  It means any “ruler”, not necessarily the one of highest authority.  The traditional interpretation of this word in this verse is “prince”. of demons.”
  4. But *knowing their thoughts, He said to them; “Every kingdom that’s divided against itself is desolated. And every city or house which is divided against itself won’t stand.
  5. “And if Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself; how then will his kingdom stand?
  6. “And if I cast out demons by Beelzebub, then by whom do your sons cast them out? Because of this, they will be your judges.
  7. “But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.
  8. “Or; how is someone able to enter a mighty man’s house and to openly steal his goods unless he first ties up the mighty man?  And then will he plunder his house.
  9. “The man who isn’t with Me is against Me, and the man who doesn’t assemble with Me scatters.
  10. “Because of this, I tell you that every sin and blasphemy of men will be forgiven.  But blasphemy against the Spirit won’t be forgiven.
  11. “And whoever might speak a word against the Son of Man, he will be forgiven.  But whoever might speak against the Holy Spirit, he won’t be forgiven; neither in this age, nor in the age which is about to come.
Know them by their fruit
  1. “Either make the tree lovely and its fruit lovely, or make the tree rotten and its fruit rotten.  For a tree is known by the fruit.
  2. “You offspring of serpents!(142)Satan is typically represented as a serpent. Therefore, calling them “offspring of serpents” is akin to saying they are Satan’s children or followers.  How are you able to speak good things while being evil?  For the mouth speaks from the overflow of the heart.
  3. “The good man brings out good things from the good storehouse of his heart.(143)“storehouse of his heart” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a place where treasure is stored, and can include things “treasured” in the heart or mind of a person. And the wicked man brings out wicked things from the wicked storehouse of his heart.(144)“storehouse of his heart” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a place where treasure is stored, and can include things “treasured” in the heart or mind of a person.
  4. “But I tell you this; for every careless word that men will speak, they will give an account of it in the day of judgement.
  5. “For by your words, you will be declared righteous.  And by your words, you will be condemned as guilty.
The Sign of Jonah
  1. Then some of the Scribes and Pharisees answered Him, saying; “Teacher, we wish to see a sign from you.”
  2. But answering, He told them; “A wicked generation and an adulteress(145)The traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery. seeks a sign, and a sign won’t be given to her, except the sign of Jonah the Prophet.
  3. “For just as Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.
  4. The men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation in the judgement and condemn it because they repented,(146)“repented” this Greek word doesn’t primarily speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. at the preaching of Jonah.  And behold; One greater than Jonah is here.
  5. The queen of the south will be raised in the judgement with this generation, and she will condemn it because she came from the ends of the earth to hear Solomon’s wisdom.  And behold; One greater than Solomon is here.
The Evil Spirit Returns
  1. “Now, when the unclean spirit comes out of the man, it travels through waterless places seeking rest and doesn’t find it.
  2. “Then it says: “I’ll return to my house; from where I left.”  And having gone back, it finds the house vacant; being swept and beautifully decorated.
  3. “Then it goes and takes with itself seven other spirits more evil than itself.  And having entered the house, they settle down there and the end of that man becomes worse than the beginning.  It will also be like that for this wicked generation.
Sons do the Father’s will
  1. Now, while He was speaking to the crowds, behold; His mother and brothers had been standing outside seeking to speak to Him.
  2. So someone told Him; “Look, your mother and your brothers have been standing outside seeking to speak to you.”
  3. But answering the man who told Him, He said; “Who is My mother?  And who are My Brothers?”
  4. And having reached His hand toward His disciples, He said; “Look, My mother and My brothers.
  5. “For whoever does the will of My Father in the heavens; he is My brother and sister and mother.”

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Matthew Chapter 13

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The Parable of the Sower
  1. Later in that day, Jesus left the house and was sitting beside the sea.
  2. And many crowds were gathered to Him, so He stepped into a boat to sit down, and the whole crowd had stood on the seashore.
  3. And He told them many things in parables, saying; “Behold, the man who sows seed went out to sow.
  4. “And in his sowing, some seed fell beside the road.(147)“the road” is literal.  However, it can also be translated “the way”, which is how it’s typically translated in the BOS Bible for good reason.  In the early Christian church, they often referred to the Christian life as “The Way”.  Interestingly, the seed fell “beside” or “next to” “the way”.  And having come down, the birds devoured them.
  5. “And other seed fell on rocky places where it didn’t have much soil. And it sprang up at once because it didn’t have depth in the soil.
  6. “But it was scorched when the sun rose, and it was dried up because it didn’t have roots.
  7. “And other seeds fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them.
  8. “And other seeds fell on the good soil and they were bearing fruit; some a hundredfold, and some sixty, and some thirty.
  9. “He who has ears, let him hear.”
Why Jesus Spoke in Parables
  1. And having approached Him, the disciples said; “Why do you speak to them in parables?”
  2. And answering, He told them; “Because it has been granted for you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of the heavens.  But it hasn’t been granted to those men.
  3. “For whoever has, more will be given to him and he will have abundance.  But whoever doesn’t have, even what he has will be taken away from him.
  4. “I speak to them in parables because of this, because while seeing, they don’t see.  And while hearing, they don’t hear, nor do they understand.
  5. “And in them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says: “Your ears will hear and definitely won’t understand, and you’ll see while seeing and definitely won’t perceive.
  6. For the heart of this people has grown calloused and their ears barely listen, and their eyes are shut.  Lest, when they see with the eyes, and hear with the ears, and understand with the heart, and they return, and I will heal them.”(148)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 6:9-10
  7. “But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear.
  8. “For amen I tell you that many prophets and righteous men yearned to see what you see, and didn’t see it; and yearned to hear what you hear, and didn’t hear it.
The Parable Explained
  1. “Therefore, you must hear and understand(149)“hear and understand” is one word in the Greek.  It literally means to hear, sometimes with the connotation of understanding what is being said.  In this passage, it’s in the imperative mood, making it a command. the parable of the man who sowed seed.
  2. To everyone who hears the word of the kingdom and doesn’t understand it, the evil one comes and openly steals what has been sown in his heart.  This is the seed which was sown beside the road.
  3. “Now, the seed which was sown on the rocky places: this is the man who hears the word and immediately receives it with great joy.
  4. “But he doesn’t have root in himself, but is temporary; only lasting for a season.(150)“temporary; only lasting for a season” is one word in the Greek.  Its’ colloquial meaning is “temporary”, but the full technical meaning is “lasting (only) for a season”.  Technically, including both is double translating a Greek word.  However, the additional nuance of the full definition adds meaning to the verse, therefore it was included.  And when constricting distress(151)“constricting distress ” The Greek word here focuses on the internal distress of an external situation.  It refers to a narrow place that makes someone feel confined, trapped, and without options.  This could indicate that Jesus was referring to the rocky seed falling away because they find the Christian life is too restricting/confining. or persecution happened because of the word, he immediately falls away.
  5. “Now, the seed which was sowed among the thorns: this is the man who hears the word, and the anxiety of this age and the deception of riches choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.
  6. “Now, the seed which was sown on good soil: this is the man who hears the word and since he understands it, he truly bears fruit.  And indeed, some produce a hundredfold, and some sixty, and some thirty.
The Wheat and False Wheat (tares)
  1. He set another parable before them, saying; “The kingdom of the heavens is like a man who sowed good seed in his field.”
  2. “But when the men laid down to sleep, his enemy came and sowed false wheat(152)“False wheat” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the plant “Lolium temulentum”, commonly called darnel, cockle, tares, and false wheat.  Darnel looks almost identical to wheat until the ear appears at maturity (the ear is different from wheat).  Further, wheat is brown when ripe, whereas darnel is black.  The differences between wheat and darnel are subtle and hard to spot while growing, but obvious and easily spotted when the plants mature.  This made it a frustrating weed for much of human history. among the true wheat and departed.
  3. “And when the plants sprouted and made fruit, then the false wheat was revealed.
  4. “So having come to the master of the house, the slaves said to him; “Master, didn’t you sow good seed in your field?  So how does it have false wheat?”
  5. “And he was telling them; “An man an enemy did this.”  And the slaves said to him; “Then, do you want us to go out and gather them?”
  6. “And he said; “No, lest when gathering the false wheat you might uproot the true wheat with them.
  7. “Allow both to grow together until the harvest, and at harvest time I will tell the harvesters; “First gather the false wheat and tie them into bundles to burn them, but gather the true wheat into my barn.”
The Mustard Seed, Leaven, and Reason for Parables
  1. He set another parable before them, saying; “The kingdoms of the heavens is like a mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his field;
  2. “which is truly smaller than all the common(153)The word “common” is not in the Greek, but was added to provide cultural context. The mustard seed was the smallest seed of all the plants that the Jews cultivated. seeds.  But when it’s grown, it’s greater than the garden plants and becomes a tree.  Therefore, the birds of the air come and make nests on its branches.”
  3. He told them another parable; “The kingdom of the heavens is like leaven, which a woman took and mixed into three measures of flour until it was all mixed and began to rise.”(154)“was… …mixed and began to rise” is one word in Greek.  It means to mix some type of leaven (such as yeast, sourdough, etc.) into dough in order to make it rise.
  4. Jesus said all these things to the crowds.  And He was speaking nothing to them without a parable,
  5. so that it might be fulfilled; what was spoken through the prophet, saying; “I will open My mouth in parables.  I will declare things which have been hidden from the foundation of the world.”(155)quotation/allusion to Psalm 78:2
The Parable of the False Wheat (Tares) Explained
  1. Then having sent away the crowds, He went into the house. And His disciples approached Him saying; “Explain to us the parable of the false wheat in the field.”
  2. Then answering, He said: “The man who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man;
  3. “and the field is the world; and the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the false wheat, these are the sons of the evil one,
  4. “and the enemy who sowed them is the Accuser;(156)“the Accuser” The Greek word used here is “διάβολος” (diabolos), and it’s the root of our English word “devil”. Much like “Christ” (see note on Matt 1:1) “devil” isn’t a name but a descriptive title.  Matthew uses the name “Satan” only 4 times in his gospel, far less than Mark and Luke, but even more than John (who only uses it once). and the harvest is the culmination of the age, and the harvesters are the angels.
  5. “So just as the false wheat is gathered and completely burned by fire, it will be just like this in the culmination of the age.
  6. “The Son of Man will send out His angels, and they will gather all the bait that ensnares(157)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek.  It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached.  Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim. from out of the kingdom and the men who act without regard for God’s commands,(158)“without regard for God’s commands ” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “without regard for God’s law”. It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who – either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law.
  7. “and will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
  8. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun(159)quotation/allusion to Daniel 12:3 in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear.
The kingdom is like: treasure, pearl, dragnet
  1. “The kingdom of the heavens is like a treasure that has been hidden in a field, which – having found it – a man hid again.  And for the joy of finding it, departs and sells all that he has and buys the field.
  2. “Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a traveling merchant searching for magnificent pearls.
  3. “And having found one extremely valuable pearl, he left and *sells all that he had and bought it.
  4. “Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a dragnet(160)“dragnet” is literal.  It’s a slang term for a type of fishing net that’s properly called a “seine”.  A dragnet is a long net with weights at the bottom and floats at the top.  It’s dragged through the sea either by men walking or boats.  Notably, it catches everything between the surface and the bottom of the net, regardless of the type of fish the fishers want to catch. that was cast into the sea and gathered every kind of fish.
  5. “Which when it was filled, they pulled it up to the shore.  And having sat down, they collected the good fish into containers; but they threw out the rotten fish.
  6. “It will be like this in the culmination of the age.  The angels will go out and separate the wicked from the midst of the righteous,
  7. “and they will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.”
  8. “Do you understand all these things?”  They tell Him; “Yes.”
  9. Then He told them; “Because of this, every scribe(161)“scribe” in the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law. discipled into the kingdom of the heavens is like a man – a master of his house – who brings out new and old things from the treasury of his heart.”(162)“the treasury of his heart” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a place where valuable things are stored, which can include thoughts or ideas stored in the heart or mind.
Jesus returns to Nazareth
  1. And it happened, when Jesus finished these parables, that He left that place.
  2. And having come into His hometown,(163)“hometown” is literally “fatherland”, as in the place his father lived/lives.  This was another way of saying the place He came from, i.e. His hometown. He was teaching them in their synagogue so that they were stunned in amazement. And they said; “From where did this man get this wisdom and the power to perform miracles?
  3. “Isn’t this the carpenter’s son? Isn’t His mother called Mary? And His brothers James, and Joseph, and Simeon, and Judas?
  4. And indeed, aren’t all His sisters with us?  So then, where did He get all these things?
  5. And they were being offended at Him.  But Jesus told them; “A prophet isn’t without honor except in his hometown and in his own household.”
  6. And He didn’t do many miracles there because of their unbelief.

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Matthew Chapter 14

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The Death of John the Baptist
  1. At that time, Herod the Tetrarch(164)“Tetrarch” is composed of two Greek words; the first means “four”, the second means “ruler”.  Properly, it means someone who rules over a fourth part of a region.  Essentially, this means a minor governor. heard the news of Jesus.
  2. And he told his servants; “This is John the Baptist.  He rose from the dead, and these miraculous powers work in Him because of this.”
  3. For having seized John, Herod bound him and put him in prison because of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip.
  4. For John was saying to him; “It’s not lawful for you to have her.”
  5. Although wishing to kill him, Herod feared the crowd because they were regarding him as a prophet.
  6. And having celebrated Herod’s birthday feast, the daughter of Herodias(165)“daughter of Herodias” History tells us that her name was Salome, who had become Herod’s stepdaughter at this point.  A common estimate for her birth year is 14 AD, meaning she was in her mid-teens when she danced before Herod. One common theory is that Salome danced sensually to entice, but that seems unlikely given these two facts. danced in their midst and pleased Herod.
  7. For this reason, he promised with a vow to give her whatever she asked.
  8. But having been urged by her mother, she says; “Give me John the Baptist’s head, here on a platter.”
  9. And the king – having been deeply grieved because of his vows and the men who recline(166)“recline” in the first century, you didn’t “sit” at a table in chairs.  Rather, you laid down with your feet sticking out in a reclining position. at the table – commanded John’s head to be given.
  10. And having sent orders, he had John beheaded in the prison.
  11. And his head was brought on a platter, and it was given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother.
  12. And having come forward, his disciples took the body and buried it.  And having gone to Jesus, they told Him.
Feeding the Five Thousand
  1. And having heard this, Jesus withdrew from there on His own by boat to a desolate place. And having heard this, the crowds followed Him on foot from the cities.
  2. And having gone out, He saw a great crowd and was moved with compassion for them, and healed their sick.
  3. Now, it became evening and the disciples approached Him saying; “This place is desolate, and the dinner hour has already passed. Therefore, dismiss the crowds so that after going into the towns, they might buy food for themselves.”
  4. But Jesus told them; “They have no need to leave. You give them something to eat.”
  5. And they tell Him; “We don’t have anything here, except five loaves of bread and two fish.”
  6. And He said; “Bring them here to Me.”
  7. And having command the crowds to sit down on the grass, He took the five loaves and two fish.  And having looked up to heaven, He spoke a blessing.  And having broken the loaves, He gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds.
  8. And all ate and were satisfied.  And they picked up the broken pieces which are left over; twelve baskets full.
  9. Now, the men who eat were about five thousand men, without counting women and children.
Jesus Walks On Water
  1. And He immediately compelled the disciples to step into the boat and to go before Him to the other side of the sea, until He sent away the crowds.
  2. And having sent away the crowds, He went up to the mountain on His own to pray. And it being evening, He was there alone.
  3. Now, the boat was already many stadia(167)a “stadia” is ~606 English feet, or ~185 meters. from land.  It was being buffeted by the waves, for the wind was hostile.
  4. And in the fourth watch of the night,(168)“fourth watch of the night” Both the Jews and Romans divided the night into four “watches”, each approximately three hours long.  The fourth watch was between 3am and 6am. Depending on the specific time that this took place and the time of year, it could’ve pitch black or during the fairly light dawn hours. He went to them walking on the sea.(169)quotation/allusion to Job 9:8 and Job 38:16
  5. And having seen Him walking on the sea, the disciples were deeply shaken, saying; “It’s a ghost!” and they cried out from fear.
  6. And immediately Jesus spoke to them, saying; “Have courage: I Am.(170)“I Am” the Greek construction here is identical to John 8:58, where Jesus proclaims His Deity, thus the translation “I Am” here.  This is a reference several Old Testament passages, primarily Exodus 3:14 where God appears to Moses and reveals Hisself as “I Am”.  Don’t fear.”
  7. And answering Him, Peter said; “Lord, if it’s you, command me to come to you on the waters.”
  8. And He said; “Come.”  And having come down out of the boat, Peter walked on the water and came to Jesus.
  9. But seeing the violent wind, he was afraid.  And having begun to sink into the sea, he cried out saying; “Lord save me!”
  10. And having reached out His hand, Jesus immediately caught him and says to him; “O you of little faith; why did you doubt?”
  11. And as they entered into the boat, the wind ceased.
  12. And the men in the boat bowed down at His feet,(171)“bowed down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”, which isn’t inaccurate (Jesus is God, and thus is worthy of our worship).  It comes from the Greek words: “pros” meaning “towards”, and “kyneo” meaning “to kiss”.  It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure.  Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. saying; “Truly, you are God’s Son.”
Healing at Gennesaret
  1. And having crossed over the sea, they came to the land of Gennesaret.
  2. And having recognized Him, the men of that place sent messengers into that whole region, and they brought all those who have sickness to Him.
  3. And they were begging Him, so they might merely touch the fringe of His robe, and as many as touched it were completely cured.(172)Malachi 4:2 speaks of the “sun of righteousness” which has “healing in it’s wings”.  The Jews believed this prophecy referred to the Messiah. The Hebrew word translated “wings” literally means any extremity (wing, arm, leg, etc.), including the “extremity” – or fringe – of a garment. Thus they believed touching the fringe of the Messiah’s robe would bring healing.  This is almost certainly an indication that they believed Jesus was the Messiah, because they applied a Messianic prophecy to Him.

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Matthew Chapter 15

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Man’s Tradition vs God’s Commandments
  1. Then some scribes and Pharisees from Jerusalem approach Jesus, saying;
  2. “Why do your disciples defy the tradition of the elders?  For, they don’t wash their hands when they eat bread.”
  3. But answering, He said to them; “And why do you defy the command of God because of your tradition?
  4. “For God commanded; ‘Honor your father and mother‘,(173)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12 and: ‘The man who curses(174)“curses” the Greek word which means to curse literally means to speak evil of.  Likewise, the Greek word for bless literally means to speak well of.  Therefore, in this verse it could also be translated “speaks evil of”.  Either or both could be intended. his father or mother must end in death.'(175)quotation/allusion to Exodus 21:17
  5. “But you say; ‘anyone may tell their father or mother; ‘If something from me might’ve helped you, it’s a gift to God instead.'(176)it’s a gift to God instead”.  In Greek, this phrase is only one word, “δῶρον” meaning “gift” or “sacrifice”.  Mark 7:11 uses the word “Corban”, which is specifically a gift consecrated/devoted to God.   The Pharisees believed that it was wrong to use something which was devoted/consecrated to God for “normal” use.   Therefore, the Pharisees said if a man devoted (gave) everything he owned to God, he couldn’t use it for another purpose (such as helping family).  However, there was no time requirement to deliver his goods, so he could keep them indefinitely while avoiding his obligations.  This loophole was apparently invented by the Pharisees to allow men to shirk the Biblical and moral obligation of taking care of their own parents.
  6. “He definitely won’t honor his father [or his mother], and thus you nullify God’s command because of your tradition.
  7. “You hypocrites!  Isaiah prophesied about you rightly, saying;
  8. This people honors Me with their lips, but their heart is far away from Me.
  9. They worship Me pointlessly, teaching man’s precepts as doctrine.”(177)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 29:13
What Defiles A Man
  1. And having summoned the crowd, He told them; “Listen and understand:
  2. it’s not what goes into the mouth that defiles a man, but what goes out of the mouth; this defiles a man.”
  3. Then having approached Him, the disciples say; “Did you know the Pharisees were offended after hearing this word?”
  4. And answering He said; “Every plant that My heavenly Father didn’t plant will be pulled up by the roots.
  5. “Leave them alone.  They are blind guides of the blind; and if a blind man guides a blind man, both will fall into a pit.”
  6. And answering, Peter said to Him; “Explain this parable to us.”
  7. But He said; “Are you men also still without understanding,(178)“without understanding” is one word in Greek.  It specifically refers to those who are unable or unwilling to put facts together in a coherent manner.  Thus it also has the connotation of being foolish or stupid. even now?”
  8. “Don’t you recognize that everything which enters into the mouth proceeds into the stomach and is expelled into a sewage pit.(179)“sewage pit” the Greek word here literally means “a place of sitting apart”, referring to a drain or latrine for human waste.
  9. “But what goes out of the mouth comes from the heart, and these defile a man.
  10. “For out of the heart comes wicked thoughts,(180)“thoughts” the Greek word here indicates back-and-forth reasoning, sometimes with yourself.  It also carries the connotation of leading to confusion or doubting. murders, men having sex with other men’s wives,(181)“men having sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, usually translated “adulteries” in this verse.  However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife.  The Hebrews divided sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman.  A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery.   A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication. Both are serious sins, but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words. fornications, thefts, perjuries, and blasphemies.
  11. “These are what defiles a man.  But to eat with unwashed hands doesn’t defile a man.”
The Canaanite Woman’s Faith
  1. And having departed from there, Jesus withdrew to the region of Tyre and Sidon.
  2. And behold; a Canaanite woman from that region came to Him.  She was crying out and saying; “Have mercy on me Lord, Son of David.(182)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as declaration of faith by the Canaanite woman.  My daughter is grievously demon possessed.”
  3. But He didn’t answer her a word.  And having approached Him, His disciples were urging Him saying; “Send her away because she cries out after us.”
  4. But answering her, He said; “I was only sent to the *lost sheep of the house of Israel.”
  5. But having come to Him, she was bowing down at His feet and saying; “Lord, help me.”
  6. But answering, He said; “It’s not good to take children’s bread and throw it to pet dogs.”(183)pet  dogs” The Greek word here is the diminutive form of the Greek word that means “dog”.  Hence, a small dog or a puppy.  The implication is of a household pet (which would probably be beloved), but it doesn’t have to be a pet.
  7. But she said; “Yes Lord, for even the pet dogs eat from the breadcrumbs which fall from their master’s table.”
  8. Then answering, Jesus said to her; “O woman, your faith is great!  Let it happen to you as you desire.” And her daughter was healed from that very hour.
Feeding Four Thousand
  1. And having departed from there, Jesus went along the Sea of Galilee.  And having gone up to the mountain, He was sitting there.
  2. And many crowds approached Him, having with themselves lame, crippled, blind, mute, and many others.  And they dropped(184)“dropped” is literal.  The Greek word means to throw or set down carelessly (drop).  It’s used 7 times in the New Testament, 6 of which it’s typically translated “throw” or “cast”. them at His feet, and He healed them.
  3. So the crowd marveled at seeing the mute speaking, and crippled made whole, and lame walking, and blind seeing.  And they glorified the God of Israel.
  4. And having summoned His disciples, Jesus said; “I feel compassion for the crowd, because they already remain with me three days and don’t have anything to eat.  And I don’t wish to send them away hungry, lest they faint on the way.”
  5. And the disciples say to Him; “Where in this wilderness would we get enough bread to satisfy so great a crowd?”
  6. And Jesus says to them; “How many loaves of bread do you have?”  And they said; “Seven, and a few small fish.”
  7. And having commanded the crowd to recline(185)“recline” is literal.  In the 1st century, they didn’t sit at a table.  Rather, they laid down with their feet sticking out. on the ground,
  8. He took the seven loaves and the fish.  And having given thanks, He broke them.  And He was giving them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds.
  9. And all ate and were satisfied.  And they picked up the pieces which are leftover, seven baskets full.
  10. Now, the men who ate were four thousand men, without counting women and children.
  11. And having sent away the crowds, He stepped into the boat and came to the region of Magadan.

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Matthew Chapter 16

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Looking For A Sign
  1. And having approached Jesus to test Him, the Pharisees and Sadducees asked Him to show them a sign from heaven.
  2. And answering, He told them; “When it becomes evening, you say: ‘It’ll be good weather, for the sky is red’.
  3. And in the morning you say: ‘today will be a storm, for the sky is red and cloudy’.  Indeed, you know how to discern the sky’s appearance, but you aren’t able to discern the signs of the times.
  4. A wicked generation and an adulteress(186)“adulteress” the traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery.seeks a sign. And a sign won’t be given to her except the sign of Jonah.”  And having left them behind, He departed.
The Leaven of the Pharisees
  1. And having come to the other side of the sea, the disciples had forgot to take bread.
  2. Then Jesus told them; “Look out and beware the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
  3. And they were reasoning among themselves, saying; “He said this because we didn’t bring bread.”
  4. But having known this, Jesus said; “Why do you reason among yourselves?  Because you don’t have bread?  O you men of little faith.
  5. “You don’t yet understand nor remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  6. “Nor the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  7. “How do you not understand that I didn’t speak to you about bread?  Now, beware the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
  8. Then they understood that He didn’t say to beware the leaven of bread, but of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ teaching.
Jesus, the Rock on Which the Church is Built
  1. Then having come to the region Caesarea Philippi, Jesus was questioning His disciples, saying; “Who do men declare the Son of Man to be?”
  2. And they said; “Indeed, some say John the Baptizer, but others Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.”
  3. He says to them; “But who do you declare Me to be?”
  4. And answering, Simon Peter said; “You are the Anointed; The Son of the Living God.”
  5. And answering, Jesus told Him; “Blessed are you Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood didn’t reveal this to you, but My Father in the heavens.
  6. And I also tell you that you are Peter.  And on that(187)“that”, the Greek demonstrative pronoun is traditionally translated “this” here.  While some say that the church was build on the ‘rock’ of Peter (since his name means rock), that’s impossible because in Greek, the word here is grammatically feminine, while Peter is grammatically masculine.  In order for the demonstrative pronoun to refer to Peter, it would need to match grammatical gender with the word Peter by being masculine, which it isn’t. rock I will build My Church, and the gates of the underworld(188)“underworld” the Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”. won’t overpower her.
  7. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens.  And whatever you bind on earth will have been bound(189)“will have been bound” is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “bind”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here, which indicates an action that was completed in the past that results in a state that’s ongoing until the present. in the heavens.  And whatever you loose on earth will have been loosed(190)“will have been loosed” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “loosen”, which is in the Greek Perfect tense here. The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.  It indicates an action that was completed in the past that results in a state that’s ongoing until the present. in the heavens.
  8. Then He clearly ordered the disciples, so they would tell no one that He is the Anointed.
  9. From that time on, Jesus the Anointed began to show His disciples that it’s essential for Him to go to Jerusalem, and to suffer many things from the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and to be killed, and to be raised up on the third day.
  10. And having taken Him aside, Peter began to scold Him, saying; “God forbid(191)“God forbid” is one word in Greek.  The primary meaning is “merciful” or to “have mercy”, and it’s only used one other place: Hebrews 8:12 where it’s typically translated “merciful”.  A more colloquial meaning was “God have mercy”, in the sense of forbidding something because God was merciful. you Lord; this definitely won’t happen to you.”
  11. But having turned around, He said to Peter; “Get behind Me Satan!  You’re a offense to Me because you aren’t thinking the things of God, but the things of men.”
The Cost of Discipleship
  1. Then Jesus told His disciples; “If anyone wants to come after Me, he must deny himself, pick up his cross, and follow Me.
  2. “For whoever wants to save his life(192)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  But whoever loses his life(193)“life” see previous note for My sake will find it.
  3. “For how will it benefit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his life?(194)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, or soul in that sense.  Or what will a man give in exchange for his life?(195)“life” see previous note
  4. “For the Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His Father with His angels.  And then ‘He will pay back each according to his deeds’.(196)quotation/allusion to Psalms 62:12 and Proverbs 24:12
  5. “Amen I tell you: some who have been standing here definitely won’t taste death until they saw the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.”

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Matthew Chapter 17

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The Transfiguration
  1. And after six days, Jesus takes Peter, and James, and John his brother, and He leads them up to a high mountain on their own.
  2. And He was transfigured in front of them, and His face shone like the sun, and His clothes became white as light.
  3. And behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them, discussing with Him.
  4. Then answering, Peter said to Jesus: “Lord, it’s good for us to be here. If you want, I’ll make three tabernacles(197)A tabernacle is a moveable structure like a tent. However, they are typically much more rigid, expensive, and much nicer.  In the Old Testament, God didn’t have a temple until Solomon’s day.  Before that, He “dwelled” in a tabernacle built to exacting standards. here: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
  5. While He was still speaking, behold, a shining cloud overshadowed them.  And behold, a voice came from the cloud saying: “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to Him.”
  6. And having heard this, the disciples fell on their faces and were extremely terrified.
  7. Then having approached and touched them, Jesus said: “Stand up and don’t fear.”
  8. And having lifted their eyes, they saw no one except Jesus Himself alone.
  9. And while coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying: “Tell no one of the vision until the Son of Man is risen from the dead.”
  10. And the disciples questioned Him, saying: “Then why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?”
  11. And answering, He said: “Indeed, Elijah comes first and will restore all things.
  12. “But I tell you that Elijah already came.  And they didn’t recognize him, but did whatever they wished to him.  In the same way also, the Son of Man is about to suffer under them.”
  13. Then the disciples understood that He spoke to them about John the Baptizer.
Healing a Demon Possessed Boy
  1. And having come to the crowd, a man approached Him, falling to his knees before Him
  2. and saying: “Lord, have mercy on my son because he is epileptic and suffers terribly.  For he often falls into the fire, and often into the water.
  3. “And I brought him to your disciples, and they couldn’t heal him.”
  4. Then answering, Jesus said: “O, you unbelieving and perverted generation.  How long will I be with you?  How long will I put up with you?  Bring him here to Me.”
  5. And Jesus rebuked him, and the demon went out from him, and the boy was healed from that very hour.
  6. Then having approached Jesus in private, the disciples said: “Why weren’t we able cast it out?”
  7. And He tells them: “Because of your weak faith. For amen I tell you: if you had faith like a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain: “Move from here to there” and it will move, and nothing will be impossible for you.
  8. [“But this kind doesn’t go out except by prayer and fasting.](198)This textual variant is essentially identical to Mark 9:29 – so it changes nothing doctrinally – but the authenticity of this verse to Matthew’s gospel is disputed.  There are strong arguments on both sides, but the argument doesn’t center on theology.  It is merely about if this verse was copied over from Mark’s gospel by scribes, or original to Matthew.
  9. And while being assembled in Galilee, Jesus told them: “The Son of Man is about to be betrayed into the hands of men.
  10. “And they will kill Him, and on the third day He will be raised up.”  And they were deeply grieved.
The Temple Tax
  1. And when they came to Capernaum, the men who collect the two-drachma(199)A “drachma” is an ancient Greek silver coin that weighed 4.3 grams, or 0.15 ounces. tax approached Peter and said: “Doesn’t your teacher pay the two-drachma tax?”
  2. He says: “Yes.”  And going into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying: “What do you think Simon?  From whom do the kings of the earth take tax and tribute?  From their sons or from strangers?”
  3. And Peter said: “From the strangers.” Jesus was saying to him: “Then the sons are free.”
  4. “But, so that we don’t offend them, having gone to the sea, cast a fishhook and pick up the fish that came up first.  And having opened its mouth, you’ll find a statér (200)“statér”, an Greek coin worth four drachma. worth four drachma.  Having taken that coin, give it to them for Me and you. “

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Matthew Chapter 18

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The Greatest in the Kingdom
  1. In that hour, the disciples approached Jesus saying: “Who then is the greatest in the kingdom of the heavens?”
  2. And having summoned a young child, He had the child stand in their midst,
  3. and He said: “Amen I tell you: If you aren’t changed and become like the little children, you definitely won’t enter the kingdom of the heavens.
  4. “Therefore, whoever will humble himself like this young child, he is the greatest in the kingdom of the heavens.
  5. “And whoever welcomes one such young child in My name, he welcomes Me.
  6. “But whoever lays bait to ensnare(201)“lays bait to ensnare” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or someone stumbling, and is often used those ways. one of these little ones who believes in Me, it’s better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck and be drowned in the depths of the sea.
  7. “Woe to the world for the bait that ensnares.(202)“bait that ensnares” the noun form of the verb used in verse 6, see note on verse 6 For it’s necessary for the bait that ensnares to come, yet woe to the man through whom this bait that ensnares comes.
  8. “And if your hand or your foot ensnares(203)“ensnares” see footnote on “bait that ensnares” in verse 6, since this is the same Greek word. you, cut it off and throw it from you.  It’s better for you to enter into the life maimed or lame, than having two hands or two feet and to be thrown into the fire of ages.(204)“fire of ages” is literal, though it’s traditionally translated “eternal fire” here.  However, that’s less literal and “fire of ages” captures the severity of the fire, which the traditional interpretation doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) here is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 when the disciples asked about the “culmination of the age“.
  9. “And if your eye ensnares you, pluck it out and throw it from you. It’s better for you to enter into the life one-eyed, than having two eyes and to be thrown into the fire of the Valley of Hinnom.(205)Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  However, it also has historical significance which is lost when it’s merely translated “hell”.  Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst judgement Israel had yet seen. This happened again a few decades after Christ when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD.
  10. “See that you don’t scorn one of these little ones. For I tell you: their angels in the heavens continually see the face of My Father in the heavens.
  11. [“For the Son of Man came to save the ones who have been lost.](206)It’s unclear whether this verse was originally part of Matthew or added later, and there are good arguments on both sides of the debate.  It’s nearly identical to Luke 19:10, so it changes nothing doctrinally.
The Parable of the Lost Sheep
  1. “What do you think?  If any man happens to have one hundred sheep and one of them was led astray, won’t he surely(207)“won’t… …surely”  The Greek here is a stronger word for “no” than is typically used and always carries an emphatic sense. leave the ninety-nine on the mountain, and having departed from there, seek the one who is led astray?
  2. “And if he happens to find it, amen I tell you that he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine who haven’t been led astray.
  3. “Thus, it’s not the will of your Father in the heavens that one of these little children should perish.
Church Discipline
  1. “Now, if you brother sins [against you],(208)There is a great debate on whether the words “against you” were original to Matthew. Several of the earliest manuscripts don’t contain “against you”, but the vast majority of later manuscripts do. The context of verse 21 (with Peter asking how many times to forgive someone who sins “against me”) would support the longer reading.  However, the context of the previous verse is about sheep who are “led astray” and those who hurt “little children”, which wouldn’t include offenses “against you”.  There is also Galatians 6:1, which – though a different book – would seem to support the shorter reading.  On the other hand, the sheer volume of manuscripts that support the longer reading can’t be ignored.  The debate is ongoing. go rebuke him with evidence of his fault(209)“rebuke him with evidence of his fault” is one word in Greek.  It means to correct or expose something (typically bad/wrong), which includes the idea of supporting evidence for the correction or exposition. between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have won over your brother.
  2. “But if he won’t listen, take one or two more with you so that “By the mouth of two or three witnesses, every spoken word might be confirmed.”(210)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 19:15
  3. “But if he disregards them, tell the church assembly.  But if he also disregards the church assembly, let him be exactly like a pagan and tax collector.
  4. “Amen I tell you all: Whatever you bind(211)“Binding and Loosing” were recognized legal terms in the Jewish faith.  Binding and loosing meant to “forbid” or to “permit” a practice in the faith.  Josephus says that that the Pharisees “became the administrators of all public affairs so as to be empowered to banish and readmit whom they pleased, as well as to loose and to bind.”  Jesus gave the church assembly to the authority to do what previously only the Pharisees – the religious elite – had been permitted to do.  Given the context here, it likely means to bind (forbid) or to loose (permit) associating with someone who has fallen into sin.  However, it could also refer to forbidding or permitting religious practices, though that idea isn’t contained in the immediate context. on earth will have been bound(212)“will have been bound” is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “bind”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here, which indicates an action that was completed in the past that results in a state that’s ongoing until the present. in heaven. And whatever you loose(213)“loose”, see note on “bind” earlier in this verse on earth will have been loosed(214)“will have been loosed is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “loose”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here, which indicates an action that was completed in the past that results in a state that’s ongoing until the present. in heaven.
  5. Again, amen I tell you all: If two of you on earth agree about any matter – if they ask – it will become so through My Father in the heavens.
  6. For where two or three have gathered in My name, I’m there in their midst.
Forgiveness and the Unforgiving Slave
  1. Then having approached Jesus, Peter said to Him: “How often shall I forgive my brother when he sins against Me? Up to seven times?”
  2. Jesus tells him: “I don’t tell you up to seven times, but up to seventy times seven.
  3. “Because of this, the kingdom of the heavens may be compared to a man – a king – who wished to settle accounts with his slaves.
  4. “And having begun to settle his accounts, one debtor who owed ten thousand talents(215)A “talent” is not a coin but a measure of weight.  It was about 75lbs, or 3000 silver shekels in weight. A talent of silver was worth about 6,000 denarii, which was the going rate for a day’s worth of unskilled labor.  However, the Greek word translated “ten thousand” here can also mean “countless” in a figurative sense, so the exact number might not be important. was brought to him.
  5. “But since he had nothing to repay the debt, the master ordered him to be sold, and his wife and children, and all that he had, and the debt to be repaid.
  6. “So having fallen down, the slave was bowing at his feet,(216)“was bowing at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. saying: “Be patient with me and I will repay everything to you.”
  7. “And having been moved with compassion, that slave’s master released him and forgave his debt.
  8. “But having departed, that slave found one of his fellow slaves who owed him a hundred denarii.(217)“denarii” is the plural of “denarius”, an ancient silver coin.  It was the going wage for a day’s worth of manual labor. And having seized him, he was choking him, saying: “Pay back what you owe!”
  9. “Then having fallen down, his fellow slave was begging him, saying: “Be patient with me and I will pay you back.”
  10. “Yet he wasn’t willing.  But having departed, he threw him into prison until he paid back what was owed.
  11. “So having seen what happened, his fellow slaves were extremely grieved.  And having gone to their master, they explained everything that happened.
  12. “Then having summoned him, his master says to him: “You wicked slave! I forgave all that debt because you begged me.
  13. “Weren’t you required to have mercy on your fellow slave, just like I had mercy on you?
  14. “And having been provoked to anger, his master handed him over to the prison torturer(218)“prison torturer” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a prison guard whose job it was to extract information from prisoners through torture. until he paid back all that he owed.
  15. “And My heavenly Father will do likewise to you, unless each of you forgives his brother from your heart.”

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Matthew Chapter 19

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  1. And it happened, when Jesus finished these words, He departed from Galilee and went to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan.
  2. And many crowds followed Him, and He healed them there.
Marriage and Separation
  1. And some Pharisees approached Him, testing Him and saying: “Is it lawful for a man to send away(219)“send away” is literal here, though it’s typically translated divorce in this passage. The same word is used of Jesus “sending away” crowds and Pilate “sending away” (releasing) Barabbas. Paul uses a different Greek word when talking about divorce in 1 Corinthians. The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and had three parts: 1) write a divorce certificate. 2) Give it to your wife. 3) Send her away from your house. However, if a man “sent her away” (kicked her out of his house) without a divorce certificate, in that culture she was destitute. She was still legally married because she didn’t have a divorce certificate, so she couldn’t marry anyone else without being an adulteress. Often, her only resort to feed herself was prostitution.  There was a debate as to whether this was lawful according to the Mosaic Law. This was one of the two great debates centering on divorce. (See following note for the other debate) The Pharisees cleverly asked about both in a single question here.  Jesus’ response makes it clear that spouses should live together as long as they are married. his wife for every(221)“every reason” is literal.  During Jesus day, there was a great debate between the rabbinic schools of Shammai and Hillel on what was an acceptable reason for a divorce (or merely “sending away”; see previous note).  The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and includes this preamble: “When a man takes a wife and marries her, and she doesn’t find favor in his eyes because he finds some indecency in her…“.  The school of Shammai took the “indecency” part to mean there must be some kind of sexual indiscretion/exposure before a man could divorce her.  While Hillel’s school focused on the “not finding favor” part.  They said anything he didn’t like – even burning his dinner – could be grounds for divorce.  Essentially, Hillel’s school said a man could divorce his wife for “every reason”.  This was one of the two great debates centering on divorce. (See previous note for the other debate) The Pharisees cleverly asked about both in a single question here. reason?”(220)“reason” The Greek word here is often used in the judicial sense of an accusation of a crime.
  2. And answering, He said: “Haven’t you read that from the beginning, the One who created them made them male and female?(222)Quotation/allusion to Genesis 1:26-27
  3. “And He said: for this reason, a man will leave his father and mother and will be joined to his wife, and the two will be(223) Most translations use the word “become” here, but the Greek word for “become” isn’t in this passage despite Matthew using it with great latitude elsewhere.  In this verse, it’s simply the Greek word that means is/are/am/be/being/etc. in one flesh,(224)Quotation allusion to Genesis 2:24.  Jesus appears to be talking solely about a physical union here (not a spiritual one). Paul makes this clearer in 1 Corinthians 6:16, where the Genesis 2:24 is also applied to sex with prostitutes.
  4. “so they’re no longer two, but one flesh.  Therefore, what God has yoked together,(225)“yoked together” is literal.  A “yoke” is a contoured wooden beam used to join two beast of burden (cows, oxen, etc.) together so they can pull a heavy load together. man must not separate.(226)“separate” the Greek word here literally means to depart, vacate, or “create space”; or to “place room between” (Strong’s).  See note on “send away” in verse 3. Paul uses this word in 1 Corinthians 7 in the section on divorce, but it’s not translated divorce there.  There, it’s typically translated “leave” instead.
  5. They say to Him: “So why did Moses command to give her a scroll of divorce and to send her away?”(227)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 24:1, which lists the three things a man must do to divorce his wife. The final two parts of the divorce procedure were to give the wife a scroll of divorce and send her away from his house.  See note on verse 3.
  6. He tells them: “Moses allowed you to send away(228)see note on “send away” in verse 3. your wives because of your hardness of heart, but from the beginning it hasn’t happened this way.
  7. “But I tell you that whoever sends away(229)see note on “send away” in verse 3. his wife not on account of sexual immorality, and marries another woman of the same kind(230)“another woman of the same kind” is one word in Greek, with that exact definition.  The “of the same kind” part likely refers to a woman who is merely “sent away” and not properly divorced. See note on “send away” in verse 3. is guilty of sex with another man’s wife.(231)“is guilty of sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commits adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was still a serious sin, but the not the specific sin of adultery. [And the man who marries her who has been merely sent away is guilty of sex with another man’s wife.](232)This textual variant is essentially identical to Mathew 5:32.  There is debate over whether it was copied over from that verse, or Matthew wrote it in both places.
  8. His disciples say to Him: “If the accusation against(233)“accusation against“, the Greek word here is usually used in the judicial sense of an accusation of a crime. a man and wife is like this, it’s better not to marry.”
  9. And He told them: “Not all receive this word, but only who it has been given to.
  10. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother’s womb.  And there are eunuchs who were made into eunuchs by men.  And there are eunuchs(234)“eunuchs”, the Greek word for eunuch literally means “alone in bed”, and can refer either to a man who is castrated, or to one who voluntarily abstains from marriage and sex. who made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of the heavens. The man who is able to receive this, let him receive it.
Let the Children Come
  1. Then some young children were brought to Him so He might lay hands on them and pray, but the disciples scolded them.
  2. But Jesus said: “Allow the young children, and don’t forbid them to come to Me.  For the kingdom of the heavens is of such a kind.
  3. And having laid hands on them, He departed from there.
The Rich Young Man
  1. And behold; having approached Him, one man said: “What good should I do so that I might have the life of ages?(235)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”
  2. And He said to him: “Why do you ask Me about good?  Only one is good.  But if you wish to enter into the life, keep the commandments.”
  3. He says to Him: “What sort of commandment?”  And Jesus said: “You shall not murder, you shall not have sex with another man’s wife,(236)“have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was typically called fornication or sexual immorality. you shall not steal, you shall not commit perjury.(237)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13-16
  4. honor your father and mother,(238)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12 and you shall ^love your neighbor as yourself.”(239)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  5. The young man says to Him: “I have carefully observed all of these.  What do I still lack?”
  6. Jesus was declaring to Him: “If you desire to be perfect, go, sell the things that you possesses, and give to the poor, and you will have stored up treasure in the heavens, and come follow Me.
  7. But having heard this word, the young man departed grieving, for he had many properties.(240)“properties” the Greek word here can refer to possessions, but more properly refers to land or real estate with buildings.
  8. And Jesus told His disciples: “Amen I tell you: A rich man will enter into the kingdom of the heavens with difficulty.
  9. “And again I tell you: It’s easier for a camel(241)“camel”.  The Greek word for camel is almost identical to the Greek word for a rope. (“καμιλου vs. καμήλου”) Some contest that Jesus said “rope”.  However, there’s very little manuscript evidence for this and all of them are 9th century or later.  Others contest that Jesus was referring to a small gate – called a “eye of the needle” gate – in Jerusalem that was only large enough for an unladen camel to pass through.  The story goes, these smaller gates allowed entrance after dark when the main gates closed, but it was difficult because you had to unpack the camel before it could fit through the tiny “needle gate”.  However, there is no historical evidence for this and the story only dates to the 9th century at the earliest. to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.”
  10. And having heard this, the disciples were incredibly stunned, saying: “Then who’s able to be saved?”
  11. And having scrutinized them, Jesus said: “This is impossible with men: but all things are possible with God.”
  12. Then answering, Peter said to Him: “Look, we left everything and followed you.  Therefore, what will our reward be?”
  13. And Jesus said to them: “Amen I tell you: in the renewal when the Son of Man sits down on His glorious throne, you men who followed Me will also sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
  14. “And every man who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, [or wife,] or children, or lands, for My name’s sake will receive a hundredfold and will inherit the life of ages.”(242)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”  Virtually all lexicons define αἰών (the noun form) as “age”, but some want to change the adjective form’s meaning to “eternal” instead of “age-long” or “of ages”.  This despite “of ages” conveying a similar – and more literally accurate – meaning.
  15. “But many who are first will be last; and the last, first.

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Matthew Chapter 20

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Parable of the Worker’s Pay
  1. “For the kingdom of the heavens is like a man – a master of the house – who at dawn immediately went out to hire workmen for his vineyard.
  2. “And having agreed with the workmen to pay a denarius for the day, he sent them into his vineyard.
  3. “And having gone out about the third hour,(243)“The third hour”, the Jews counted hours from dawn, which was typically around 6:00 in the morning. Therefore, “the third hour” is about 9:00am. he saw other workmen who have been standing idle in the market.
  4. “And he told those men: “You also go into the vineyard, and I will give you whatever is right.”
  5. “And they went.  And having gone out again about the sixth and the ninth hour, he did the same thing again.
  6. “And having gone out at about the eleventh hour, he found other workmen who have been standing idle.  And he says to them: “Why have you stood here idle all day?
  7. “They tell him: “Because no one hired us.” He tells them: “You also go into the vineyard. [And you will receive whatever is right.]
  8. “And when it became evening, the master of the vineyard says to his foreman: “Call the workmen and pay them the wages, beginning from the last, up to the first.
  9. “And having come forward, the men hired about the eleventh hour each received a denarius.
  10. “And having come forward, the men hired first assumed they would receive more, but they also received a denarius each.
  11. “And having received it, they were grumbling against the master of the house,
  12. “saying: “These last men only worked one hour, and you made them equal to us: the men who bore the whole day’s burden and the scorching heat.”
  13. “But answering one of them, he said: “Friend,(244)“Friend” this Greek word is only used three times on the Bible.  All of them are in Matthew, and all are in the sense of a false friend.  One lexicon says it refers to someone posing as a friend, but who really has their own interests in mind. I don’t wrong or hurt(245)“wrong or hurt” is one word in Greek, and can mean either or both depending on the context you.  Didn’t you agree with me on a denarius?”
  14. “Take what’s yours and go.  But I wish to give this last man the same as you.
  15. “Or, isn’t it lawful for me to do what I desire with what’s mine?  Or, is your eye evil with greed(246)“eye evil with greed” the phrase “evil eye” is an idiom which means “to be stingy” or “to be greedy”.  See also, Matthew 6:23. because I’m generous?”
  16. “In this way, the last will be first, and the first last. [for many are called, but few are chosen.]
Jesus Predicts His Death again
  1. And going up to Jerusalem, Jesus took the twelve disciples aside privately and He told them on the way: “Behold,
  2. “we go up to Jerusalem.  And the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and scribes, and they will condemn Him to death.
  3. And they will hand Him over to the gentiles to mock, and to flog with whips, and to crucify; and on the third day He will rise again.
The Greatest in the Kingdom
  1. Then the mother of the sons of Zebedee approached Him with her sons, bowing down at His feet(247)“bowing down at his feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. and asking something from Him.
  2. And He said to her: “What do you desire?”  She says to Him: “Say that in your kingdom, these two sons of mine might sit down with one at your right hand, and one at your left hand.”
  3. But answering, Jesus said to them: “You don’t *know what you ask.  Are you able to drink the cup that I’m about to drink?  [Or to be baptized in the baptism that I’m baptized?]  They tell Him: “We are able.”
  4. He tells them: “Indeed, you will drink My cup [and be baptized in the baptism that I’m baptized.] But to sit on My right and left: this isn’t Mine to give.  But that’s for who it has been prepared by My Father.”
  5. And having heard this, the ten were indignant about the two brothers.
  6. And having summoned them, Jesus said: “You *know that the rulers of the gentiles exercise authority over them, and their great men dominate them.
  7. “It shall not be this way among you, but whoever desires to become great among you, he will be your servant.
  8. “And whoever desires to be first among you, he will be your slave,
  9. “just as the Son of Man didn’t come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a purchase price(248)“purchase price” this Greek word often referred to the price required to buy a slave’s freedom. for many.”
Jesus Heals Two Blind Men
  1. And while they were departing from Jericho, a great crowd followed Him.
  2. And having heard that Jesus is passing by, behold: two blind men sitting along the road cried out saying: “Lord, have mercy on us Son of David.”(249)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by the blind men.
  3. But the crowd scolded them so they might be silent, but they cried out louder, saying: “Lord, have mercy on us Son of David.”
  4. And having stopped, Jesus called to them and said: “What do you want Me to do for you?”
  5. They say to Him: “Lord, we ask that our eyes might be opened.”
  6. and having been moved with compassion, Jesus touched their eyes and at once they recovered their sight, and they followed Him.

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Matthew Chapter 21

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The Triumphal Entry
  1. And when they drew near to Jerusalem and came to Bethphage on the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent out two disciples,
  2. saying to them: “Go into the village before you, and at once you’ll find a donkey who has been tied, and a colt with her.  Having untied them, bring them to Me.
  3. “And if someone says anything, you will say that ‘The Lord has need of them.’ and he will send them immediately.”
  4. And this has happened so what was spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying:
  5. Tell the daughter of Zion: Behold! Your King comes to you(250)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 62:11.  “He’s strong but gentle(251)“strong but gentle” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness.  i.e. some who is strong, but applies his strength gently. and *mounted on a donkey, even on a colt; the foal of a beast of burden.”(252)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 9:9
  6. Then having gone and done as Jesus instructed them, the disciples
  7. brought the donkey and the colt, and they put their tunics on them, and He sat on them.
  8. And the largest crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others were cutting branches from the trees and were spreading them on the road.
  9. And the crowds who preceded Him, and the crowds who followed, were crying out, saying: “Hosanna(253)“Hosanna” A Hebrew word which means “save now”, or “please save now”. It was originally a cry for help, but apparently indicates exultation or joy. The “na” suffix indicates intense emotion, hence the emphatic sense here. to the Son of David!(254)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­the crowds. Blessed is the One who comes in the name of the Lord!(255)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:26 Hosanna in the highest!”
  10. And having entered Jerusalem, the whole city was stirred up, saying: “Who is this?”
  11. And the crowds were saying: “This is the prophet, Jesus from Nazareth of Galilee.”
Cleansing the Temple
  1. And Jesus entered the temple and threw out all the men who buy and sell in the temple, and He overturned the money-changers’ tables, and the chairs of the men who sell the doves.
  2. And He tells them: “It is *written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer‘,(256)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 56:7 but you made it a den of robbers.”(257)Quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 7:11
  3. And the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple, and He healed them.
  4. But having seen the wondrous deeds that He did, and the children who cried out in the temple saying: “Hosanna to the Son of David!”, the chief priests and scribes were incensed.
  5. And they said to Him: “Do you hear what these children say?”  And Jesus tells them, “Absolutely.  Did you never read: “From the mouths of infants and nursing babes, you prepared praise for yourself.”(258)quotation/allusion to Psalm 8:2?”
  6. And having left them behind, He went out of the city to Bethany and spent the night there.
The Fig Tree Withers
  1. And while returning to the city early in the morning, He was hungry.
  2. And having seen one fig tree on the road, He went to it and found nothing on it except leaves alone.  And He says to it: “Fruit won’t come from you any longer; not into the age.”  And the tree instantly withered.
  3. And having seen this, the disciples marveled, saying: “How did the fig tree wither instantly?”
  4. And answering, Jesus said to them: “Amen I tell you: If you have faith and don’t doubt, you’ll not only do the miracle of the fig tree, but even if you tell this mountain: ‘be lifted up and thrown into the sea’, it will happen.
  5. “And all things – as many as you ask in prayer while believing – you will receive.
Jesus’ Authority Challenged
  1. And after He went into the temple, the chief priests and elders of the people approached Him while He was teaching, saying: “By what authority do you do these things?  And who gave you this authority?”
  2. But answering, Jesus told them: “I’ll also ask you one question, which – if you answer Me – I’ll also tell you by what authority I do these things.
  3. “From where was the baptism of John: from heaven, or from men?”  And they were reasoning among themselves, saying: “If we say ‘from heaven’, He will say to us: “Then why didn’t you believe him?”.
  4. But if we say ‘from men’ we fear the crowd, for everyone regards John as a prophet.
  5. And answering Jesus, they said: “We don’t *know.”  And He was telling them: “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.
A Parable of Two Sons
  1. “But what do you think?  A man had two children.  And having approached the first, He said: “Child, go work in the vineyard today”.
  2. “And answering, he said: “Sir, I’m not willing.”  But having regretted it later, he went.
  3. “And having approached the second, he said the same thing.  And answering, he said: “I will sir.” and he didn’t go.
  4. “Which of the two did the will of the father?”  They said: “The first.”  Jesus said to them: “Amen I tell you: the tax collectors and prostitutes go into the kingdom of God before you.
  5. “For John came to you in the way of righteousness and you didn’t believe him, but the tax collectors and prostitutes believed him.  And having seen this, you didn’t even regret it afterwards to believe him.
The Wicked Vinegrowers
  1. “Hear another parable: There was a man, a master of a house, who planted a vineyard.  And He placed a fence around it, and dug a winepress in it, and built a fortified tower,(259)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 5:1-2 and hired out vinegrowers, and traveled to a foreign country.
  2. “And when the fruit season was near, he sent his slaves to the vinegrowers to receive his fruit.
  3. “And the vinegrowers took his slaves: and indeed they beat one, and killed another, and another they stoned.
  4. “Again, he sent other slaves, more than the first time, and they did the same to them.
  5. “Afterwards, he sent his son to them, saying: “They will turn in shame and revere(260)“will turn in shame and revere” is one word in Greek.  It means “to turn about”, often in shame or away from shame and to revere something else. my son”.
  6. “But having seen the son, the vinegrowers said among themselves: “This is the heir.  Come: we’ll kill him and gain his inheritance.
  7. “And having seized him, they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.
  8. “Therefore, when the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to these vinegrowers?”
  9. They tell Him: “He will horribly destroy those horrible men.(261)“He will horribly destroy those horrible men” is literally “He will wickedly destroy those wicked men”, but not in the sense of the destruction being wicked.  Rather, the sense is “let the punishment fit the crime”. i.e. let “the wicked meet a wicked end”.  Therefore, “horribly/horrible” was chosen to avoid this confusion, and to avoid making the reader think the lord’s actions were wicked.  And he will hire out the vineyard to other vinegrowers, who will give him the fruits in their seasons.
  10. Jesus says to them: “Did you never read in the scriptures? The stone which the men who build rejected; this has become the head corner stone.  This happened from the Lord, and is marvelous in our eyes.(262)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22-23
  11. “Because of this, I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a people(263)“people” is literal.  It’s the Greek word ” ἔθνος” (ethnos), which is typically translated “Gentiles” or “nations”. producing its fruit.
  12. “And the man who fell on this stone will be shattered, but whoever it fell on, it will crush him to pieces and scatter him like chaff.”(264)“will crush… …to pieces and scatter him like chaff” is one word In Greek.  It refers to the process of winnowing, where the whole grain is slightly crushed to break the (useless) chaff from the (useful) grain. Then, the mixture is thrown into the air so the wind carries the chaff away, while the heavier (useful) grain falls back to the earth.  See note on Matthew 3:12 for more information on winnowing,
  13. And hearing His parables, the chief priests and Pharisees knew that He speaks about them.
  14. And they were seeking to seize Him, but they feared the crowds because they were regarding Him as a prophet.

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Matthew Chapter 22

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The Parable of the Wedding Feast
  1. And answering, Jesus again spoke to them in parables, saying:
  2. “The kingdom of the heavens may be compared to a man – a king – who prepared a wedding feast for his son.
  3. “And he sent his slaves to call the men who have been invited to the wedding feast, and they weren’t willing to come.
  4. “Again, he sent other slaves, saying: “Tell the men who have been invited: “behold, my dinner has been prepared.  My oxen and fattened cattle have been slaughtered and everything is ready.  Come to the wedding feast.”
  5. “But having not cared, they departed: one to his own farm, and another to his business.
  6. “And having seized his slaves, the rest spitefully injured and killed them.
  7. “And the king was enraged.  And having sent his armies, he destroyed those murders and burned their city.
  8. “Then he says to his slaves: “The wedding feast is indeed ready, but the men who have been invited weren’t worthy.
  9. “Therefore, travel on the highways and roads, and invite as many as you find to the wedding feast.
  10. “And having gone out to the roads, those slaves gathered everyone: whoever they found – both evil and good – and the wedding feast was full of the men who recline at the table.
  11. “And having entered to observe the men who recline at the table, the king saw a man there not *dressed in wedding clothes.
  12. “And he says to him: “Friend,(265)“Friend” this Greek word is only used three times on the Bible.  All of them are in Matthew, and all are in the sense of a false friend.  One lexicon says it refers to someone posing as a friend, but who really has their own interests in mind. how did you enter here without having wedding clothes?” But he was speechless.
  13. “Then the king told his servants: “Having bound his hands and feet, throw him into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
  14. “For many are called, but few are chosen.”
Paying Caesar’s tax
  1. Then having left, the Pharisees held a council on how they might trap Him in His words.
  2. And they send their disciples to Him, along with Herod’s supporters, saying: “Teacher, we *know that you are true, and the way of God is in the truth you teach.  And you don’t worry about anyone, for you don’t look at the appearance of men.
  3. “Therefore tell us what you think: Is it lawful to pay the poll tax(266)A “poll tax” (also called a “head tax or “capitation”) is a tax on every liable individual in a nation.  This specific tax was paid yearly, and could only be paid in Roman money, not Jewish money. to Caesar, or not?
  4. But having known their wickedness, Jesus said: “You hypocrites; Why do you test Me?
  5. “Show Me the coin used for the poll tax.”  And they brought Him a denarius.
  6. And He says to them: “Whose image is this, and whose inscription?”
  7. They tell him: “Caesar’s.”  Then He tells them: “Therefore, repay the things of Caesar to Caesar, and the things of God to God.”
  8. And having heard this, they marveled.  And having left Him, they departed.
Marriage in the Resurrection
  1. On that same day, some Sadducees – who say there’s no resurrection – approached Him and questioned Him,
  2. saying: “Teacher, Moses said that If any man dies without having children, his brother shall marry his wife, and he shall raise up seed for his brother.”(267)Quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:5
  3. “Now, seven brothers were among us, and the first died after he married.  And not having seed, he left his wife to his brother.
  4. “And the second did the same thing, and the third, until the seventh.
  5. “Then last of all, the woman died.
  6. “Therefore in the resurrection, whose wife will she be of the seven?  For all had her.”
  7. And answering, Jesus told them: “You go astray, not *knowing the scriptures nor the power of God.
  8. “For in the resurrection, they don’t marry nor are they given in marriage: but they are like the angels of God in heaven.
  9. “But concerning the resurrection of the dead, didn’t you read what was spoken to you by God, saying:
  10. I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.”(268)Quotation/allusion to Exodus 3:6 He isn’t the God of the dead, but of the living.”
  11. And having heard this, the crowds were stunned at His teaching.
The Greatest Commandment
  1. And the Pharisees – having heard that He silenced the Sadducees – were gathered together at the same place.
  2. And testing Him, one of their lawyers questioned Him, saying:
  3. “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law?”
  4. And He was declaring to him: “You shall ^love the Lord your God in your whole heart, and in your whole soul, and in your whole mind.(269)Quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:5
  5. “This is the great and foremost commandment,
  6. “and the second is similar to it: You shall ^love your neighbor as yourself.(270)Quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  7. “The whole law hangs on these two commandments, and the prophets do also.”
Whose Son is The Anointed?
  1. And while the Pharisees were *gathered together, Jesus questioned them,
  2. saying: “What do you think about the Anointed?  Whose son is He?”  They tell Him: “David’s.”
  3. He says to them: “Then how does David call Him Lord while in the Spirit, saying:
  4. The Lord said to my Lord: sit at My right hand until I place your enemies underneath your feet.(271)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:1
  5. “Therefore, if David calls Him Lord, how is He his son?”
  6. And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor did anyone dare to question Him any longer from that day on.

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Matthew Chapter 23

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Do As They Say, Not As They Do
  1. Then Jesus spoke to the crowds and His disciples,
  2. saying: “The scribes and Pharisees sat down on Moses’ seat.
  3. “Therefore in all things – as many as they tell you – do and observe.  But don’t act according to their deeds, for they speak and don’t act.
  4. “They tie up heavy [and oppressive] burdens and lay them on the shoulders of men, but they aren’t willing to move them with their finger.
  5. “And they do all their deeds to be seen by men, for they broaden their phylacteries(272)a “phylactery” was a small leather case worn on the body like an amulet.  It contained four important passages of scripture (Ex 13:1-10, Ex 11-16, Duet 6:4-9 , Deut 13-21).  They were strapped to left arm facing the heart, or to the head and/or wrist to signify that God through the scriptures should guide all thoughts and actions.  They did this as an extremely literal way of looking at Deuteronomy 6:8. and enlarge their tassels.(273)“Tassels” In Numbers 15:37-40, God commanded Israel to put blue tassels on the corners of their garments so they would remember to obey Him when they saw them.  These tassels were called “tzitzit”, and apparently the Pharisees preferred large ones to ensure everyone knew that they were complying with that command.
  6. “And they love the chief place at dinners, and the chief seat at the synagogues,
  7. “and the greetings in the assembly or market,(274)“assembly or market” is one word in Greek.  It can mean either a place of assembly by men, or by implication a market.  Technically, including both translations is double translating (translating the same word twice two different ways).  However, both meanings were included because both are relevant and equally likely. and to be called ‘Rabbi’ by men.
  8. “But you shouldn’t be called ‘Rabbi’, for only One is your teacher and all of you are brothers.
  9. “And you shouldn’t call anyone on the earth your father, for One is your Father, and He’s in heaven.
  10. “Nor should you be called master teachers,(275)“master teacher” is one word in Greek, referring to a leader who guides by instructing.  In Modern Greek, this word refers to a “professor”. because One is your master teacher; the Anointed.
  11. “But the greatest among you will be your servant.
  12. “And whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted.
Woe to the Scribes and Pharisees
  1. “But woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you shut up kingdom of the heavens before men.  For you don’t enter, nor allow the men who are entering to enter.
  2. [“Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you devour widow’s houses and are praying long prayers for appearance’ sake. Because of this, you will receive a greater judgement.]
  3. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you travel across the sea and dry land to make one convert to Judaism.   And when he becomes one, you make him twice a son of the Valley of Hinnom(276)“the Valley of Hinnom” most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife. However, it also has historical significance which is lost when it’s merely translated “hell”. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31)  Because of this, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12).  Jesus words here about “sons of the Valley of Hinnom” likely indicates He was condemning them as being just as guilty as those kings. as you are.
  4. “Woe to you blind guides; you men who say: “Whoever swears by the temple, it’s nothing.  But whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.”
  5. “You foolish and blind men!  For which is greater: the gold, or the temple that sanctified the gold?
  6. “And you say: “Whoever swears by the altar, it’s nothing.  But whoever swears by the gift that’s on it, he is obligated.
  7. “You blind men! Which is greater: the gift, or the altar which sanctifies the gift?”
  8. “Therefore, the man who swore by the altar, he swears by it and by everything upon it.
  9. “And the man who swore by the temple, he swears by it and by the One who inhabits it.
  10. “And the man who swore by heaven, he swears by the throne of God and the One who sits upon it.
  11. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you pay tithes of mint, and dill, and cumin, and neglect the weightier parts of the law: justice, and mercy, and faithfulness.  But it’s required to do these, without neglecting those.
  12. “You blind guides! You men who strain out a gnat but swallow a camel!
  13. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you clean the outside of the cup and the dish,(277)“dish”, this Greek word refers to a dish in/on which light food or appetizers are served.  Specifically, expensive or choice food which is delightful, but doesn’t satisfy hunger. but within they’re full of robbery and no self-control.
  14. “You blind Pharisee!  First clean the inside of the cup [and the dish], so its outside might also become clean.
  15. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you are like tombs which have been whitewashed.  Which indeed appear beautiful outside, but inside they are full of dead bones and all impurity.
  16. “And in the same way, you indeed appear outwardly righteous to men, but within are full of hypocrisy and have no regard for God’s commands.(278)“no regard for God’s commands ” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “no regard for God’s law”. It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who – either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law.
  17. “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees – you hypocrites – because you build the tombs of the prophets and beautifully decorate the mausoleums(279)“mausoleums” the Greek word here refers to a monument and/or memorial tomb.  The word “mausoleum” means a free-standing tomb constructed as a monument or memorial for a deceased person. of the righteous.
  18. “And you say: “If we were living in the days of our fathers, we wouldn’t be partners with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.
  19. “So then, you yourselves testify that you’re sons of the men who murdered the prophets.
  20. “And you; complete the standard of your fathers.
  21. “You snakes!  You offspring of serpents!  How will you escape from the sentence of the Valley of Hinnom?(280)“Valley of Hinnom” most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife. However, it also has historical significance which is lost when it’s merely translated “hell”. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst judgement Israel had yet seen. This happened again a few decades after Jesus when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. Here, Jesus was likely making a double reference to punishment in the afterlife and earthly judgement.
Lament Over Jerusalem
  1. “Because of this, behold!  I send prophets, and wise men, and scribes to you. You will kill and crucify some of them, and some of them you will flog in your synagogues, and some you will persecute from city to city,
  2. “so that all the righteous blood being shed on the earth will come upon you: from the blood of righteous Abel up to Zechariah son of Berekiah, who you murdered between the temple and the altar.
  3. “Amen I tell you: all these will come upon this generation.
  4. “O, Jerusalem, Jerusalem; you who kill the prophets and stone the men who have been sent to her.  How often I wished to gather your children the way that a hen gathers her chicks under her wings; and you weren’t willing.
  5. “Behold!  Your house is left to you desolate.
  6. “For I tell you: you definitely won’t see Me from now until you say: blessed is the One who comes in the name of the Lord.”

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Matthew Chapter 24

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The Temple’s Destruction Prophesied
  1. And having gone out from the temple, Jesus was departing and His disciples approached Him to show Him the temple buildings.
  2. But answering, He told them: “Don’t you see all these things?  Amen I tell you: there definitely won’t be one stone left upon another stone here which won’t be torn down.
  3. And while He was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples approached Jesus in private saying; “Tell us: when will these things be?  And what’s the sign of your coming and the culmination(281)“culmination” is literal, though many translations render it “end”. It refers to an end which is not merely a cessation, but rather the completion and can indicate ushering in the next time era. of the age?
  4. And answering, Jesus told them; “Watch out, lest someone leads you astray.
  5. “For many will come in My name, saying; “I am the Anointed” and they will lead many astray.
  6. “And you will be about to hear of wars and rumors of wars.  Behold, don’t be alarmed for this must happen, but it’s not yet the end.
  7. “For nation will rise up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.  And there will be famines and earthquakes in various places,
  8. “But all these merely begin the birth pains.
  9. Then they will hand you over into persecution, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all the nations because of My name.
  10. “And then many will fall away, and they will betray one another, and they will hate one another.
  11. “And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray.
  12. “And because disregard for God’s commands(282)“disregard for God’s commands” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “disregard for God’s law”.  It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who –  either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law. will be multiplied, the ^love of many will grow cold.
  13. “But the man who endured to the end, he will be saved.
  14. “And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole inhabited world(283)“inhabited world” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “the world inhabited by Romans”.  This Greek word originally referred to those who lived in Greece, excluding all others.  Later – after they were absorbed into the Roman Empire – it came to mean those who lived in the Roman Empire, excluding those outside it.  However, it’s occasionally used in a broader context to mean the entire inhabited world. as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come.
  15. “Therefore, when you see that the abomination of desolation(284)Quotation/allusion to Daniel 9:27 (the one spoken of through Daniel the prophet) *standing in the holy place, (let the man who reads understand)
  16. “then let the men in Judea flee to the mountains.
  17. “The man on the housetop must not come down to take things from his house,
  18. “and the man in the field must not turn back to take his cloak.
  19. “But woe to the women who have a child in their womb, and to the women who nurse in those days.
  20. “And pray that your flight won’t happen in winter, nor on a Sabbath.
  21. “For then there will be a great tribulation, such as hasn’t happened from the beginning of the world until now; and it most definitely won’t(285)“and it most definitely won’t”.  In Greek, this is a triple negative (and not, no, not) to add very strong emphasis.  While double negatives are occasionally used to add emphasis in Greek, triple negatives are extremely rare and make the statement even more definitively negative.  Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the words “most definitely” were added to keep the very strong emphatic sense of the Greek. happen again.
  22. “And unless those days were cut short, no flesh would be saved. But for the sake of the elect, those days will be cut short.
  23. “Then if someone tells you; “behold, here is the Anointed”, or “He’s here” don’t believe it.
  24. “For false anointed ones and false prophets will arise.  And they will give great signs and wonders to lead many astray; if possible, even the elect.
  25. “Behold; I have forewarned you.
The Coming of the Son of Man
  1. “So if they tell you; “Behold; He’s in the wilderness!” don’t go out.   Or if they say “Behold; He’s in the inner room!” don’t believe it.
  2. “For just as lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will the coming of the Son of Man be.
  3. “Wherever a carcass might be, vultures will be gathered there.
  4. “And immediately after the tribulation of those days: The sun will be darkened and the moon won’t give its light.(286)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 13:10  And the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.(287)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 34:4
  5. “And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes(288)“tribes” the Greek word here refers to a people descended from a common ancestor.  In the New Testament, it’s almost exclusively applied to the twelve tribes of Israel, who descended from Jacob. of the land will mourn.  And they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory.(289)Quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13
  6. “And He will send His angels with a great trumpet call.  And they will gather His elect from the four winds; from the ends of the heavens(290)“heavens” the Greek word for “sky” is the exact same as the word for “heaven”.  Only context determines which is intended, so “sky” is equally correct here. as far as their other ends.
The Fig Tree Explained
  1. “Now, learn from the parable of the fig tree.  When its branch becomes tender and sprouts leaves, you know that summer is near.
  2. “And likewise, when you see all these things, you know that He is near; right at the door.
  3. “Amen I tell you: this generation definitely won’t pass away until all these things happen.
  4. “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words definitely won’t pass away.”
Keep Watch
  1. “But concerning that day and hour, no one *knows except the Father alone; not even the angels in the heavens nor the Son.
  2. “For just as the days of Noah were, so the coming of the Son of Man will be.
  3. “For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving daughters in marriage, until that day Noah entered into the ark,
  4. “and they didn’t know until the flood came and took them all away.  The coming of the Son of Man will also be like this.
  5. “At that time, two men will be in the field; one is taken, and one is left.
  6. “Two women are grinding at the mill; one is taken, and one is left.
  7. “So keep watch because you don’t *know what day your Lord comes.
  8. “And know this: if the master of the house had known what watch of the night the thief comes in, he would’ve watched and not allowed his house to be broken into.
  9. “Because of this, you also must become ready, because the Son of Man comes in that hour you don’t expect.
  10. “Who then is the faithful and prudent slave whom the Lord put over his household servants, to give them food in the proper season?
  11. “Blessed is that slave whom his lord finds doing likewise when he came.
  12. “Amen I tell you: he will set him over all the things he possesses.
  13. “But if that wicked slave says in his heart: “My lord delays”,
  14. “And if he begins to beat his fellow slaves, and even begins eats and drinks with the men who are drunkards,
  15. “Then the lord of that slave will come on a day which he doesn’t expect, and in an hour which he doesn’t know.
  16. And he will cut him in two, and will set his place with the hypocrites; where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.

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Matthew Chapter 25

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The Parable of the Ten Virgins
  1. “At that time, the kingdom of the heavens will be like ten virgins, who having taken their lamps went out to meet the bridegroom.
  2. “And five of them were foolish and five were prudent,
  3. “for the foolish took their lamps but didn’t take oil with them.
  4. “But the prudent took oil in flasks with their lamps.
  5. “And while the bridegroom was delaying, they all became drowsy and were sleeping.
  6. “And in the middle of the night, a great cry began: “Behold the bridegroom!  Go out to meet him!”
  7. “Then all those virgins arose and trimmed their lamps.
  8. “And the foolish said to the prudent; “Give us some of your oil, because our lamps are going out.”
  9. “But the prudent answered, saying; “Never.  There definitely isn’t enough for both us and you. Instead, go to the men who sell oil and buy it for yourselves.”
  10. “But while they were going away to buy oil, the bridegroom came.  And the virgins who were ready entered into the wedding feast with him and the door was shut.
  11. “And later the remaining virgins also come, saying; “Lord, lord; open for us.”
  12. “But answering, he said; “Amen I tell you: I don’t *know you.”
  13. “Therefore, keep watch because you don’t *know the day nor the hour [in which the Son of Man comes].
The Parable of the Talents
  1. “For it’s just like a man traveling to a foreign country, who called his own slaves and handed over the things that he possessed to them.
  2. “And indeed, he gave five talents(291)A “talent” is not a coin but a measure of weight. It was about 75lbs, or 3000 silver shekels in weight. A talent of silver was worth about 6,000 denarii, which was the going rate for a day’s worth of unskilled labor. to one, and two talents to another, and one talent to another; to each according to his own ability.  And he immediately traveled to a foreign country.
  3. “Having gone, the man who received five talents traded with them and gained another five.
  4. “Likewise, the man with two gained another two.
  5. “But having departed, the man who received one talent dug a hole in the ground and hid his master’s silver.
  6. “And after much time passed, the master of those slaves comes and settles accounts with them.
  7. “And having approached, the man who received five talents brought another five talents, saying; “Master, you handed me five talents. Behold, I gained another five talents.”
  8. “His master was telling him; “Well done good and faithful slave.  You were faithful over a few things; I will set you over many. Enter into the joy of your master.”
  9. “And having approached, the man who received two talents said; “Master, you handed me two talents.  Behold, I gained another two.
  10. “His master was telling him; “Well done good and faithful slave.  You were faithful over a few things; I will set you over many. Enter into the joy of your master.”
  11. “And having approached, the man who has received one talent said; “Master, I know that you’re a harsh man; reaping where you didn’t sow, and gathering where you didn’t scatter seed.”
  12. “And having been afraid and departing, I hid your talent in the ground. Behold, you have what’s yours.”
  13. “But answering, his master told him; “You wicked and lazy slave!  You had known that I reap where I didn’t sow, and gather where I didn’t scatter seed.
  14. “Therefore, it was proper for you to invest my silver with the bankers, and having come back I would’ve recovered my money with interest.
  15. “Therefore, take the talent from him and give it to the man who has ten talents.
  16. “For to every man who has, more will be given and he will have abundance. But the man who doesn’t have, even what he has will be taken away from him.
  17. “Also, cast out the useless slave into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
The Sheep and the Goats
  1. “And when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He will sit upon His glorious throne.
  2. “And all the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate them one from another, just as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.
  3. “And indeed, He will put the sheep on His right and the goats on the left.
  4. “Then the king will tell the men on His right; “Come, you men who have been blessed by My Father.  Inherit the kingdom which has been prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
  5. “For I hungered, and you gave Me food to eat.  I thirsted, and you gave Me a drink.  I was a foreigner, and you were hospitable to Me.
  6. I was naked, and you clothed Me. I was sick, and you visited Me. I was in prison, and you came to Me.”
  7. “Then the righteous will answer Him, saying; “Lord, when did we see you hungering and fed you, or thirsting and gave you a drink?
  8. “And when did we see you as a foreigner and were hospitable, or see you naked and clothed you?
  9. “And when did we see you being sick or in prison and come to you?
  10. “And answering, the King will tell them; “Amen I tell you: whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for Me.
  11. And then He will tell the men on His left; “Depart from Me, you men who have been cursed into the fire of ages,(292)“fire of ages” is literal. It’s traditionally translated “eternal fire” here, but that’s less literal and “fire of ages” also captures the severity of the fire, which the traditional interpretation doesn’t. which has been prepared for the Accuser(293)“The Accuser” is literal.  The Greek word used here is “διάβολος” (diabolos), and it’s the root of our English word “devil”. Much like “Christ” (see note on Matt 1:1) “devil” isn’t a name but rather a descriptive title. and his angels.
  12. For I hungered and you didn’t give Me food to eat.  I thirsted, and you didn’t give Me a drink.
  13. I was a foreigner, and you weren’t hospitable; naked, and you didn’t clothe Me; sick and in prison, and you didn’t visit Me.
  14. “And then they will answer, saying; “Lord, when did we see you hungering, or thirsting, or a foreigner, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn’t serve you?”
  15. “Then He will answer them, saying; “Amen I tell you: whatever you didn’t do for one of the least of these, you didn’t do for Me.
  16. And these will depart into the punishment of ages,(294)“punishment of ages” is literal.  It’s traditionally translated “eternal punishment” here, but that’s less literal and “punishment of ages” also captures the severity of the punishment, which the traditional interpretation doesn’t. but the righteous into the life of ages.”(295)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.

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Matthew Chapter 26

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  1. And it happened when Jesus finished all these words, that He said to His disciples,
  2. “You have known that the Passover happens after two days, and the Son of Man is handed over to be crucified.”
(More) Plotting to Kill Jesus
  1. Then the chief priests and elders of the people were gathered together in the courtyard of the high priest, who is called Caiaphas.
  2. And they held a council so they might seize and kill Jesus by treachery.
  3. But they were saying; “Not during the feast, so it won’t become a riot among the people.”
The Woman Anoints Jesus with Scented Oil
  1. And while Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the Leper,(296)A “leper” is a person suffering from “leprosy” (also called “Hansen’s Disease” in modern times). The disease is caused by the bacteria “M. leprae“. Symptoms includes the outbreak of unsightly skin sores and nerve damage. It was a great social stigma in the ancient world and remains so to this day in many places. The Jews believed that leprosy was caused by sin. Therefore they believed that only the promised messiah would be able to cure leprosy, because only God could forgive sin.
  2. a woman having an alabaster bottle of very expensive scented oil approached Him.  And she poured it on His head as He is reclining at the table.
  3. But having seen this, the disciples were indignant, saying; “Why did she waste this?
  4. “For this could’ve been sold for much and the money given to the poor.
  5. But having known this, Jesus told them; “Why do you cause trouble for the woman?  For, she did a lovely deed to Me.
  6. “For you always have the poor with you, but you don’t always have Me.
  7. “For this woman who poured this scented oil on My body did it to prepare Me for burial.
  8. “Amen I tell you: wherever this gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what this woman did will be spoken of as a memorial of her.
Judas Betrays Jesus
  1. Then having departed, one of the twelve – the man called Judas Iscariot – went to the chief priests.
  2. He said; “What do you intend to give me if I will hand Him over(297)“hand… …over” The Greek word here can also be translated “betray” to you.”  And they paid him thirty pieces of silver.
  3. And from then on, he was seeking an opportunity so he might hand Him over.
The Last Supper
  1. Now, on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples approached Jesus, saying; “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?”
  2. And He said; “Go into the city to a specific(298)“specific” this Greek word is used when someone’s name is known, but not used.  Likely because it’s not important in this case. man and tell him: “The teacher says: My time is near.  I will celebrate the Passover in your house with My disciples.”
  3. And the disciples did as Jesus instructed them and prepared the Passover.
  4. And when it became evening, He was reclining at the table with the twelve disciples.
  5. And while they were eating, He said to them; “Amen I tell you: one of you will betray Me.”
  6. And being deeply grieved, each one began to say to Him; “It’s not I Lord, is it?”
  7. And answering, He said; “The man who dipped his hand in the bowl with Me, he will betray Me.
  8. “Indeed the Son of Man departs, just as it’s *written about Him. But woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for that man if he wasn’t born.”
  9. But answering, Judas – the man who betrays Him – said; “It’s not I Rabbi, is it?”  He tells him; “You said it.”
  10. And while they were eating, Jesus took the bread and after a blessing, He broke it.  And having given it to the disciples, He said; “Take, eat; this is My Body.”
  11. And having taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying; “Drink from it, all of you.”
  12. “For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for the benefit of many, for forgiveness of sins.
  13. “And I tell you: I definitely won’t drink of this fruit of the vine from now until that day when I drink it fresh with you in My Father’s kingdom.
  14. And having sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Peter’s Denial Predicted
  1. Then Jesus tells them; “All of you will stumble because of Me on this night, for it’s *written: I will strike the Shepherd and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.(299)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 13:7
  2. “But after being raised, I will go before you into Galilee.”
  3. But answering, Peter told Him; “If everyone else stumbles because of you, I will never stumble.”
  4. Jesus was telling Him; “Amen I tell you: on this night – before a rooster crows – you will deny Me three times.”
  5. Peter tells Him; “Even if I needed to die with you, I definitely won’t deny you.”  And all the disciples said the same thing.
The Garden of Gethsemane
  1. Then Jesus comes with them to a place called Gethsemane and tells the disciples; “Sit here while I’m going over there to pray.”
  2. And having taken along Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, He began to be deeply grieved and troubled.
  3. Then He tells them; “My soul is engulfed in sorrow, even to death.  Stay here and keep watch with Me.”
  4. And having gone forward a little farther, He fell on His face, praying and saying; “My Father; let this cup pass from Me if it’s possible. Nevertheless, not as I will, but as you will.
  5. And He goes to the disciples and finds them sleeping.  And He says to Peter; “You couldn’t keep watch like this for one hour with Me?
  6. “Keep watch and pray so you won’t enter into temptation.  Indeed, the spirit is eager but the flesh is weak.”
  7. Again, having departed for a second time, He prayed saying; “My Father, if it’s not possible for this cup to pass unless I drink it, let your will be done.”
  8. And having come again, He found them sleeping, for their eyes were *heavy.
  9. And having left them again, He departed and prayed for a third time, saying the same words again.
  10. Then He comes to the disciples and tells them; “Sleep and rest later. Behold; the hour has drawn near, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
  11. “Wake up, we’ll go.  Behold; the man who betrays Me has draw near.”
Jesus is Arrested
  1. And while He is still talking, behold; Judas – one of the twelve – came, and with him was a great crowd with swords and clubs from the chief priests and elders of the people.
  2. And the man who betrays Him gave them a sign, saying; “He is whoever I kiss; seize Him.”
  3. And having approached Jesus immediately, he said; “Hello Rabbi” and kissed Him.
  4. And Jesus said to him; “Friend, why are you here?”  Then having approached Him, they laid hands on Jesus and seized Him.
  5. And behold; having reached out his hand, one of the men with Jesus drew his sword.  And having struck the high priest’s slave, he cut off his ear.
  6. “Then Jesus tells him; “Return your sword to its place, for all who take up a sword will perish by a sword.”
  7. “Or, do you think that I’m not able to call on My Father, and right now He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels?
  8. “How then could the scriptures be fulfilled, that say it must happen this way?”
  9. In that hour, Jesus said to the crowds; “Did you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me like a violent robber?(300)“violent robber” is one word in Greek.  It refers to someone who steals through force, as opposed to a burglar or thief who steals through stealth.  I was sitting every day in the temple teaching, and you didn’t seize Me then.
  10. “And all this has happened so the prophets’ writings might be fulfilled.”  Then having left Him, all the disciples fled.
Jesus’ Trial
  1. Then the men who seized Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the Scribes and the elders were assembled.
  2. But Peter was following Him from afar, until the high priest’s courtyard.  And having gone inside, he was sitting with the servants to see the outcome.
  3. Now, the chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin(301)The Sanhedrin was the highest Jewish court of the day. were seeking false testimony against Jesus so they might put Him to death.
  4. And they didn’t find any, though many approached as false witnesses.  But having approached later, two said:
  5. “This man was saying: “I’m able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.”
  6. And having stood up, the high priest said to Him; “You answer nothing?  Why do these men testify against you?”
  7. But Jesus was remaining silent.  And the high priest said to Him; “I put you under oath(302)“I put… …under oath” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning. by the living God, so tell us if you are the Anointed, the Son of God.
  8. Jesus tells him; “You said it.  Nevertheless, I tell you: from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of power and coming on the clouds of heaven.(303)Quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13
  9. “Then the high priest tore his robe, saying; “He blasphemed!  Why would we still have need of witnesses?  Behold; you heard His blasphemy just now.
  10. “What do you think?”  And answering, they said; “He’s guilty and deserves(304)“guilty and deserves” is one word in Greek.  It was a legal/forensic term which indicated guilt for a crime, and thus also that the accused was deserving of punishment. death.”
  11. Then they spat in His face, and punched Him, and slapped(305)“slapped”.  The Greek word here could also mean “to strike with a rod” Him,
  12. saying; “Prophesy to us Anointed One: who is the man who hit you?”
Peter Denies Jesus
  1. Now, Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard, and one servant girl approached him, saying; “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.”
  2. But he denied it before everyone, saying; “I don’t *know what you’re talking about.”
  3. Then having departed out to the gateway, another servant girl saw him and tells the men there; “This man was with Jesus of Nazareth.”
  4. And again, he denied it with an oath, saying; “I don’t *known the man.”
  5. But having approached him after a little while, the men *standing there said to Peter; “Surely you’re also one of them, for even your accent makes it obvious.”
  6. Then he began to curse and to make an oath, saying; “I *don’t know the man!” And immediately a rooster crowed.
  7. And Peter remembered the words Jesus had spoken, saying; “before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.”  And having gone outside, he wept bitterly.

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Matthew Chapter 27

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  1. And it having become morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people held a council against Jesus so they could put Him to death.
  2. And having bound Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate the governor.
Judas Hangs Himself
  1. Then having seen that He was condemned and regretting it, Judas – the man who betrays Him – returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,
  2. saying: “I sinned by betraying innocent blood.”  And they said: “What’s that to us?  You will see to it.”
  3. And having thrown the pieces of silver into the temple, he departed.  And having left, he hanged himself.
  4. But having picked up the pieces of silver, the chief priests said: “It’s not lawful to put them into the temple treasury,(306)“temple treasury” is one word in Greek.  The word is “κορβᾶν” (corban) and is also used in Mark 7:11.  It specifically refers to gifts that were devoted/consecrated to God, and hence could also mean the place where such gifts were stored. since it’s the price of blood.”
  5. Then having taken counsel, they bought the potter’s field with them, to be a burial place for foreigners.
  6. For this reason, that field is called “field of blood” to this day.
  7. Then it was fulfilled, what was spoken through the prophet [Jeremiah],(307)There is a textual variant here.  Some manuscripts don’t give the prophet’s name, some identify it as Jeremiah, and some as Zechariah.  The quote is from Zechariah, but sometimes a scroll was identified by the first book in that scroll, and Zechariah could’ve been part of a scroll that started with Jeremiah. saying: “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the One who has been priced, on whom the sons of Israel set a price,
  8. and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord directed me.(308)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 11:12-13
Jesus Before Pilate
  1. Then Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor questioned(309)“questioned” the Greek word here could also be translated “interrogated”. Him, saying: “Are you king of the Jews?”  And Jesus was declaring: “You say it.”
  2. And He is accused by the chief priests and elders, but He answered no one.
  3. Then Pilate says to Him: “Don’t you hear how many things they testify against you?”
  4. And He didn’t answer him, not even one word: so the governor began to marvel greatly.
  5. Now at the festival, the governor had been accustomed to release one prisoner who the crowd was wanting.
  6. And at that time, they were holding a notorious prisoner called [Jesus] Barabbas.
  7. Therefore, while they’re *assembled, Pilate said to them: “Who do you wish I would release to you: [Jesus] Barabbas, or Jesus who’s called the Anointed?”
  8. For he had known that they betrayed Him because of malicious envy.(310)“malicious envy” is one word in Greek.  It refers to envy/jealousness that doesn’t seek to take what another has, but rather to tear down the object of the envy.
  9. And while sitting on the judgement seat, his wife sent word to him, saying: “Let nothing happen between you and that righteous man, for today I suffered greatly in a dream because of Him.”
  10. But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds so they might ask for Barabbas, but kill Jesus.
  11. And answering, the governor said to them: “Which of the two do you wish I would release for you?”  And they said: “Barabbas.”
  12. And Pilate says to them: “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Anointed?”  They all say: “Let Him be crucified.”
  13. But he was saying: “For what evil that He’s done?”  But they were vehemently crying out, saying: “Let Him be crucified!”
  14. And having seen that nothing helped – but rather it was becoming a riot – Pilate took water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying: “I’m innocent of this man’s blood.  You will see to it.”
  15. And answering, all the people said: “His blood is on us and on our children.”
  16. Then Pilate released Barabbas for them.  And having flogged Jesus, he handed Him over to be crucified.
Jesus is Mocked and Crucified
  1. Then having taken Jesus with them into the Praetorium,(311)“Praetorium” could refer to either the governor’s residence, or the camp of the Roman military.  In this case, context tells use the latter is intended. the governor’s soldiers gathered the whole cohort(312)“cohort”.  The cohort was a basic unit of the Roman military, which consisted of 480 soldiers, plus 120 servants.  A standard cohort was comprised of 6 “centuries”, which consisted of 80 men, plus 20 servants.  However, the first cohort in every Roman Legion was composed of five double strength centuries, or 800 soldiers plus 200 servants. against Him.
  2. And having stripped off His clothes, they clothed Him in a scarlet ruler’s robe.(313)“ruler’s robe” is one word in Greek (chlamys).  It refers to a short robe or cloak often worn by various rulers, such as kings, governors, or even emperors.  It was also worn by soldiers and military officers.
  3. And having woven a crown of thorns, they put it on His head and put a reed in his right hand.  And having fallen on their knees before Him, they mocked Him, saying: “Hail king of the Jews!”
  4. And having spit on Him, they took the reed and were hitting Him on the head.
  5. And when they finished mocking Him, they stripped the ruler’s robe off of Him, and clothed Him in His clothes, and led Him away to crucify Him.
  6. And going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon.  They forced that man to carry His cross.
  7. And having come to a place called Golgotha (which is called: “place of a skull”),
  8. they gave Him wine which has been mixed with gall(314)gall is a bitter herb. to drink.  And having tasted it, He didn’t want to drink it.
  9. And having crucified Him, they distributed His clothes by casting lots [so it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by the prophet: “They split My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for My clothing“].(315)The second half of this verse is present in some Greek manuscripts, but not the majority.  It is strongly attested by Old Latin evidence however.  Further, this variant ends with the same Greek word as the first half of the verse (κλῆρον).  This makes it very susceptible to accidental omission, because one of the more common errors is when two lines end with the same word, scribes were liable to accidentally skip everything in between.  Further, it’s a quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:18, which Jesus quotes a few verses later in verse 46.
  10. And sitting down, they were guarding Him there.
  11. And they put the charges against Him above His head, *writing: “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.”
  12. At that time, two violent robbers(316)“violent robber” is one word in Greek.  It refers to someone who steals through force, as opposed to a burglar or thief who steals through stealth. are crucified with Him: one on the right hand, one on the left.
  13. Now, the men who pass by were slandering(317)“slandering” this word is typically translated “blaspheme”, but also means slander.  It’s quite possible this double meaning was intentional by Matthew. Him, shaking their heads
  14. and saying: “You man who destroys the temple and rebuilds it in three days; save yourself.  And if you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”
  15. And likewise, the chief priests with the scribes and elders were mocking and were saying:
  16. “He saved others, but He isn’t able to save Himself.  He’s the king of Israel?  Let Him come down from the cross right now and we’ll believe in Him.”
  17. He has trusted in God.  Let Him rescue Him now if He desires to.(318)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:8  For He said: “I am God’s Son”.”
  18. And likewise even the robbers who were crucified with Him were insulting Him.
Jesus’ Death
  1. Then darkness came over all the land from the sixth hour until the ninth hour.
  2. And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, saying: “Eli, Eli; lama sabachthani.” That is translated: “My God, My God; why did you abandon Me?(319)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:1
  3. And having heard this, some of the men who have been standing there were saying: “This man calls for Elijah.”
  4. And having immediately run up, taken a sponge, filled it with sour wine, and put it on a reed, one of them was giving Him a drink.
  5. And the rest were saying: “Leave Him alone.  We’ll see if Elijah comes and will save Him.” [(320)Some manuscripts add: “But having taken a spear, another pierced His side and water and blood came out.” to the end of this verse.  However, this is regarded as a later addition by nearly all New Testament scholars, probably in an attempt to harmonize with John 19:34.  The vast, overwhelming majority of manuscripts don’t support this addition.]
  6. And having cried out again in a loud voice, Jesus gave up His spirit.
  7. And behold; the veil in the temple was torn in two from top to bottom, and the land was shaken, and the rocks were split.
  8. And the tombs were opened and many of the saint’s bodies who have fallen asleep were raised.
  9. And having gone out of the tombs after His resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many.
  10. Then the centurion(321)“centurion” was a rank in the Roman military. A normal centurion was in charge of 80 soldiers, plus ~20 support staff. However, there were different levels of centurion. The highest ranking centurions could be in charge of up to 1000 men. and the men who keep watch over Jesus with him – having seen the earthquake and the things which happened – were awestruck and terrified,(322)“awestruck and terrified” is literally “extremely afraid/awestruck”, with “extremely” being a separate Greek word.  The Greek verb “φοβέω” here can mean to “fear” or “awe” or “revere” depending on the context.  Sometimes more than one meaning is intended, as is likely the case here.  Technically, including both awe and fear is double translating (translating the same word twice two different ways).  However, both meanings were included because both are relevant, equally likely, and it’s likely that Matthew intended both. saying: “Truly this man was God’s Son.”
  11. Now, there were many women watching from afar who had followed Jesus from Galilee while ministering to Him,
  12. among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.
Jesus is Buried
  1. And it having become evening, a rich man from Arimathea named Joseph (who was also discipled by Jesus) came forward.
  2. Having approached Pilate, this man asked for the body of Jesus.  Then Pilate commanded it to be delivered to him.
  3. And having taken the body, Joseph wrapped it in a clean linen cloth
  4. and put it in his new tomb, which he cut in the rock.  And having rolled a great stone over the door of the tomb, he departed.
  5. Now, Mary Magdalene was there with the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb.
  6. Now, the next day (which is after the Sabbath preparation day) the chief priests and Pharisees were gathered before Pilate,
  7. saying: “Lord, we remembered that the deceiver said while living: “After three days, I rise again.”
  8. Therefore, order the tomb to be secured until the third day, lest His disciples ever come, steal Him, and tell the people: “He rose from the dead.” And the last deception will be worse than the first.”
  9. Pilate was declaring to them: “You have a guard.  Go, secure it as you have seen fit.
  10. And having gone, they secured the tomb by setting a seal(323)“setting a seal” is one word in Greek. Commonly, this was done by melting wax and using a signet ring to make an impression before the wax had fully cooled.  If the wax seal was broken, it was impossible to fix without using the signet ring again.  This served as a form of signature in the ancient world. on the stone, along with a guard.

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Matthew Chapter 28

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Jesus’ Resurrection
  1. And after the Sabbath – it being dawn on the first day of the week – Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.
  2. And behold; there was a great earthquake.  For having descended from heaven and approached the tomb, an angel of the Lord rolled away the stone and was sitting on top of it.
  3. And his appearance was like lightning and his clothes were white as snow.
  4. And the men who guard the tomb trembled from fear and became like dead men.
  5. But answering, the angel told the women: “Don’t fear, for I *know that you seek Jesus, the man who has been crucified.”
  6. “He isn’t here, for He was raised from the dead, just as He said.  Come, see the place where He was lying.
  7. “And having gone quickly, tell His disciples that He was raised from the dead. And behold; He goes before you into Galilee, and you will see Him there. Behold; I told you.”
  8. And having quickly gone away from the tomb with reverent fear and great joy, they ran to tell His disciples.
  9. [But as they were going to tell His disciples,] behold; Jesus met them, saying: “Rejoice!” And having approached Him, they bowed low and grabbed His feet.
  10. Then Jesus tells them: “Don’t fear.  Go, tell My brothers so they go into Galilee, and they will see Me there.”
The Soldiers’ Deception
  1. And while they were leaving, behold; some of the guard went into the city and reported everything which happened to the chief priests.
  2. And having gathered with the elders and taken counsel, they gave the soldiers sufficient silver,
  3. saying: “Say that His disciples came by night and stole Him while we were sleeping.”
  4. “And if this is heard by the governor, we will persuade him and will keep you out of trouble.”
  5. And having taken the silver, they did just as they were instructed.  And this report was spread widely among the Jews up until the present day.
The Great Commission
  1. And the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus directed them.
  2. And having seen Him, they bowed down at His feet.(324)“bowed down at… …feet” is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered.  But some doubted.
  3. And having approached them, Jesus spoke saying: “All authority in heaven and on the earth was given to Me.
  4. So having gone,(325)“having gone” in Greek, this is a passive participle, and therefore is more accurately “having been made to go”.  However, some Greek scholars argue that it inherits the imperative force of the finite verb “disciple” due to the construction of the sentence (called “attendant circumstance”).  Others maintain that the “attendant circumstance” rule either doesn’t exist, or doesn’t apply here.  In either case, the main imperative command in the Great commission is not “go/going” but rather to “disciple”.  See following note. disciple(326)“disciple” most translations translate it “make disciples” here.  However the Greek verb focuses on the process of raising current disciples up to maturity, not just creating new disciples. The word is used only four times in the Bible: Matthew 13:52, Matthew 27:57, Matthew 28:19, and Acts 14:21.  In each case, the focus is on raising disciples to maturity, not creating new disciples.  While it certainly can include the idea of turning non-disciples into disciples, that’s not the word’s primary focus. all the nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit;
  5. and teaching them to carefully observe all things, as many as I commanded you.  And behold; I’m with you always, until the culmination of the age.

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Mark

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Mark Chapter 1

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John the Baptizer
  1. The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus the Anointed, God’s Son.
  2. Just as it is *written in [Isaiah the prophet]:(327)“Isaiah the prophet” many manuscripts have “the prophets” insteadBehold, I am sending My messenger before your face; he who will fully prepare your way.”(328)quotation/allusion to Malachi 3:1, which Mark appears to be using as a ‘preface’ of sorts to the following verse, which is a quote from Isaiah.  Also, see previous note.
  3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness: prepare the way of the Lord; make His paths straight.”(329)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:3
  4. John appeared; the man who baptizes in the wilderness and proclaims a baptism of repentance(330)“repentance” this Greek word it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. for forgiveness of sins.
  5. And the whole region of Judea was going out to him, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and all were being baptized by him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins.
  6. And John was *clothing himself in camel’s hair clothes, and had a belt around his waist,(331)quotation/allusion to 2 Kings 1:8, which describes the prophet Elijah as “a hairy man with a leather belt around his waist”. and eating locusts and wild honey.
  7. And he was proclaiming, saying: “He who is coming is mightier than I; He who I’m not worthy of stooping down to untie the strap of His sandal.
  8. “I baptized you in water; but He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit.”
Jesus is baptized, tempted, and calls disciples
  1. And it happened in those days that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  2. And immediately coming up from the water, He saw the heavens being torn open and the Spirit coming down on Him like a dove.
  3. And a voice came from the heavens: “You are My beloved Son, in you I’m well pleased.”
  4. And immediately the Spirit drives Him out into the wilderness.
  5. And He was in the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by Satan.  And He was with the wild animals, and the angels were serving Him.
  6. And after John was handed over to prison, Jesus came into Galilee proclaiming the gospel of God,
  7. and saying that: “The time has been fulfilled and the Kingdom of God has drawn near.  Repent!(332)“Repent” this Greek word doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. and believe in the gospel.
  8. And passing along the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew (Simon’s brother) casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
  9. And Jesus told them: “Come, follow Me and I will make you become fishers of men.”
  10. And having immediately left the nets, they followed Him.
  11. And having gone a little further, He saw James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, and they were in the boat mending the nets,
  12. and He called them immediately.  And having left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired servants, they went away after Him.
Jesus heals many
  1. And they enter into Capernaum; and having entered immediately into the synagogue on the Sabbaths, He was teaching.
  2. And they were stunned at His teaching, for He was teaching them like a man having authority(333)“authority” It’s possible that the “authority” that stunned the crowd was a technical term.   Properly called “semikhah”, the Jewish word literally means “laying on of hands”.  Its origins (as a technical term of authority) go back to Moses.  Moses was given authority by God, and God commanded him to pass some of that “authority” to Joshua by “laying hands on him” in the sight of the people.  (Num27:15-23, Deut 34:9)  The Jews believed this authority was then passed down through “laying on of hands” to Jesus’ day.  Rabbis with semikhah had the authority to make decisions in the meaning of the Law and other spiritual matters.  In Jesus case, that meant a new interpretation of the Law.  However, ordinary scribes (Torah teachers) could only teach what those with semikhah had established. and not like the scribes.
  3. And immediately there was a man with an unclean spirit in their synagogue, and he cried out
  4. saying: “What’s between you and us, Jesus of Nazareth?  Did you come to ruin us?  I *know who you are, the Holy One of God.”
  5. And Jesus rebuked him saying: “Be silent and come out of him.”
  6. And having made him convulse and cry out in a loud voice, the unclean spirit came out of him.
  7. And all of them were amazed, so as to discuss to themselves, saying: “What is this new teaching with authority?  He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey Him.
  8. And the report about Him immediately went out everywhere into the whole region of Galilee.
  9. And having come out of the synagogue, they immediately went into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.
  10. Now, Simon’s mother-in-law was lying sick with a fever, and immediately they speak to Him about her.
  11. And having approached and grasped her hand, he raised her up, and the fever left her, and she was serving them.
  12. Now, it having become evening after the sun set, they were bringing all the men who are sick to Him, and the men who are demon-possessed.
  13. And the whole city was *gathering together at the door.
  14. And He healed many sick with various diseases and cast out many demons; and He wasn’t permitting the demons to speak because they had known Him [to be the Anointed].
Jesus leaves and heals a leper
  1. And very early in the morning with much night remaining, He went out and departed into a desolate place, and He was praying there.
  2. And Simon and the men with him went after Him.
  3. And having found Him, they also tell Him that: “Everyone is seeking you.”
  4. And He tells them: “We should depart into the neighboring towns by another way so I might proclaim there, for I came for this.
  5. And He went, proclaiming in their synagogues and in the whole of Galilee, and casting out demons.
  6. And a leper comes to Him, imploring Him, and falling on his knees, and saying to Him: “If you want to, you are able to cleanse me.”
  7. And having been moved with compassion and extending His hand, He touched him and tells him: “I want to; be cleansed.”
  8. And immediately the leprosy departed from him and he was cleansed.
  9. And having sternly warned him, He immediately sent him away.
  10. And He tells him: “See that you say nothing to anyone, but go show yourself to the priest and offer what Moses commanded for your cleansing,(334)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 14:2-32 for a testimony for them.”
  11. And having gone out, he began to proclaim it often and to widely report the matter, so that He was no longer able to openly enter into a city, but He was out at solitary places, and they were going to Him from all sides.

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Mark Chapter 2

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The paralyzed man and forgiving sins
  1. And having entered into Capernaum again after some days, it was heard that He’s in a house.
  2. And many were assembled, so it was no longer possible to make space, not even at the door, and He was speaking the word to them.
  3. And they come, bringing a paralyzed man to Him carried by four men.
  4. And not being able to bring him near Him because of the crowd, they removed the roof over where He was.  And having dug through it, they lowered the bed-mat on which the paralyzed man was lying.
  5. And having seen their faith, Jesus tells the paralyzed man: “Child, your sins are forgiven.”
  6. Now, some of the scribes are sitting there and reasoning in their hearts:
  7. “Why does this man speak this way?  He is blaspheming.  Who is able to forgive sins except God alone?”
  8. And having immediately known in His Spirit that they are reasoning in themselves this way, He says to them: “Why are you reasoning these things in your hearts?
  9. “Which is easier to say to the paralyzed man: ‘your sins are forgiven’, or to say: ‘Rise, pick up your bed mat and walk’?
  10. “But so you might *know that the Son of Man has authority on the earth to forgive sins…”  He tells the paralyzed man:
  11. “Rise, pick up your bed mat and go to your house.”
  12. And he was raised immediately.  And having picked up the bed mat, he went out in front of all, for all to be astonished and to glorify God, saying: “We never saw anything like this!”
Calling Levi (Matthew)
  1. And He went out again along the sea, and all the crowd was coming to Him and He was teaching them.
  2. And while passing by, He saw Levi (the son of Alphaeus) sitting at the tax collector’s booth.  And He tells him: “Follow Me.”  And having risen, he followed Him.
  3. And it happened that He went to recline at the table(335)“recline” is literal.  In ancient times, they laid down on a low table to eat. Thus, “reclining” in those days is similar to “sitting down” today to share a meal. in his house.  And many tax collectors and sinners were reclining at the table with Jesus and His disciples, for they were many and were following Him.
  4. And having seen Him eating with sinners and tax collectors, the scribes of the Pharisees were saying to the disciples: “Why is He eating with tax collectors and sinners?”
  5. And having heard this, Jesus tells them: “The men who are healthy have no need of a physician, but the men who are sick do.  I didn’t come to call righteous men, but sinners.”
Fasting and wineskins
  1. And the disciples of John and the Pharisees were fasting.  And they come and say to Him: “Why do the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don’t fast?”
  2. And Jesus told them: “The groomsmen(336)“groomsmen” is literally “sons of the bridal chamber”.  In that age, this referred to the men who helped the groom prepare whatever was needed for the wedding, especially the “bridal chamber” (honeymoon suite).  The closest modern equivalent is groomsmen. aren’t able to fast while the bridegroom is with them, are they?  As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they aren’t able to fast.
  3. “But the days will come when the bridegroom was taken away from them, and they will fast in those days.
  4. “No one sews an unshrunk cloth patch on an old cloak; if the patch pulls away from it, (the new from the old) an even worse tear happens.
  5. “And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; if they do, the wine breaks the wineskins and the wine and the wineskins will be ruined.  But new wine is put into new wineskins.
Lord of the Sabbath
  1. And it happened that He used to pass through the grain fields on the Sabbaths.  And His disciples began to make their way, plucking the heads of grain.
  2. And the Pharisees where saying to Him: “Behold, why do they do what’s not lawful to do on the Sabbaths?”
  3. And He told them: “Did you never read what David did when he hungered; He and the men with him?”
  4. “How he entered into the house of God in the time of Abiathar the high priest and ate the bread of presentation, which isn’t lawful for anyone to eat except priests; and he even gave it to the men who are with him.”
  5. And He told them: “The Sabbath came into being because of man, and not man because of the Sabbath.”
  6. “So then, the Son of Man is Lord even over the Sabbath.”

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Mark Chapter 3

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Healing on the Sabbath and casting out demons
  1. And He entered into the synagogue again, and a man having a *withered hand was there.
  2. And they were watching Him closely to see if He will heal him so they might accuse Him.
  3. And He tells the man having the withered hand: “Rise, stand in our midst.”
  4. And He says to them: “Is it lawful to do good or evil on the Sabbaths?  To save a life or to kill?”  But they were keeping silent.
  5. And having looked around at them with anger, grieved at the hardness of their heart, He tells the man: “Extend your hand.”  And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored.
  6. And having gone out, the Pharisees immediately were offering counsel against Him with the Herodians, on how they might destroy Him.
  7. And Jesus withdrew to the sea with His disciples, and a great crowd followed from Galilee, and from Judea,
  8. and from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, and beyond the Jordan, and around Tyre and Sidon; hearing how much He was doing, a great crowd came to Him.
  9. And He instructed His disciples so a boat might wait on Him because of the crowd, so they don’t constrict Him.
  10. For He healed many, so others tried to press upon Him so that whoever had diseases might touch Him.
  11. And whenever the unclean spirits were seeing Him, they were falling down before Him and were crying out, saying: “You are the Son of God.”
  12. And He was rebuking them often, so they wouldn’t make Him known.
The twelve
  1. And He ascends up to the mountain and summons who He Himself was wanting, and they went to Him.
  2. And He appointed twelve [who He also called apostles] so they might be with Him, and so He might send them to proclaim,
  3. and to have authority to cast out demons.
  4. And He appointed the twelve, and added the name Simon to Peter,
  5. and James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James (He also added to them the name Boanerges, which is translated: “Sons of Thunder”),
  6. and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot,
  7. and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him.
Divided against itself
  1. And He goes into a house and the crowd assembles again, so they weren’t even able to eat bread.
  2. And having heard this, the men from His family went out to grab Him, for they were saying: “He’s out of His mind.”
  3. And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem were saying: “He has Beelzebul.”(337)“Beelzebul” from the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”.   It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal.  One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”.  Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god.  Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon.  There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon. And: “He casts out demons by the ruler of demons.”
  4. And having summoned them, He was speaking to them in parables: “How is Satan able to cast out Satan?
  5. “And if a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom isn’t able to stand.
  6. “And if a house is divided against itself, that house won’t be able to stand.
  7. “And if Satan rose against himself and was divided, he isn’t able to stand, but is coming to an end.
  8. “But having entered into the house of the strong man, no one is able to plunder his goods unless he first ties up the strong man, and then he will plunder his house.
  9. “Amen I tell you that all things will be forgiven the sons of men; their sins and their blasphemies, whatever they blasphemed.
  10. But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit doesn’t have forgiveness into the age,(338)“into the age” this Greek phrase “εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα” is omitted from most modern translations, despite it being present in all three the source texts from which the vast majority of modern translations are translated.  Including this phrase makes the verse harmonize perfectly with Matthew and Luke’s account. but is guilty of the sin of ages.”
  11. (He said this because they were saying: “He has an unclean spirit”.)
  12. And His mother and His brothers come; and standing outside, they sent word to Him, summoning Him.
  13. And a crowd was sitting around Him, and they tell Him: “Behold; your mother, and your brothers, and your sisters are outside seeking you.”
  14. And answering them, He says: “Who is My mother and My brothers?”
  15. And having looked around at the men who are sitting in a circle around Him, He says: “Behold, My mother and My brothers.
  16. “For whoever does the will of God; this is My brother, and sister, and mother.”

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Mark Chapter 4

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The parable of the sower
  1. And again He began to teach along the sea.  And the largest crowd assembled to Him, so He stepped into a boat to sit in the sea, and all the crowd was on the land facing toward the sea.
  2. And He was teaching many things in parables, and He was telling them in His teaching:
  3. “Listen!  Behold: the man who sows went out to sow.
  4. “And it happened as he sows that some seed fell beside the road, and the birds came and devoured it.
  5. “And other seed fell on a rocky place where it didn’t have much soil.  And it immediately sprang up because it doesn’t have depth of soil.
  6. “And it was scorched when the sun rose, and it withered because it didn’t have a root.
  7. “And other seed fell into the thorns, and the thorns sprang up and choked it, and it gave no fruit.
  8. “And other seed fell into the good soil.  And springing up and increasing, it was giving fruit; and one was bearing thirtyfold, and one sixtyfold, and one a hundredfold.”
  9. And He was saying: “He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”
The parable explained
  1. And when He was alone, the men around Him with the twelve were asking about the parable.
  2. And He was telling them: “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you.  But to those outside, all teaching happens in parables,
  3. “so that: While seeing they might see and not discern; and while hearing they might hear and not understand; lest at some time they turn and it might be forgiven them.”(339)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 6:9-10
  4. And He tells them: “Haven’t you understood this parable?  And how will you understand all the parables?
  5. “The man who sows, sows the word.
  6. Now, these are the ones where the word is sown beside the road; and when they heard, Satan immediately comes and removes the word which has been sown into them.
  7. And likewise, these are the ones which are sown on the rocky places; who when they heard the word, they immediately receive it with joy.
  8. And they don’t have root in themselves, but are temporary; only lasting for a season.(340)“temporary; only lasting for a season” is one word in the Greek.  Its’ colloquial meaning is “temporary”, but the full technical meaning is “lasting (only) for a season”.  Technically, including both is double translating a Greek word.  However, the additional nuance of the full definition adds meaning to the verse, therefore it was included.  Afterwards when tribulation or persecution happened because of the word, they immediately fall away.
  9. And others are the ones sown into the thorns.  These are the men who heard the word,
  10. and the cares of the age, and the deception of riches, and the rest of their cravings entering in chokes the word, and it becomes unfruitful.
  11. And these are the men who were sown on good soil: whoever hears the word, and receives it, and bears fruit; one thirtyfold, and one sixtyfold, and one a hundredfold.”
  12. And He was telling them: “The lamp isn’t brought in so it might be put under a measuring basket or under the bed, is it?  Isn’t it brought in so it might be put on the lampstand?
  13. “For nothing is hidden except so it might be revealed, nor did a secret thing happen, but that it might come to light.
  14. “If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.”
The Kingdom of God is like…
  1. And He was telling them: “Watch out what you listen to. You will be measured by whatever standard you measure, and more will be added to you.
  2. For to he who has, more will be given to him.  And to he who doesn’t have, even what he has will be taken away from him.”
  3. And He was saying: “The kingdom of God is like this: like a man who threw the seed on the soil,
  4. “and he sleeps and rises night and day, and how the seed might sprout and grow, he hasn’t known.
  5. “Of its own accord the soil bears fruit; first a sprout, next a head, next full grown grain in the head.
  6. Yet when the fruit delivers itself, he immediately sends the sickle because the harvest has arrived.”
  7. And He was saying: “How might we compare the kingdom of God?  Or by what parable might we establish it?
  8. It’s like a mustard seed, which is the smallest of all the common(341)The word “common” is not in the Greek, but was added to provide cultural context. The mustard seed was the smallest seed of all the plants that the Jews cultivated. seeds when it was sown on the earth.
  9. And when it was sown, it grows up and becomes greater than the garden plants, and makes great branches so the birds of the air are able to nest under its shade.”
  10. And in many such parables He was speaking the word to them, as they were able to hear.
  11. Yet He wasn’t speaking to them without parables, but He was explaining all things in private to His own disciples.
Jesus calms the storm
  1. And it having become evening on that day, He tells them: “Let us pass to the other side of the sea.
  2. And having sent away the crowd, they take Him with them since He was in the boat.  And other boats were with Him.
  3. And a great storm of wind comes, and the waves were rushing into the boat, so the boat is already being filled.
  4. And He was in the stern of the ship, sleeping on a cushion.  And they wake Him and say to Him: “Teacher, don’t you care that we are perishing?!”
  5. And having been awakened, He scolded the wind and told the sea: “Silence; be still.”(342)quotation/allusion to Psalm 107:28-29  And the wind ceased raging, and it became a great calm.
  6. And He said to them: “Why are you fearful?  Don’t you have faith yet?”
  7. And they were terrified with great fear, and were saying to one another: “Who then is this, that even the wind and sea obey Him?”

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Mark Chapter 5

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Casting out Legion
  1. And they came to the other side of the sea, into the land of the Gerasenes.
  2. And Him having gone out of the boat, a man with an unclean spirit immediately went out of the tombs and met Him,
  3. a man who had his dwelling in the tombs.  And no one was able to bind him any longer, not even with a chain,
  4. because he often was *bound with shackles and chains; and the chains have been broken by him, and the shackles have been shattered, and no one was strong enough to subdue him.
  5. And all through the night and day in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out and cutting himself with stones.
  6. And having seen Jesus from far away, he ran and bowed down before Him.
  7. And having cried out in a loud voice, he said: “What’s between you and me Jesus; Son of the Most High God?  I adjure you by God not to torment me.”
  8. For He was saying to him: “Unclean spirit, come out of the man.”
  9. And Jesus was asking him: “What’s your name?”  And he says to Him: “My name is Legion, because we are many.”
  10. And he was begging Him many times so He might not send them out of the region.
  11. Now, a large herd of pigs was there, feeding near the mountain.
  12. And they begged Him saying: “Send us into the pigs so we might enter into them.”
  13. And He allowed them.  And having come out, the unclean spirits entered into the pigs, and rushed the herd down the steep bank into the sea, and about 2000 were drowning in the sea.
  14. And the men who feed them fled and reported this in the city, and in the country, and they went out to see what has happened.
  15. And they come to Jesus and see the demon-possessed man siting *clothed and sober-minded (the man who *had the Legion) and they were frightened.
  16. And the men who saw it described to them how it happened with the demon possessed man, and about the pigs.
  17. And they began to beg Him to depart from their region.
  18. And Him having entered into boat, the man who was demon possessed was begging that he might be with Him.
  19. And He didn’t permit him, but tells him: “Go to your home, to your own people, and report to them how much the Lord has done for you, and how He had mercy on you.
  20. And the man departed and began to proclaim in the Decapolis how much Jesus did for him, and all were marveling.
Jairus’ Daughter, and healing a bloody flow
  1. And Jesus having crossed over to the other side of the sea in the boat again, a great crowd was gathered to Him, and He was beside the sea.
  2. And one of the synagogue rulers named Jairus comes to Him.  And having seen Him, falls at His feet.
  3. And he begs Him repeatedly saying: “My little daughter is holding herself at the point of death.  Having come, would you lay hands on her so she might be healed and live?”
  4. And He departed with him, and a numerous crowd was following Him and pressing in on Him.
  5. And there’s a woman living with a bloody flow(343)“bloody flow” is literal, almost certainly a reference to constant menstrual bleeding. This made her ceremonially unclean; see Leviticus 15:19-24.  Additionally, what to do about menstrual bleeding that went on for an extended time was covered in Leviticus 15:25-30. for twelve years,
  6. and having suffered much under many physicians, and having spent all of her money, and yet she benefitted nothing; but rather it became worse.
  7. Having heard about Jesus, and having come up behind Him in the crowd, she touched His cloak.
  8. For she was saying, “If I only touch His clothes, I will be healed.”(344)quotation/allusion to Malachi 4:2, which says that “the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings.”  The Hebrew word translated “wings” in that verse is “כָּנָף” (kanaph).  It means any extremity, including wings and also the edge of a garment.  It could be accurately translated “healing in the edge of His clothes”.  This woman likely knew this verse, and that’s probably why she specifically touched the edge of His cloak in Matthew’s account.  The Jews believed Malachi 4:2 was a prophecy about the Messiah, so by touching His cloak, she was almost certainly expressing her faith that Jesus was the Messiah.  This is quite possibly why Jesus said her faith healed her.
  9. And immediately the flow of her blood was dried up, and she realized that her body has been healed of the scourge.
  10. And immediately having known in Himself that power went out of Him, and having turned in the crowd, Jesus was saying: “Who touched My clothes?”
  11. And His disciples were saying to Him: “You see the crowd pressing in on you, and you say ‘Who touched Me’?”
  12. And He looking around to see the woman who did this.
  13. Now, having been frightened and trembling, *knowing what has happened to her, the woman came and fell down before Him and told Him the whole truth.
  14. And he told her: “Daughter, your faith has healed you.  Go in peace and be healthy from your scourge.”
  15. While He’s still speaking, messengers come from the synagogue ruler’s house saying: “Your daughter died; why still trouble the teacher?”
  16. Now, having heard this word spoken, Jesus says to the synagogue ruler: “Don’t fear, only believe.”
  17. And He didn’t allow anyone to follow with Him except Peter, and James, and John (the brother of James).
  18. And they come to the synagogue ruler’s house, and He sees a commotion, and weeping, and much wailing.
  19. And having entered into the house, He says to them: “Why do you make a commotion and weep?  The child isn’t dead, but is sleeping.”
  20. And they were derisively laughing at Him.  Now, having thrown everyone out, He takes the father and mother of the child with Him, and the men with Him, and enters into where the child was.
  21. And having taken the child’s hand, He tells her: “Talitha koum.”  Which is translated: “Little girl, I tell you: rise.”
  22. And immediately the little girl rose and was walking (for she was twelve years old).  And they were immediately overwhelmed with great amazement.
  23. And He instructed them often so no one might know this, and He commanded her to be given food to eat.

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Mark Chapter 6

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Jesus in His hometown
  1. And He went out from there and came into His hometown,(345)“hometown” is literally “fatherland”, as in the place his father lived/lives.  This was another way of saying the place He came from, i.e. His hometown and His disciples are following Him.
  2. And it having become the Sabbath, He began to teach in the synagogue.  And many of the men who listen were being stunned, saying: “From where did this man get these teachings, and what’s this wisdom that was given to Him?  And such miracles happen through his hands.
  3. “Isn’t this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, and Joseph, and Judas, and Simon?  And aren’t His sisters here with us?”  And they were being offended by Him.
  4. And Jesus was telling them: “A prophet isn’t without honor except in his hometown, and among his kinsmen, and in his household.”
  5. And He wasn’t able to do any miracles there; except having laid hands on a few sick, He healed them.
  6. And he was marveling because of their unbelief.  And He was traveling around to villages teaching.
Sending out The Twelve
  1. And He summons the twelve, and began to send them out two-by-two, and He was giving them authority over the unclean spirits.
  2. And He instructed them that they should take nothing for the road, except a staff only; not bread, not a traveler’s bag, not money in the belt,
  3. but *putting sandals on their feet, and not to clothe themselves with two tunics.
  4. And He was telling them: “Wherever you enter into a house, remain there until you go out from that town.
  5. “And whatever place didn’t welcome you nor listen to you; departing from there, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them.  [Amen I tell you: it will be more tolerable for Sodom or Gomorrah in the day of judgement than for that town.]”
  6. And having gone out, they proclaimed that all should repent.
  7. And they were casting out many demons, and were anointing many sick with oil and were healing them.
The death of John the Baptizer
  1. And King Herod heard, for His name became well known.  And they were saying: “John the Baptizer has risen from the dead and miracles are working in Him because of this.”
  2. But others were saying: “He’s Elijah.”  Yet others were saying: “He’s like one of the prophets.”
  3. And having heard of it, Herod was saying: “John who I beheaded; that man rose from the dead.”
  4. For having sent men, Herod himself seized John and bound him in prison because of Herodias, the wife of Philip his brother, because he married her.
  5. For John was saying to Herod: “It’s not lawful for you to have the wife of your brother.”
  6. Now, Herodias was holding a grudge against him and was wanting to kill him, and wasn’t able to
  7. for Herod was fearing John, *knowing him to be a righteous and holy man, and he was keeping him safe.  And having heard him, he was perplexed and was often hearing him gladly.
  8. And an opportune day came when Herod made a dinner on his birthday for his nobles, and commanders, and the leading men of Galilee.
  9. And having come and danced, the daughter of Herodias(346)“daughter of Herodias” History tells us that her name was Salome, who had become Herod’s stepdaughter at this point.  A common estimate for her birth year is 14 AD, meaning she was in her mid-teens when she danced before Herod. One common theory is that Salome danced sensually to entice, but that seems unlikely given these two facts. pleased Herod and the men who recline at the table with him.  And the king told the young girl: “Ask me for whatever you desire and I will give it to you.”
  10. And he swore an oath to her: “Ask me for whatever you desire and I will give it to you; up to half my kingdom.”
  11. And having gone out, she said to her mother: “What shall I ask for?”  Now, she said: “The head of John the baptizer.”
  12. And having immediately entered with haste to see the king, she asked saying: “I desire that you give me the head of John the baptizer on a platter at once.”
  13. And having become deeply grieved because of his oaths and the men who recline at the table with him, the king didn’t want to refuse her.
  14. And having immediately sent an executioner, the king commanded him to bring his head. And having gone, he beheaded him in the prison.
  15. And he brought his head on a platter and gave it to the young girl, and the young girl gave it to her mother.
  16. And having heard this, his disciples came and picked up his body and put it in a tomb.
The apostles return from being sent out
  1. And the apostles assemble themselves to Jesus and reported to Him all things; whatever they did and whatever they taught.
  2. And He told them: “You come here by yourselves to a secluded place on your own and rest a little.”  For the men who come and the men who go were many, and they weren’t having an opportunity to eat.
  3. And they departed in the boat into a secluded place on their own.
  4. And many saw them traveling and recognized them.  And they ran with them there on foot from all the cities and arrived before them.
  5. And having gone out, He saw a numerous crowd and was moved with compassion on them because they were like sheep not having a shepherd, and He began to teach them many things.
Feeding 5000
  1. And the hour was already late, so having approached Him, His disciples were saying: “This place is secluded and the hour is already late.
  2. “Send them away, so that having gone into the surrounding country and the villages, they might buy something to eat for themselves.”
  3. But answering, He tells them: “You give them something to eat.”  And they tell them: “Having departed, should we buy two hundred denarii worth of bread and give it to them to eat?”
  4. But He says to them: “How many loaves do you have?  Go see.”  And having learned, they say: “Five, and two fish.”
  5. And He commanded them to make all the groups recline by groups on the green grass.
  6. And the groups reclined by groups of hundreds and of fifties.
  7. And having taken the five loaves and the two fish, and having looked up to heaven, He blessed and broke the loaves, and He was giving them to the disciples so they might set it before them.  And He divided the two fish among all of them.
  8. And all ate and were satisfied.
  9. And they picked up twelve baskets full of bread pieces and of fish.
  10. And the men who ate the bread were five thousand men.
Jesus calms a storm
  1. And He immediately compelled His disciples to embark into the boat and to go before Him to the other side of the sea, to Bethsaida while He dismisses the crowd.
  2. And having withdrawn from them, He departed to the mountain to pray.
  3. And it having become evening, the boat was in the middle of the sea and He was alone on the land.
  4. And having seen them being buffeted (for the wind was hostile), He comes to them walking on the sea(347)quotation/allusions to Job 9:8 at about the fourth watch of the night,(348)The fourth watch of the night was from 3am until 6am. and He was intending to pass by them.
  5. But having seen Him walking on the sea, they thought that it’s a ghost and cried out,
  6. for all saw Him and were deeply shaken.  And He immediately spoke with them and tells them: “Be courageous; I Am; don’t be frightened.”
  7. And He came up into the boat to them, and the wind ceased raging.  And they were exceedingly abundantly marveling in themselves,
  8. for they didn’t understand from the bread, but their hearts were *hardened.
Jesus heals many
  1. And having crossed over to the land, they came to Gennesaret and were anchored,
  2. and having immediately recognized Him as they departed from the boat,
  3. some men ran around that whole region and began to carry the men who have afflictions on bed mats to wherever they were hearing that He is.
  4. And wherever He was entering – into villages, or into cities, or into countrysides – they were putting the men who are sick in the marketplace, and were begging Him so they might touch the fringe of His clothing; and as many as touched Him were being healed.(349)In Malachi 4:2, it says that “the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings.”  The Hebrew word translated “wings” in that verse is “כָּנָף” (kanaph).  It means any extremity, including wings and also the edge of a garment.  It could be accurately translated “healing in the edge of His clothes”.  These people likely knew this verse, and that’s probably why they specifically wanted to touch the fringe of His cloak.  The Jews believed Malachi 4:2 was a prophecy about the Messiah, so by touching His clothing, they were almost certainly expressing their faith that Jesus was the Messiah.

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Mark Chapter 7

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What defiles a man
  1. Having come from Jerusalem, the Pharisees and some of the scribes assembled themselves to Him,
  2. and saw that some of His disciples were eating bread with unclean hands (that is, unwashed).
  3. (For holding fast to the tradition of the elders, the Pharisees and all the Jews don’t eat unless they wash their hands ceremonially with the fist.(350)“with the fist” is one word in Greek, with that exact literal meaning.  However, there is some debate as to what that means.  Some contend that it means vigorously, diligently, or ‘with strength’ as implied by the fist.  Some contend that it means from the elbow down to the fist, and there are other interpretations.  Regardless, most scholars agree that this goes beyond just washing the hands for cleanliness before you eat, and ventures into ceremonial tradition that had to be done a specific way to count.
  4. And after returning from the market, they don’t eat if they didn’t wash.  And there are many other traditions that they received to hold fast to; washings of cups, and pitchers, and utensils, and couches for eating.)
  5. And the Pharisees and the scribes interrogate Him: “Why don’t your disciples walk in the tradition of the elders, but eat the bread with unwashed hands?”
  6. But He told them: “Isaiah prophesied rightly about you hypocrites, as it is *written: ‘This people honors Me with their lips, yet their heart keeps far away from Me.
  7. ” ‘Yet they worship me vainly, teaching the precepts of men as doctrines’.(351)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 29:13
  8. “Having disregarded the command of God, you are holding the tradition of men [washings of pitchers and cups, and the many other things such things you do].”
  9. And He was telling them: “You ‘nobly'(352)“nobly” this word is used here in the sense of “bitter irony” (Thayers), or sarcasm. do away with the commandment of God so you might keep your tradition.
  10. “For Moses said: ‘honor your father and your mother‘,(353)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12, and Deuteronomy 5:16 and ‘The man who curses of father or mother must end in death‘.(354)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 20:9 and Exodus 21:17
  11. “But you say that if a man says to his father or his mother: ‘if something from me might help you, it’s Corban(355)“Corban” is specifically a gift consecrated/devoted to God.   The Pharisees believed that it was wrong to use something which was devoted/consecrated to God for “normal” use.  Therefore, the Pharisees said if a man devoted (gave) everything he owned to God, he couldn’t use it for another purpose (such as helping family).  However, there was no time requirement to deliver his goods, so he could keep them indefinitely while avoiding his obligations.  This loophole was apparently invented by the Pharisees to allow men to shirk the Biblical and moral obligation of taking care of their own parents. (that is, a gift to God).
  12. “You no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother,
  13. annulling the word of God through your tradition which you handed down.  And you do many similar things.”
  14. And having summoned the crowd again, He was telling them: “All of you listen to Me and understand.
  15. “There’s nothing from the outside of a man which is able to defile him after entering into him.  But the things which come out of the man are the things which defile the man.
  16. “[If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.]”
  17. And when He went away from the crowd into the house, His disciples were asking Him about the parable.
  18. And He says to them: “So, are you also undiscerning?  Don’t you comprehend that nothing which enters into a man from the outside is able to defile him?
  19. That’s because it doesn’t enter into his heart, but into the stomach and goes out into the sewage pit.” (356)“sewage pit” the Greek word here literally means “a place of sitting apart”, referring to a drain or latrine for human waste.  (Thus cleansing all foods.)(357)“cleansing all foods” There are two basic interpretations of this phrase.  (1) Says the body cleanses the food by extracting the good and expelling the bad.  (2) Says that this is Jesus abolishing the distinction between clean and unclean foods that was laid down in the Mosaic Law.
  20. And He was saying: “The things which come out of a man; that defiles the man.
  21. “For from within the heart of men come out evil deliberations, fornications, thefts, murders, men having sex with other men’s wives,(358)“men having sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, usually translated “adultery” in this verse.  However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife.  The Hebrews divided sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman.  A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery.  A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication.  Both are serious sins, but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words.
  22. “covetousness, wickedness, deceptions, wanton debauchery, and an evil eye of envy,(359)“of envy” This was added to indicate the “evil eye” had an idiomatic meaning of being envious, or even greedy. blasphemies, arrogant pride, and foolishness.
  23. “All these evils come out from within, and they defile a man.”
The Syrophoenician Woman
  1. And having risen, He departed from there into the region of Tyre [and Sidon].  And having entered into a house, He wasn’t wanting anyone to know, and He wasn’t able to escape notice.
  2. But having heard about Him, a woman whose young daughter had an unclean spirit immediately came and fell at His feet.
  3. Now the woman was a gentile, Syrophoenician by ethnicity, and she was asking Him so He might cast the demon out of her young daughter.
  4. And He was answering: “First allow the children to eat until satisfied, for it’s not good to take the children’s bread and to throw it to the pet dogs.(360)“pet dogs”  The Greek word here literally means a “little dog”, which has a diminutive connotation, and thus an affectionate sense.  It could also mean a literal “little dog”, which could indicate a puppy. Translating it “pet puppies” is possible.  Regardless there is an affectionate sense here, and Jesus didn’t use this in a derogatory way.
  5. But she answered and says to Him: “Yes Lord, and the pet dogs under the table eat from the children’s crumbs.”
  6. And He told her: “Because of this statement, go; the demon has come out of your daughter.”
  7. And having departed to her house, she found the child *lying on the bed and the demon *departed.
Jesus heals a deaf man
  1. And having gone out of the region of Tyre again, He came through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee in the midst of the region of the Decapolis.
  2. And they bring a man to Him who is deaf and has a speech impediment, and they implore Him so He might put a hand on him.
  3. And having taken him aside from the crowd on their own, He put His fingers into his ears; and having spit He touched his tongue.
  4. And having looked up to heaven, He sighed(361)“sighed” could also be translated “groaned” and tells him: “Ephphatha!”  (That is, “Be opened!”)
  5. And immediately his ears were opened and the impediment of his tongue was undone, and he was speaking properly.
  6. And He instructed that they tell no one.  But the more He was instructing them, the more abundantly they were proclaiming it.
  7. And they were stunned beyond measure, saying: “He has done nobly; He even makes the deaf to hear and the mute to speak.”

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Mark Chapter 8

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Feeding four thousand
  1. In those days – with the crowd again being great and not having anything they could eat – He summoned the disciples and tells them:
  2. “I’m moved with compassion on the crowd because they already remain with Me three days and don’t have something they could eat.
  3. “And if I send them away to their homes without eating, they will grow weary on the way, and some of them have come from afar.”
  4. And His disciples answered Him: “From where will anyone here be able to satisfy these men with bread on account of this wilderness.
  5. And He was asking them: “How many loaves do you have?”  And they said “Seven.”
  6. And He instructs the crowd to recline on the ground.  And having taken the seven loaves and having given thanks, He broke them and was giving them to His disciples so they might set the food before the crowd, and they set it before the crowd.
  7. And they also had a few small fish.  And having blessed them, He directed these fish to be set before them too.
  8. And they ate and were satisfied.  And they picked up seven large baskets full of the leftover pieces.
  9. Now, there were about four thousand men, and He sent them away.
If a sign will be given
  1. And having immediately entered into the boat with His disciples, He came to the region of Dalmanutha.
  2. And the Pharisees began to dispute with Him, testing Him by seeking a sign from heaven from Him.
  3. And having sighed deeply in His spirit, He says: “Why is this generation seeking a sign?  Amen I tell you: may God do such to Me and more(362)may God do such to Me and more” This phrase was added because the Greek literally reads ” Amen I tell you: if this generation will be given a sign”.  This is in imitation of a Hebrew idiom often found in the Old Testament which is usually phrased “May God do ____ to me and more if I do ____”, which is an extremely strong negative statement in the Old Testament. if this generation will be given a sign.”
Forgetting Bread
  1. And having left them, He embarked into a boat and departed to the other side of the sea.
  2. And they forgot to take bread, and except one loaf they didn’t have any with themselves in the boat.
  3. And He was instructing them saying: “Watch out; beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod.”
  4. And they were reasoning to one another that He said this because they don’t have bread.
  5. And having known this, He tells them: “Why are you reasoning because you don’t have bread?  Don’t you yet understand nor comprehend?  Do you have *hardening in your hearts?
  6. Having eyes, do you not see?  And having ears, do you not listen?(363)quotation/allusion to Ezekiel 12:2 and/or Jeremiah 5:21  And don’t you remember?
  7. “When I broke the five loaves for the five thousand, how many baskets full of pieces did you pick up?”  They tell Him: “Twelve”
  8. He said: “And when I broke the seven loaves for the four thousand, how many large baskets full of pieces did you pick up?”  And they said: “Seven”
  9. And He was saying to them: “Do you not yet understand?”
Healing a blind man
  1. And they come to Bethsaida.  And they bring a blind man to Him and implore Him so He might touch him.
  2. And having taken the blind man’s hand, He brought him out of the village.  And having spit on his eyes and having put His hands on him, He was asking him: “Do you see anything?”
  3. And having looked up, he was answering: “I see men that look like trees walking around.”
  4. Then He put his hands on his eyes again, and he looked and he was restored, and he was seeing each and every thing clearly.
  5. And He sent him to his home, saying: “Don’t even enter into the village, [nor tell anyone in the village].”
Who Jesus is
  1. And Jesus and His disciples went out into the villages of Caesarea Philippi.  And on the way, He was questioning His disciples, saying to them: “Who do men declare Me to be?”
  2. And they answered Him, saying: “Some say John the Baptizer, others say Elijah, but others say one of the prophets.”
  3. And He was questioning them: “But who do you declare Me to be?”  Answering, Peters tells Him: “You are the Anointed.”
  4. And He warned them so they might tell no one about Him.
  5. And He began to teach them that it’s necessary for the Son of Man to suffer many things; and to be rejected by the elders, and the chief priests, and the Scribes; and to be killed; and after three days to rise from the dead,
  6. and He was stating this word plainly.  And having taken Him aside, Peter began to rebuke Him.
  7. But having turned and looked at His disciples, He rebuked Peter and said: “Get behind me Satan, because you aren’t minding the things of God, but the things of men.
How to follow Jesus
  1. And having summoned the crowd along with His disciples, He told them: “If anyone wants to come follow after Me, he must utterly deny himself, and pick up his cross, and follow Me.
  2. “For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever will lose his life on account of Me and the good news; He will save it.
  3. “For what will it benefit a man to gain the whole world and to lose his life?(364)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché), usually translated “soul” here.  However, it’s the same world universally translated “life” in the preceding verse.  Further, it does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.
  4. “For what might a man give as a price in exchange for his life?(365)“life” see previous note
  5. “For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”

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Mark Chapter 9

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  1. And He was telling them: “Amen I tell you that some of the men who are standing here definitely won’t taste death until they see that the kingdom of God has come in power.
The Transfiguration
  1. And after six days, Jesus takes Peter and James and John with Himself and leads them up to a high mountain on their own, and He was transfigured in front of them.
  2. And His clothes became an exceedingly radiant white, such as a launderer on the earth isn’t able to whiten.
  3. And Elijah with Moses appeared to them, and they were discussing with Jesus.
  4. And answering, Peter tells Jesus: “Rabbi, it’s good for us to be here, and should we make three tabernacles; one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah?”
  5. (For he hadn’t known how he should respond, for they were frightened.)
  6. And a cloud formed, overshadowing them and a voice came from the cloud: “This is My Beloved Son; Listen to Him.”
  7. And having looked around, they suddenly no longer saw anyone with them but Jesus alone.
  8. And while descending from the mountain, He commanded that they describe what they saw to no one until the Son of Man rose from the dead.
  9. And they held onto that statement, discussing among themselves what is meant by ‘to rise from the dead’.
  10. And they were questioning Him, saying: “Why do the scribes say that it’s necessary for Elijah to come first?”
  11. And He was declaring to them: “Having come first, Elijah indeed restores all things.  And yet how much has been written of the Son of Man, that He should suffer many things and be despised?
  12. “but I tell you that Elijah has come, and they did to him whatever they were wanting, just as it has been written of him.”
Casting out a mute demon
  1. And having come to the rest of the disciples, they saw a large crowd around them and some scribes disputing with them.
  2. And having seen Him, immediately all the crowd were stunned.  And running to Him, they were welcoming Him.
  3. And He asked them: “What are you disputing with them?”
  4. And one man from the crowd answered Him: “Teacher, I brought my son to you because he has a mute spirit.
  5. “And wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and he is wasting away.(366)“wasting away” is literal, but this could also be understood as rigid, since dried/withered things often become rigid.  And I spoke to your disciples so they might cast it out, and they weren’t strong enough.”
  6. And answering him, He says: “Oh unbelieving generation!  How long will I be with you?  How long will I put up with you?  Bring him to Me.”
  7. And they brought him to Him.  And having seen Him, the spirit immediately made him convulse violently.  And having fallen on the ground, he was rolling and foaming at the mouth.
  8. And He questioned his father: “How long has it happened like this with him?”  And he said “From childhood.
  9. “And it also often throws him into fire and into waters so it might destroy him.  But if you’re able to do something, then having been moved with compassion on us, help us.”
  10. And Jesus said to him: “If you are able?  All things are possible to the man who believes.”
  11. Having immediately cried out, the child’s father was saying: “I believe, help my unbelief.”
  12. And Jesus, having seen a crowd running to them, He rebuked the unclean spirit, telling it: “Mute and deaf spirit, I order you: come out of him and you should enter into him no more.”
  13. And having cried out and with much convulsing, it came out and he became like a dead man, enough for many to say that he died.
  14. And having taken hold of his hand, Jesus raised him up and he arose.
  15. And having entered into a house, His disciples were questioning Him on His own: “Why weren’t we able to cast it out?”
  16. And He told them: “This kind is able to go out by nothing, except by prayer.”
Jesus predicts His death again
  1. Having gone out from there, they were passing through Galilee and He wasn’t wanting anyone to know,
  2. for He was teaching His disciples and was telling them: “The Son of Man is handed over into the hands of men and they will kill Him.  And having been killed, He will rise on the third day.”
  3. Yet they weren’t understanding His words, and they were fearing to question Him about it.
Who is the greatest?
  1. And they went to Capernaum.  And having been in the house, He was questioning them: “What were you discussing on the way?”
  2. But they were keeping silent, for on the way they discussed with one another who was the greatest.
  3. And having sat down, He summoned the twelve and tells them: “If someone wants to be first, he will be last of all and a servant of all.”
  4. And having taken a child, He set him in their midst.  And having embraced him, He told them:
  5. “Whoever welcomes one such child in My name welcomes Me.  And whoever welcomes Me doesn’t welcome Me, but the One who sent Me.”
  6. John was reporting to Him: “Teacher, we saw someone [who doesn’t follow us] casting out demons in your name, and we were hindering him because he wasn’t following us.”
  7. But Jesus said.  “Don’t hinder him, for there’s no one who will do a miracle in My name and then be able to quickly speak evil of Me.
  8. “For whoever isn’t against us is for us.
  9. “For whoever gives you a cup of water to drink because you are the Anointed’s in name, amen I tell you that he definitely won’t lose his reward.
  10. “And whoever makes one of these little ones who believes in Me stumble, it would be better for him if a large millstone is put around his neck and He was *thrown into the sea.
  11. “And if your hand makes you stumble, cut it off; it’s better for you to enter into the life maimed than having two hands and to depart into the Valley of Hinnom,(367)“the Valley of Hinnom” Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  It was also very significant in judgement in Israel’s history as well. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) This happened again a few centuries later when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. into the unquenchable fire.
  12. [“Where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire isn’t quenched.](368)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 66:24
  13. “And if your foot makes you stumble, cut it off; it’s better for you to enter into the life crippled than having two feet and to be cast into the Valley of Hinnom, [into the unquenchable fire].
  14. [“Where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire isn’t quenched.](369)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 66:24
  15. “And if you eye makes you stumble, cast it out; it’s better for you to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye than having two eyes and to be cast into the Halley of Hinnom,
  16. Where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire isn’t quenched.(370)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 66:24
  17. “For everyone will be salted with fire, [and every sacrifice will be salted with salt].
  18. “The salt is good, but if the salt becomes tasteless, by what will you season it?  Have salt in yourselves and be peaceful with one another.”

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Mark Chapter 10

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Marriage and Separation
  1. And having arisen from there, He goes into the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan.  And the crowds assemble to Him again, and as He had been accustomed, He was teaching them again.
  2. And having approached intent on testing Him, the Pharisees were questioning Him about if it’s lawful for a husband to send away(371)“send away” is literal here.  It’s typically translated “divorce” in this verse, though properly translated as “send away” in verse 4. The same word is used of Jesus “sending away” crowds and Pilate “sending away” (releasing) Barabbas. Paul uses a different Greek word when talking about divorce in 1 Corinthians. The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and had three parts: (1) write a divorce certificate. (2) Give it to your wife. (3) Send her away from your house. However, if a man “sent her away” (kicked her out of his house) without a divorce certificate, in that culture she was destitute. She was still legally married because she didn’t have a divorce certificate, so she couldn’t marry anyone else without being an adulteress. Often, her only resort to feed herself was prostitution.  There was a debate as to whether this was lawful according to the Mosaic Law. This was one of the two great 1st century Jewish debates centering on divorce. (See note on Matthew 19:3 for the other debate) a wife.
  3. And answering, He said to them: “What did Moses instruct you?”
  4. And they said: “Moses allowed us to write a scroll of divorce and to send her away.”(373)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 24:1
  5. And Jesus told them: “He wrote this commandment for you because of your hardness of heart.”
  6. “But from the beginning of creation He made them male and female.(374)quotation/allusion to Genesis 1:27
  7. For this reason, a man will leave his father and mother [and be joined to His wife],
  8. And the two will be(375)Most translations use the word “become” here, but the Greek word for “become” isn’t in this passage despite Mark using it with great latitude elsewhere.  In this verse, it’s simply the Greek word that means is/are/am/be/being/etc. in one flesh.(372)quotation/allusion to Genesis 2:24  Jesus appears to be talking solely about a physical union here (not a spiritual one). Paul makes this clearer in 1 Corinthians 6:16, where Genesis 2:24 is also applied to sex with prostitutes.  So then they are no longer two, but one flesh.
  9. “Therefore what God joined together, man must not separate.”
  10. And when in the house again, the disciples were asking Him about this.
  11. And He tells them: “Whoever sent away his wife and married another woman of the same kind,(376)“another woman of the same kind” is one word in Greek with that exact definition.  The “of the same kind” part is often omitted in translation for readability, but is essential in this passage.  The “of the same kind” part likely refers to a woman who is merely “sent away” and not properly divorced. See note on “send away” in verse 2. He is guilty of sex with another man’s wife(377)“is guilty of sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commits adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was still a serious sin, but the not the specific sin of adultery. on account of her.
  12. “And if a wife sent away her husband and marries another man, she commits adultery.(378)“commits adultery” the Greek word here specifies that she was still married to someone other than the new husband, presumably to the husband she “sent away”; see notes on previous verse and also verse 2.
Jesus and the little children
  1. And they were bringing little children to Him so He might touch them, but the disciples rebuked them.
  2. But having seen this, Jesus was indignant and told them: “Allow the little children to come to Me.  Don’t hinder them, for the kingdom of God is of such a kind as this.
  3. “Amen I tell: whoever doesn’t welcome the kingdom of God like a little child definitely won’t enter into it.”
  4. And having embraced them, He was blessing them, laying hands on them.
The rich young ruler
  1. And while traveling on His journey, one man ran up to Him, and having fallen on his knees was questioning Him: “Good teacher, what should I do so I might inherit the life of ages?”
  2. But Jesus told him: “Why call Me good?  No one is good except God alone.
  3. “You *know the commandments: you should not murder, you should not have sex with another man’s wife,(379)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14  “have of sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commits adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was still a serious sin, but the not the specific sin of adultery. you should not steal, you should not commit perjury, you should not defraud,(380)“you shall not defraud” this statement is unique to Mark’s gospel.  It’s possible that this was an expansion of “you shall not commit perjury”, in the sense of swearing to do something and then not doing it, which would be fraud. you must honor your father and mother.(381)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12-16
  4. And he was telling Him: “Teacher, I kept all these commandments from my youth.”
  5. And having looked at him, Jesus ^loved him and told him: “You fall short in one thing.  Go sell whatever you have, and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven, and come follow me.”
  6. But his face having fallen at this word, he departed grieving, for he was a man having much property.
  7. And having looked around, Jesus tells His disciples: “Oh, how the men who have riches will enter into the kingdom of the heavens with difficultly!”
  8. And the disciples were dumbfounded at His words.  But answering again, Jesus tells them: “Children, how difficult it is [for the men who have trusted in riches] to enter into the kingdom of God.
  9. “It’s easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.”
  10. And the men were exceedingly stunned, saying to themselves: “And who then is able to be saved?”
  11. Having looked at them, Jesus says: “It’s impossible with men, but not with God; for all things are possible with God.”
  12. Peter began to tell Him: “Behold, we left all things and have followed you.”
  13. Jesus was saying: “Amen I tell you, there’s no man who left house, or brothers, or sisters, or mother, or father, [or wife,] or children, or fields for My sake and the sake of the good news,
  14. “unless he receives a hundred times more now in this season – houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and fields, with persecutions – and in the age which is coming, the life of ages.
  15. “But many of the first will be last; and the last, first.”
Jesus predicts His death again
  1. And they were on the road going up to Jerusalem, and Jesus was going before them and they were dumbfounded, and the men following were frightened.  And having taken the Twelve alongside again, He began to tell them the things which were about to happen to Him.
  2. “Behold, We are going up to Jerusalem and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the Chief priests and to the scribes, and they will sentence Him to death, and they will hand Him over to the gentiles.
  3. “And they will ridicule Him, and will spit on Him, and will flog Him, and will kill him, and on the third day He will rise again.
Christian leadership
  1. And James and John (the two sons of Zebedee) approach Him, saying to Him: “Teacher, we want that whatever we ask of you, you would do it for us.”
  2. And He said to them: “What do you want Me to do for you?”
  3. And they told Him: “Grant that one of us would sit at your right hand and one at your left hand in your glory.”
  4. But Jesus told them: “You don’t *know what you’re asking.  Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized in the baptism which I am baptized in?”
  5. And they told Him: “We are able.”  And Jesus told them: “You will drink the cup which I drink, and you will be baptized in the baptism which I am baptized in.
  6. “But to sit at My right hand or at My left hand isn’t Mine to give, but for whom it has been prepared.”
  7. And having heard this, the ten began to be indignant about James and John.
  8. And having summoned them, Jesus tells them: “Don’t you *know that the men who seem to rule the gentiles exercise authority over them, and their great men dominate them.
  9. “But it isn’t this way among you, but whoever wants to become great among you will be your servant.
  10. “And whoever wants to become first among you will be a slave of all.
  11. “For even the Son of Man(382)quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13 didn’t come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a purchase price(383)“purchase price” this Greek word often referred to the price required to buy a slave’s freedom. in exchange for many.”
Healing Bartimaeus the blind beggar
  1. And they came to Jericho.  And while He and His disciples and a large crowd are departing from Jericho, Bartimaeus the son of Timaeus (a blind beggar) was sitting along the road.
  2. And having heard that it’s Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out and to say: “Son of David(384)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised that David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by Bartimaeus., Jesus; have mercy on me.”
  3. And many were rebuking him so he might be silent, but he was crying out much more: “Son of David, have mercy on me.”
  4. And having stood, Jesus commanded:  “Invite him to Me.”  And they invite the blind man, telling him: “Have courage, get up; He is inviting you.”
  5. And having thrown off his cloak, he leapt up and went to Jesus.
  6. And answering him, Jesus says: “What do you want Me to do for you?”  And the blind man told Him: “Rabbi, I ask that I might recover my sight.”
  7. And Jesus told him: “Go, your faith has healed you.”  And immediately he recovered his sight, and he was following Him on the road.

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Mark Chapter 11

Mark Chapter 12

Mark Chapter 13

Mark Chapter 14

Mark Chapter 15

Mark Chapter 16

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Luke

John

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John Chapter 1

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The Word
  1. In the beginning, the Word was existing;(385)The Greek verb translated “was existing” here and throughout the chapter is in the imperfect ‘tense’, indicating an ongoing action. It’s typically rendered “was” here, but that tends to indicate a past tense completed action, not an ongoing action. The difference is significant here, as the ongoing existence of the Word (Jesus) is central to the idea Him having no beginning. Further, the verb form here is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew verb in God’s “I Am” statement from Exodus 3:14. and the Word was existing with God and the Word was existing as God.
  2. He was existing in the beginning with God.
  3. All things came into existence through Him; and apart from Him, not even one thing that came into existence has come into existence.
  4. Life was existing in Him, and the life was existing as the light of men.
  5. And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness didn’t grasp it.
  6. Having been sent from God, a man came into existence; his name was John.
  7. He came as a witness so he might testify about the light, so all might believe through him.
  8. He wasn’t existing as the light, but came so he might witness about the light.
  9. The true light was existing, which illuminates every man coming into the world. (386)John 1:9 verse note: This verse is interpreted differently, with some translations (such as KJV/NKJV) rendering it substantially similar to the BOS Bible, and many others rendering it something like this: “The true light, which illuminates every man, was coming into the world“. This second translation is less plausible because the participle “coming” is in the accusative masculine just like the Greek words “all” and “man”, while the word “light” is in the nominative neuter. The rules of Greek would thus seem to prohibit linking “coming” with “the light” because of gender and case disagreement. Further, the case, gender, and number match seems to clearly link “coming” with “every man”. Additionally, the verb “was existing” is very widely separated from “coming” with no linking mechanism between them.
  10. He was existing in the world, and the world came into existence through Him, and the world didn’t know Him.
  11. He came to His own, and His own didn’t receive Him.
  12. But as many as received Him, He gave them authority to become children of God: the men who believe in His name,
  13. who were born not from blood, nor from fleshly desire, nor from man’s will, but from God.
  14. And the Word became flesh and encamped among us, and we gazed at His glory; glory as the only unique One(387)“only unique” The Greek word here doesn’t quite mean “only”; it means “only one in its class” or “unique of its kind.” Outside the Bible it has been used of the only legitimate heir of a monarch, as opposed to other children from concubines (slave wives in the Bible) who weren’t eligible to inherit. from the Father, full of grace and truth.
  15. John testifies about Him, and he has cried out saying: “This is He of whom I said: “The One who comes after me *is before me, because He was existing before me.” “
  16. Because from His fullness we all received grace in exchange for grace.
  17. Because the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus the Anointed.
  18. No one has even seen God at any time; the only unique God(388)“only unique” See note on verse 14. – the One who’s in the bosom of the Father – He explained Him.
The Testimony of John
  1. And this is the testimony of John when the Jews from Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to him so they might ask him: “Who are you?”
  2. And he confessed, and didn’t deny, and he confessed that: “I’m not the Anointed.”
  3. And they asked him: “What then, are you Elijah?” And he says: “I’m not.” They asked: “Are you the prophet?” And he answered: “No.”
  4. Therefore they said to him: “Who are you? So we might give an answer to the men who sent us, what do you say about yourself?”
  5. He was declaring: “I’m a voice calling in the wilderness: “Make the Lord’s path straight(389)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:3 just as Isaiah the prophet said.”
  6. And those men were being been sent by the Pharisees.
  7. And they asked him and said to him: “Why then do you baptize if you aren’t the Anointed, nor Elijah, nor the prophet?”
  8. John answered them saying: “I baptize in water; yet in your midst *stands He who you don’t *know,
  9. “the One coming after me; He of whom I’m not worthy, even that I might untie the strap of His sandal.”
  10. These things took place in Bethany across the Jordan where John was baptizing.
  11. The next day, he sees Jesus coming to him and says: “Behold, the Lamb of God; the One who takes away the sin of the world!”
  12. “It’s He about whom I said: “After me comes a man who *is before me because He was existing before me.”
  13. “And I hadn’t known Him, but I came baptizing with water so He might be revealed to Israel though this.”
  14. And John testified saying: “I I have gazed at the Spirit descending like a dove from heaven and He remained on Him.”
  15. “And I hadn’t known Him, but the One who sent me to baptize in water, He told me: “He on whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining on Him; He is the One who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.”
  16. “And I have seen and have testified that this is the Son of God.”
Jesus calls disciples
  1. The next day, John had been standing there again with two of his disciples.
  2. And having seen Jesus walking, he says: “Behold the Lamb of God.”
  3. And the two disciples heard him speaking and followed Jesus.
  4. And Jesus – having turned and observed them following Him – He says to them: “What do you seek?” And they told Him: “Rabbi–” (which is translated ‘teacher’) “–where are you staying?”
  5. He tells them: “Come and you will see.” Therefore, they went and saw where He was staying and they stayed with Him that day. It was about the tenth hour.
  6. Andrew (the brother of Simon Peter) was one of the two who heard from John and followed Him.
  7. He first finds his own brother Simon and says to him: “We have found the Messiah.” (Which is translated ‘the Anointed’)
  8. He led him to Jesus. Having gazed at him, Jesus said: “You are Simon the son of John; you will be called Cephas.” (which means ‘Peter’)
  9. The next day, He wanted to depart into Galilee. And Jesus finds Philip and tells him: “Follow me.”
  10. And Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.
  11. Philip finds Nathaniel and tells him: “We have found He of whom Moses wrote in the law, and the prophets did too; Jesus from Nazareth, the son of Joseph.”
  12. And Nathaniel told him: “Is anything good able to come from Nazareth?” Philip says to him: “Come and see.”
  13. Jesus saw Nathaniel coming to Him and He says about him: “Behold, he’s truly an Israelite in whom there’s no deceit.”
  14. Nathaniel says to Him: “From where do you know me?” Jesus answered and said to him: “Before Philip came to call you, while you were under the fig tree, I saw you.”
  15. Nathaniel answered Him: “Rabbi, you are the Son of God. You are king of Israel.”
  16. Jesus answered and said to him: “You believe because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree? You will see greater things than these.”
  17. And He tells him: “Amen, Amen I tell you all:(390)“you all” The Greek pronoun translated “you” here is plural. The word “all” was added to indicated this. You will see heaven *opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”

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John Chapter 2

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Water to wine
  1. And the third day, there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there.
  2. And Jesus and His disciples were also invited to the wedding.
  3. And having run out of wine, the mother of Jesus tells Him: “They have no wine.”
  4. And He tells her: “Woman, why involve Me and you?  My hour hasn’t come yet.”
  5. His mother tells the servants: “Do whatever He might tell you.”
  6. Now, six stone water jars for the ceremonial purification of the Jews were laying there, having space for two or three metretae.(391)“metretae” A unit of liquid measure equal to about 8.75 gallons or about 33 liters.
  7. Jesus tells them: “Fill the water jars with water.”  And they filled them up to the top.
  8. And He tells them: “Now draw some out and carry it to the master of the feast.”  And they carried it to him.
  9. Now, when the master of the feast tasted the water which had become wine and hadn’t known where it came from – but the servants who drew the water knew – the master of the feast calls the bridegroom
  10. and tells him: “Every man sets out the good wine first, and when they’ve gotten drunk sets out the inferior wine.  You have kept the good wine until now.”
  11. This the beginning of His signs – Jesus did in Cana of Galilee; and He revealed His glory and His disciples believed in Him.
  12. After this He went down into Capernaum – He and His mother and His disciples – and they remained there not many days.
Cleansing the temple and Passover
  1. And the Passover of the Jews was near, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
  2. And in the temple He found the men who sell oxen, and sheep, and doves, and the moneychangers who sit there.
  3. And having made a whip of cords, He drove all of them out of the temple with both their sheep and oxen, and He poured out the moneychangers’ coins, and He overturned the tables.
  4. And He told the men who sell doves: “Take these things away from here; don’t make My Father’s house a market house!”
  5. His disciples were reminded that it is *written: “The zeal of your house will consume Me.”(392)quotation/allusion to Psalm 69:9
  6. Therefore, the Jews answered and said to Him: “Because you do these things, what sign do you show us?”
  7. Jesus answered and said to them: “Destroy this temple and I will raise it up in three days.”
  8. Therefore the Jews said: “This temple was built in forty and six years, and you will raise it up in three days?”
  9. (But He was speaking about the temple of His body.)
  10. Therefore when He was raised from the dead, His disciples were reminded that He was saying this, and they believed the scripture and the word which Jesus spoke.
  11. And while He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, many at the feast believed in His name after observing the signs that He was doing.
  12. But Jesus Himself wasn’t entrusting Himself to them because He knows all men,
  13. and because He has no need that someone might testify about a man, for He knows what’s in the man.

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John Chapter 3

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Nicodemus talks to Jesus
  1. Now, there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.
  2. This man came to Him at night and said to Him: “Rabbi, we *know that you have come from God as a teacher, for no one is able to do these signs which you do unless God is with him.”
  3. Jesus answered and told him: “Amen, amen I tell you: unless someone was born from above, he isn’t able to see the kingdom of God.
  4. Nicodemus says to Him: “How is a man able to be born while being old?  He isn’t able to enter into his mother’s womb a second time and be born, is he?”
  5. Jesus answered: “Amen, amen I tell you: unless someone was born of water and Spirit, he isn’t able to enter into the kingdom of God.
  6. “What has been born from flesh is flesh; and what has been born from the Spirit is spirit.
  7. “Don’t marvel that I told you ‘it’s necessary for you all to be born from above’.”
  8. “The wind blows where it wishes and you hear its sound, but you don’t *know where it comes from and where it goes; it’s this way with every man who is *born from the Spirit.”
  9. Nicodemus answered and said to Him: “How are these things able to happen?”
  10. Jesus answered and told him: “You are the teacher of Israel and don’t know these things?”
  11. “Amen, amen I tell you that we speak of what we *know, and we testify of what we have seen, and you men didn’t receive our testimony.
  12. “If I told you men about earthly things and you don’t believe, how will you believe if I tell you about heavenly things?
  13. “And no one has ascended into heaven except the One who descended from heaven; the Son of Man [the One who is in heaven].
  14. “And just as Moses lifted up the snake in the wilderness, in this way also, it’s necessary for the Son of Man to be lifted up,
  15. “so every man who believes in Him might have the life of ages.
  16. “For God ^loved the world in this way, that He gave His only unique Son, so that every man who believes in Him might not perish, but might have the life of ages.
  17. “For God didn’t send the Son into the world so He might judge the world, but so the world might be saved through Him.
  18. “The man who believes in Him isn’t judged, but the man who doesn’t believe has been judged already because he hasn’t believed in the name of the only unique Son of God.
  19. “And this is the judgement, that the light has come into the world, and men ^loved the darkness rather than the light, for their deeds were evil.
  20. “For every man who practices evil hates the light and doesn’t come to the light so that his works won’t be exposed.
  21. “But the man who practices the truth comes to the light so that his works which have been done in God might be revealed.
John testifies again
  1. After these things, Jesus and His disciples went into the land of Judea, and He was staying with them and was baptizing.
  2. And John was also baptizing at Aenon near Salim because many waters were there, and many were arriving and being baptized,
  3. for John wasn’t thrown into prison yet.
  4. Therefore, a debate arose among John’s disciples with a Jew about cleansing.
  5. And they came to John and told him: “Rabbi, He who was with you across the Jordan, of whom you have testified, look: He baptizes and everyone goes to Him.”
  6. John answered and said: “A man isn’t able to receive [even one thing] unless it has been given to him from heaven.
  7. “You yourselves testify of me that I said: “I’m not the Anointed”, but that I have been sent before Him.
  8. “The man who has the bride is a bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom (the man who has stood and*listens to him) rejoices in joy because of the bridegroom’s voice.  Therefore, this joy of mine has been fulfilled.
  9. “It’s necessary for Him to increase, but for me to decrease.
  10. “The One who comes from above is above all.  The man from the earth is from the earth and speaks from the earth.  The One who comes from heaven is above all.
  11. “What He has seen and has heard; of this He testifies and no one receives His testimony.
  12. “The man who received His testimony set his seal that God is true.
  13. “For He who God sent speaks the words of God, for He doesn’t give the Spirit by measure.
  14. “The Father ^loves the Son, and has given all things into His hand.
  15. “The man who believes in the Son of God has the life of ages.  The man who disbelieves the Son won’t see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.”

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John Chapter 4

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The Samaritan woman
  1. Therefore, when Jesus knew that the Pharisees heard that Jesus makes and baptizes more disciples than John,
  2. (Although Jesus Himself wasn’t baptizing but His disciples were)
  3. He left Judea and departed again towards Galilee,
  4. and it was necessary for Him to pass through Samaria.
  5. Therefore, He comes to a city of Samaria called Sychar near the piece of land which Jacob gave to his son Joseph.
  6. And Jacob’s well was there, so *tiring from the journey, Jesus was sitting wearily on the well.  It was about the sixth hour.
  7. A woman comes out of Samaria to draw water.  Jesus tells her: “Give me water to drink.”
  8. (For His disciples had departed into the city so they might buy food.)
  9. So the Samaritan woman says to Him: “How do you – being a Jew – ask to drink from me, being a Samaritan woman.”  (For Jews don’t associate with Samaritans.)
  10. Jesus answered and told her: “If you had known the gift of God, and who is the One who tells you: ‘Give me water to drink’, you would’ve asked and He would’ve given you living water.”
  11. The woman tells Him: “Sir, you don’t even have a bucket and the well is deep, so from where do you get the water which lives?
  12. “You aren’t greater than our father Jacob who gave us the well, and drank from it himself with his sons and his livestock, are you?”
  13. Jesus answered and told her: “Every man who drinks from this water will thirst again.”
  14. “But whoever drinks from the water I will give him definitely won’t thirst into the age.  But the water that I will give him will become a spring of water welling up into the life of ages.
  15. The woman tells Him: “Sir, give me this water so I won’t thirst nor travel here to draw water.”
  16. He tells her: “Go call your husband and come here.”
  17. The woman answered and told Him: “I don’t have a husband.”  Jesus tells her: “You spoke rightly in saying: ‘I don’t have a husband’,
  18. “for you had five husbands; and he whom you have now isn’t your husband.  You have spoken this truly.”
  19. The woman says to Him: “Sir, I see that you’re a prophet.
  20. “Our fathers worshipped on this mountain, and you Jews say that the place where it’s necessary to worship is in Jerusalem.”
  21. Jesus tells her: “Woman, believe me that an hour comes when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem.
  22. “You Samaritans worship what you haven’t known.  We Jews worship what we have known, because salvation is from the Jews.
  23. “But an hour comes and now is when true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth. For the Father also seeks such men; the men who worship Him.
  24. “God is Spirit, and it’s necessary for the men who worship Him to worship in spirit and truth.
  25. The woman tells Him: “I *know that the Messiah(393)“Messiah”  A Hebrew word which mean “anointed”, just as the Greek word “Χριστός” (christos, often transliterated as “Christ”) also means “anointed”. is coming; the One who is called the Anointed.  When He comes, He will disclose all things to us.”
  26. Jesus tells her: “I – the One who speaks to you – am He.”
  27. And His disciples came upon this and were marveling that He was speaking with a woman.  Yet no one said “What do you seek?” or “Why do you speak with her?”
  28. Therefore the woman left her water jar, and departed into the city, and says to the men:
  29. “Come see a man who told me all I did.  Can He be the Anointed?”
  30. They went out of the city and were coming towards Him.
  31. In the meantime, the disciples were urging Him saying: “Rabbi, eat.”
  32. But He told them: “I have food to eat that you don’t *know about.”
  33. So the disciples were saying to one another: “No one brought Him something to eat, did they?”
  34. Jesus told them: “My food is that I do the will of the One who sent Me and accomplish His work.
  35. “Don’t you say that it’s still four months and then the harvest comes?  Behold, I tell you: lift your eyes and observe the fields, because they are already white for the harvest.”
  36. “The man who reaps receives a wage and collects fruit for the life of ages, so that the man who sows might rejoice together with the man who reaps.
  37. “For in this the saying is true: “The man who sows is one, and the man who reaps another.”
  38. “I sent you to reap what you haven’t toiled for.  Others have toiled for it, and you have entered into their labor.”
  39. And many of the Samaritans from that city believed in Him through the report of the woman testifying: “He told me all I did.”
  40. So when the Samaritans came to Him they were asking Him to remain with them.  And He remained there for two days,
  41. and many more believed because of His message.
  42. And they were telling the woman: “We no longer believe just because of your report, for we have heard and know that this truly is the Savior of the world.”
Healing the royal official’s son
  1. And after the two days He went out from there into Galilee,
  2. for Jesus Himself testified that a prophet doesn’t have honor in His own hometown.
  3. So when He came into Galilee, the Galileans welcomed Him, having seen all the great things He did in Jerusalem at the feast, for they also went to the feast.
  4. So He went to Cana of Galilee again (where He made the water into wine).  And in Capernaum was a royal official whose son was sick.
  5. This man – having heard that Jesus arrives from Judea into Galilee – went to Him and was asking so He might come down and heal his son, for he was about to die.
  6. So Jesus told him: “If you men don’t see signs and wonders, you definitely won’t believe.”
  7. The royal official says to Him: “Sir, come down before my child dies.”
  8. Jesus tells him: “Go, your son lives.”  The man believed the word that Jesus told him and was going away,
  9. and while he’s already going down, his slaves met him saying that his boy lives.
  10. So he inquired from them in what hour he got better.  So they told him: “The fever left him yesterday at the seventh hour.”
  11. So the father knew that it had happened in that hour which Jesus told him: “Your son lives.”  And he himself believed, and all his household.
  12. And again, this is the second sign Jesus did after having come from Judea into Galilee.

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John Chapter 5

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The Bethesda pool healing
  1. A feast of the Jews was after these things, and Jesus went up into Jerusalem.
  2. Now, in Jerusalem near the sheep gate is a pool having five porches, the pool which in Hebrew is called Bethesda.
  3. A crowd of the men who were ill were lying in these porches; the blind, the lame and the withered.  [They were waiting for the water’s movement,
  4. for an angel occasionally descended into the pool and stirred the water.  Therefore, the man who entered first after the stirring of the water became well from whatever sickness he was held by at that time.]
  5. And a man was there for thirty and eight years, having an infirmity himself.
  6. Jesus – having seen him lying there and having known that he had already been there a long time – He says to him: “Do you want to become well?”
  7. The man who was sick answered Him: “Sir, I don’t have a man to help so that when the water is stirred, he might put me into the pool.  And while I’m going by myself, another descends before me.”
  8. Jesus tells him: “Rise, pick up your bed mat, and walk.”
  9. Immediately the man became well, and picked up his bed mat, and was walking.  But on that day it was the Sabbath,
  10. so the Jews were saying to the man who has been healed: “It’s the Sabbath, and it’s not lawful for you to pick up your bed mat.”
  11. But he answered them: “The man who made me well, that man told me ‘Pick up your bed mat and walk’.”
  12. So they asked him: “Who is the man who told you: ‘Pick up your bed mat and walk’?”
  13. But the man who was healed hadn’t known who it is, for Jesus slipped away in a crowd that was in that place.
  14. After these things, Jesus finds him in the temple and told him: “Behold, you have become well.  Sin no more, so something worse doesn’t happen to you.”
  15. The man departed and reported to the Jews that Jesus is the man who made him well.
Jesus’ Deity
  1. And the Jews were persecuting Jesus because of this; because He was doing these things on the Sabbath.
  2. But Jesus answered them: “My Father works until now, and I work.”
  3. So the Jews were seeking to kill him more because of this; because was He not only breaking the Sabbath, but also because He was calling God His own Father, making Himself equal to God.
  4. So Jesus answered and was telling them: “Amen, amen I tell you: the Son isn’t able to do anything from Himself unless it’s something He sees the Father doing.  For whatever He does, likewise the Son also does these things.
  5. “For the Father loves the Son, and shows all things to Him that He Himself does.  And He will show Him greater works than these so you might marvel.
  6. “For just as the Father raises the dead and gives life, in this way also the Son gives life to whom He wills.
  7. “For neither does the Father judge anyone, but He has given all judgement to the Son,
  8. “so they might honor the Son just as they honor the Father.   The man who doesn’t honor the Son doesn’t honor the Father, the One who sent Him.
  9. “Amen, amen I tell you, that the man who hears my message and believes the One who sent Me has the life of ages; and he doesn’t go into judgement, but has passed from death into life.
  10. “Amen, Amen I tell you that a hour is coming – and now is – when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and the men who heard it will live.
  11. “For just as the Father has life in Himself, in this way also He gave life to the Son, to have it in Himself.
  12. “And He gave Him authority to make judgement because He is the Son of Man.
  13. “Don’t marvel at this, because an hour is coming in which all the men in the tombs will hear His voice,
  14. “and they will come out: the men who did good into the resurrection of life, but the men who practiced wickedness into the resurrection of judgement.
  15. “I’m able to do nothing from Myself.  I judge just as I hear, and My judgement is righteous because I don’t seek My will, but the will of the One who sent me.
Testimony about Jesus
  1. “If I testify about myself, My testimony isn’t considered true.
  2. “It’s another man who testifies about Me, and I *know that the testimony which he testifies about Me is true.
  3. “You men have sent for John, and he has testified of the truth.
  4. “And the testimony I receive isn’t from man, but I say these things so you might be saved.
  5. “That man was the lamp that burns and shines, and you wanted to greatly rejoice in his light for a time.
  6. “But I have testimony greater than John’s.  For the works which the Father has given to Me so I might accomplish them; these same works that I do testify about Me that the Father has sent Me.
  7. “And the One who sent Me, (the Father) has testified about Me, and you haven’t ever heard His voice nor seen His form.
  8. “And you don’t have His word remaining in you because you don’t believe Him whom He sent.
  9. “You examine the scriptures because you think you have the life of ages in them; and these scriptures are the ones who testify about Me.
  10. “And you aren’t willing to come to Me so you might have life.
  11. “I don’t receive glory from men.
  12. “But I *know you; that you don’t have the ^love of God in yourselves.
  13. “I have come in the name of My Father and you don’t receive Me.  If another comes in his own name, you will receive that man.
  14. “How are you able to believe while receiving glory from one another, and you don’t seek the glory that’s from the only God?
  15. “Don’t think that I will prosecute you to the Father.  There is one who prosecutes you: Moses, in whom you have hoped.
  16. “If you believed in Moses you would believe in Me, for he wrote about Me.
  17. “And if you don’t believe his writings, how will you believe my words?”

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John Chapter 6

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Feeding five thousand
  1. After these things, Jesus departed to the other side of the Sea of Galilee (also called Tiberius).
  2. And a great crowd was following Him because they were observing the signs that He was doing on the men who are sick.
  3. And Jesus went up to the mountain and was sitting there with His disciples.
  4. And the Passover – the feast of the Jews – was near.
  5. So having lifted up His eyes, and having seen that a great crowd is coming to Him, Jesus tells Philip: “Where might we buy bread so these men might eat?”
  6. (And He was saying this to test him, for He had known what He was intending to do.)
  7. Philip answered Him: “Two hundred denarii(394)“denarii” is the plural of denarius, which was a 1st century coin that was the standard wage for a day’s worth of unskilled labor. worth of bread isn’t enough for them, so that each might receive a little piece.”
  8. One of His disciples – Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter – tells Him:
  9. “There’s a little boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish.  But what are those for so many?”
  10. Jesus said: “Make the men recline to eat.”  And there was much grass in the place, so the men reclined.  Their number was about five thousand.
  11. Therefore Jesus took the bread, and having given thanks He distributed it to the men who reclined.  And He did likewise with the fish, distributing as much as they were wanting.
  12. And when they were satisfied, He tells His disciples: “Collect the pieces which remain so that nothing might perish.”
  13. So they collected them and filled twelve baskets of pieces from the five loaves of barley which remained from the men who had eaten.
  14. So having seen that sign He did, the men were saying: “This is truly the prophet who is coming into the world.”
  15. So Jesus – having known that they intend to come and to seize Him so they might make Him king – went back to the mountain again, by Himself alone.
  16. Now, when it became evening His disciples went down to the sea.
  17. And having entered into a boat, they were going across the sea to Capernaum.  And it had already become dark and Jesus hadn’t come to them.
  18. And the sea was being stirred by a great wind blowing.
  19. Therefore, having rowed about twenty-five or thirty stadia,(395)a “stadia” is ~606 English feet, which is ~185 meters. they see Jesus walking on the sea(396)quotation/allusion to Job 9:8 and Job 38:16 and coming near the boat, and they were afraid.
  20. But He tells them: “I Am;(397)“I Am” the Greek construction here is identical to John 8:58, where Jesus proclaims His Deity.  However, it could also be translated “it is I”, which is more common.  This is possibly a reference several Old Testament passages, primarily Exodus 3:14 where God appears to Moses and reveals His name is “I Am”. don’t fear.”
  21. Therefore they were willing to receive Him into the boat.  And immediately the boat was at the land to which they were going.
The bread of life
  1. The next day, the crowd that was standing on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat except one, and that Jesus didn’t embark into the boat with His disciples, but His disciples departed alone.
  2. But other boats came from Tiberias, near the place where they ate bread after the Lord gave thanks.
  3. So when the crowd saw that Jesus isn’t there, nor His disciples, they embarked in the boats and came to Capernaum seeking Jesus.
  4. And having found Him on the other side of the sea, they said to Him: “Rabbi, when did you come here?”
  5. Jesus answered and told them: “Amen, amen I tell you: you seek Me not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the bread and were satisfied.
  6. “Don’t work for the food which perishes, but for the food which remains into the life of ages, which the Son of Man will give to you. For God the Father set a seal on Him.”
  7. So they said to Him: “What might we do, so we work the works of God?”
  8. Jesus answered and told them: “This is the God’s work: that you believe in Him who He sent.”
  9. So they said to Him: “Then what sign do you do so we might see and believe you?  What work do you do?
  10. “Our fathers ate mana in the wilderness, just as it’s written: He gave them bread from heaven to eat.”(398)quotation/allusion to Psalm78:24
  11. So Jesus told them: “Amen, amen I tell you: It wasn’t Moses who has given you bread from heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
  12. “For the bread of God is the One who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.”
  13. So they said to Him: “Sir, always give us this bread.”
  14. Jesus told them: “I am the bread of life.  The man who comes to Me definitely won’t hunger, and the man who believes in Me definitely won’t ever thirst.”
  15. “But I tell you that you have seen Me and don’t believe.
  16. “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the man who comes to Me I definitely won’t cast out,
  17. “because I have come down from heaven; not so I might do My will, but the will of the One who sent me.
  18. And this is the will of the One who sent Me: that of all He has given Me, I lose none of it; but will raise it up at the last day.
  19. “For this is the will of My Father: that every man who gazes at the Son and believes in Him should have the life of ages, and I will raise him up at the last day.”
  20. So the Jews were grumbling about Him because He said “I am the bread which came down from heaven.”
  21. And they were saying: “Isn’t this Jesus?  The son of Joseph, whose father and mother we *know?  How does He now say ‘I have come down from heaven’?”
  22. Jesus answered and told them: “Don’t grumble with one another.
  23. “No one is able to come to Me unless the Father – the One who sent Me – draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day.
  24. “It is *written in the prophets: ‘And they will all be instructed of God.'(399)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 54:13  Every man who heard from the Father and learned comes to Me.
  25. “Not that anyone has seen the Father except the One from the God; He has seen the Father.
  26. “Amen, amen I tell you: the man who believes has the life of ages.
  27. “I am the bread of life.
  28. “Your fathers ate manna in the wilderness and they died.
  29. “This is the bread which comes down from heaven, so that anyone might eat of it and not die.
  30. “I am the bread which lives, which came down from heaven.  If anyone ate of this bread, he will live into the age.  And the bread that I also will give – My flesh – is life for the sake of the world.”
  31. So the Jews were arguing with one another, saying: “How is this man able to give us His flesh to eat?”
  32. So Jesus told them: “Amen, amen I tell you: unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you don’t have life in yourselves.”
  33. “The man who chews My flesh and drinks My blood has the life of ages, and I will raise him up at the last day.
  34. “For My flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink.
  35. “The man who chews My flesh and drinks My blood remains in Me and I in him.
  36. “Just as the Father who lives sent Me, and I live because of Father, so also the man who chews on Me will also live because of Me.
  37. “This is the bread which came down from heaven, and not as the fathers ate and died; the man who chews this bread will live into the age.”
  38. He said these things while teaching in the synagogue in Capernaum.
  39. So having heard this, many of His disciples said: “This is a hard message; who is able to hear it?”
  40. And Jesus, *knowing in Himself that His disciples grumble about this, He told them: “Does this offend you?
  41. “So, what if you see the Son of Man ascending to where He was before?
  42. “It’s the Spirit who gives life; the flesh benefits nothing.  The words that I speak to you are Spirit, and they are life.
  43. “But there are some of you who don’t believe.”  For Jesus had known from the beginning who the men who don’t believe are, and who is the man who will betray Him.
  44. And He was saying: “Because of this, I have told you that no one is able to come to Me unless it has been given to him by the Father.
  45. From this, many of His disciples departed to go back home, and were walking with Him no longer.
  46. So Jesus said to the twelve: “Don’t you also want to leave?”
  47. Simon Peter answered Him: “Lord, to whom will we go?  You have the words of the life of ages,
  48. “and we *believe and know that you are the Holy One of God.”
  49. Jesus answered them: “Didn’t I choose you, the twelve?  And one of you is a devil.”
  50. And He was speaking of Judas, son of Simon Iscariot, one of the twelve; for he was intending to betray Him.

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John Chapter 7

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The Feast of Tabernacles
  1. And Jesus was walking in Galilee after these events, for He wasn’t wanting to walk in Judea because the Jews there were seeking to kill Him.
  2. Now, the Jewish Feast of Tabernacles was near.
  3. So His brothers told Him: “Depart from here and go into Judea, so your disciples there will also see your works that you do.
  4. “For no one does something in secret if he seeks to be known in public.  If you do these things, show yourself to the world.”
  5. (For not even His brothers were believing in Him.)
  6. So Jesus tells them: “My time isn’t come yet; but your time is always ideal.
  7. “The world isn’t able to hate you, but it hates Me because I testify about it that its works are evil.
  8. “You go up to the feast; I’m not going up to this feast now because My time hasn’t been completed yet.”
  9. And having said these things to them, He remained in Galilee.
  10. But when His brothers went up to the feast, then He also went up.  Not openly, but in secret.
  11. Therefore, the Jews were seeking Him at the feast and were saying “Where is He?”
  12. And there was much grumbling about Him in the crowds.  Indeed, some were saying: “He’s good.”  But others were saying: “No, but He misleads the people.”
  13. Yet no one was speaking about Him openly for fear of the Jews.
Jesus teaching
  1. And it already being midway through the feast, Jesus went up into the temple and was teaching.
  2. Therefore the Jews were marveling, saying: “How does this man know the scriptures, not having studied?”
  3. So Jesus answered and told them: “My teaching isn’t Mine, but from the One who sent Me.”
  4. “If someone wants to do His will, he will know about this teaching; whether it’s from God or if I speak from Myself.
  5. “The man who speaks from himself seeks his own glory.  But the One who seeks the glory of the One who sent Him; He is true, and unrighteousness isn’t in Him.(400)quotation/allusion to Psalm 92:15
  6. “Hasn’t Moses given you the law, and not one of you keeps the law.  Why do you seek to kill Me?”
  7. The crowd answered: “You have a demon; who seeks to kill you?”
  8. Jesus answered and told them: “I did one work and you all marvel.
  9. “Moses has given you circumcision because of this, and on the Sabbath you circumcise a man (not that it’s from Moses, but from the fathers.)
  10. “If a man receives circumcision on Sabbath so the law might not be broken, why are you angry with Me because I made the whole man healthy on the Sabbath?”
  11. “Don’t judge according to outward appearance, but judge with a righteous judgement.
The People’s reaction
  1. Therefore, some of the men from Jerusalem were saying: “Isn’t this the man who they seek to kill?
  2. “And look, He speaks openly and they say nothing to Him; not ever.  Have the rulers recognized that this is the Anointed?
  3. “But we *know where this man is from.  But when the Anointed comes, no one knows where He is from.”
  4. So Jesus cried out in the temple, teaching and saying: “You *know Me and you *know where I’m from.  And I haven’t come from Myself, but the One who sent Me is true; He who you don’t *know.
  5. “I *know Him because I’m from Him, and He sent Me.”
  6. Therefore they were seeking to seize Him, and no one laid a hand on Him because His hour hadn’t come yet.
  7. And many of the crowd believed in Him and were saying: “When the Anointed comes, He won’t do more of the signs which this man did, will He?”
  8. The Pharisees heard the crowd whispering these things about Him, and the chief priests and Pharisees sent officers so they might seize Him.
  9. So Jesus said: “I’m still with you for a short time, and then I go to the One who sent Me.
  10. “You will seek Me and won’t find Me; and where I am, you aren’t able to come.”
  11. So the Jews said to themselves: “Where is He about to go that we won’t find Him?  He isn’t about to travel into the Dispersion(401)“The Dispersion” refers to the Jews who were spread across – i.e. dispersed – throughout the Roman Empire. and teach the Greeks is He?
  12. “What’s this word that He spoke: ‘You will seek Me and won’t find Me, and where I am you aren’t able to come’?”
The last day of the feast
  1. Now, on the last day — the great day of the feast — Jesus had stood and he cried out saying: “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink.
  2. “The man who believes in Me will be just as the scripture says: “Streams of living water will flow out from his inner man.”(402)“inner man” This Greek word literally refers to organs in the abdominal cavity, like the stomach and the womb.  It metaphorically refers to the “inner man”
  3. (And He said this about the Spirit, who the men who believed in Him were about to receive, for the Spirit wasn’t given yet, because Jesus wasn’t glorified yet.)
  4. So having heard these words, some from the crowd were saying: “This is truly the Prophet.”
  5. Others were saying: “This is the Anointed.”  And others were saying: “No, for can the Anointed come out of Galilee?
  6. “Didn’t the scripture say that the Anointed comes from the seed of David and from Bethlehem, the town where David was from?”
  7. Therefore, a schism happened in the crowd because of Him.
  8. And some of them were wanting to seize Him, but no one laid hands on Him.
  9. Therefore, the officers came to the chief priests and Pharisees, and they said to those officers: “Why didn’t you bring Him?”
  10. The officers answered: “A man never spoke like this; [not as this man speaks.]”
  11. So the Pharisees answered them: “Have you also been misled?
  12. “None of the rulers believed in Him, or any of the Pharisees, have they?
  13. “But this crowd who doesn’t know the law are accursed.”
  14. Nicodemus – the man who formerly came to Him – being one of them, he says to them:
  15. “Our law doesn’t judge a man unless it first heard from Him and knows what he does, does it?”
  16. They answered and told him: “Aren’t you also from Galilee?  Search the scriptures and see that the prophet isn’t raised out of Galilee.”
  17. [

Note: To read John 7:53-8:11  (the story of the woman caught in adultery, which most scholars believe wasn’t written by Johnclick here; link opens in new tab.

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John Chapter 8

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Note: to read John 7:53-8:11  (the story of the woman caught in adultery, which most scholars believe wasn’t written by Johnclick here; link opens in new tab.

Jesus and testimony
  1. Therefore, Jesus spoke to them again saying: “I am the light of the world.  The man who follows me definitely won’t walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”
  2. So the Pharisees told Him: “You testify about yourself; your testimony isn’t true.”
  3. Jesus answered and told them: “Even if I testify about Myself, My testimony is true because I *know where I came from and where I’m going.  But you don’t *know where I come from or where I’m going.
  4. “You judge according to the flesh; I don’t judge anyone.
  5. “But even if I judge, My judgement is true because I’m not alone, but it’s I and the Father who sent Me.
  6. “And even in your law it is *written that the testimony of two men is true.(403)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 19:15
  7. I am the One who testifies about Myself, and the Father who sent Me also testifies about Me.”
  8. So they were saying to Him: “Where is your Father?”  Jesus answered: “You haven’t known me nor My Father.  If you had known Me, you would’ve also known My father.”
  9. He spoke these words in the treasury while teaching in the temple, and no one seized Him because His hour hadn’t come yet.
From below and from above
  1. So again He told them: “I depart and you will seek Me, and you will die in your sin.  Where I depart to, you aren’t able to come.”
  2. So the Jews were saying: “He won’t kill Himself, will He?  Because He says ‘Where I depart to, you aren’t able to come’.”
  3. And He was telling them: “You are from below, and I am from above.  You are from this world, I am not from this world.
  4. “Therefore I told you that you will die in your sins, for if you don’t believe that I am,(404)“I am” Many translations reader this “I am He” here, with the “He” referring to Jesus being the Anointed (messiah).  However, the word “He” is not found in the text.  It’s an interpretation which is supported by the context, but still an interpretation and by no means certain. you will die in your sins.”
  5. Therefore, they were saying to Him: “Who are you?”  Jesus told them: “I’m telling you that, even from the beginning.”
  6. “I have many things to say and to judge concerning you.  But the One who sent Me is true, and what I heard from Him, I speak these things to the world.”
  7. (They didn’t understand that He was speaking to them about the Father)
  8. So Jesus told them: “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am,(405)“I am” see previous note, on verse 24. and that I do nothing from Myself.  But I speak these things just as the Father taught Me.
  9. “And the One who sent Me is with Me.  He didn’t leave Me alone because I always do what’s pleasing to Him.”
  10. Through Him speaking these things, many believed in Him.
Of which father?
  1. So Jesus was saying to the Jews who have believed in Him: “If you remain in My word, you’re truly My disciples.
  2. And you will know the truth, and the truth will free you.”
  3. They answered to Him: “We’re Abraham’s seed, and we’re *enslaved to no one at any time.  How do you say that ‘You will become free’?”
  4. Jesus answered them: “Amen, amen I tell you that every man who practices sin is a slave of the sin.
  5. “And the slave doesn’t remain in the house into the age; the son remains into the age.
  6. “So if the Son frees you, you will truly be free.”
  7. “I *know that you are Abraham’s seed, but you seek to kill Me because My word didn’t make a place in you.
  8. “I speak what I have seen with the Father.  Therefore, you also do what you hear from your father.”
  9. They answered and told Him: “Our father is Abraham.”   Jesus tells them: “If you are Abraham’s children, you should be doing the works of Abraham.”
  10. “But now you seek to kill Me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God.  Abraham didn’t do this.
  11. “You do the works of your father.”  So they told Him: “We we haven’t been born from fornication; we have one Father; God.”
  12. Jesus told them: “If God was your Father, you would ^love Me, for I came from God and am here.  I haven’t even come of My own initiative, but He sent Me.
  13. “Why don’t you understand my speech?  Because you aren’t able to hear My word.
  14. “You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the cravings of your father.  He was a murderer from the beginning, and he wasn’t standing in the truth because there isn’t truth in him.  Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks it from his own initiative because he’s a liar, and the father of lying.
  15. “And you don’t believe Me because I speak the truth.
  16. “Which of you convicts Me of sin?  If I speak the truth, why don’t you believe Me?
  17. “The man who is of God hears the words of God.  You don’t hear because of this, because you aren’t of God.”
I Am
  1. The Jews answered and told Him: “Don’t we rightly say that you’re a Samaritan and have a demon?”
  2. Jesus answered.  “I don’t have a demon, but I honor My Father and you dishonor Me.
  3. “And I don’t seek My glory, there is One who seeks it and judges.
  4. “Amen, amen I tell you: if someone keeps my word, he definitely won’t see death into the age.”
  5. Therefore the Jews told Him: “Now we *know that you have a demon.  Abraham died, and the prophets too; and yet you say: ‘if someone keeps My word, he definitely won’t taste death into the age’.
  6. “You aren’t greater than our father Abraham who died, are you?  And the prophets died too.  Who do you make yourself out to be?”
  7. Jesus answered: “If I glorify Myself, My glory is nothing.  My Father is the One who glorifies Me; He of whom you say: ‘He is our God’.
  8. “And you haven’t known Him, but I have known Him.  And I say that if I hadn’t known Him, I will be like you men: a liar.  But I have known him and keep His word.
  9. “Your father Abraham jumped for joy that he might see My day, and he saw it and rejoiced.”
  10. Therefore, the Jews said to Him: “You don’t have fifty years yet, and you have seen Abraham?”
  11. Jesus told them: “Amen, amen I tell you: before Abraham was, I Am.”(406)quotation/allusion to Exodus 3:14
  12. Therefore, they picked up stones so they might throw them at Him. But Jesus was hidden and went out of the temple [going through their midst and was departing this way].

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John Chapter 9

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Jesus heals a man who was born blind
  1. And while passing by, He saw a man who was blind from birth.(407)“Blind from birth” The 1st century Jews believed that there were four miracles that only the Messiah would be able to perform.  (1) Cleansing leprosy.  The Jews believed that leprosy was the result of sin, based on Numbers 12:9-10 and 2 Chronicles 26:19-20.  Since only God could forgive sin (what they believed was the cause of leprosy) then only God or Messiah could cleanse a leper.  (2) Casting out a mute demon.  The Jewish exorcists had success in casting out demons, but first needed to know the demon’s name.  Thus if the demon-possessed man couldn’t speak, the demon couldn’t be cast out except by God Himself.  (3) Raising the dead after three days.  The Jews believed that a dead person’s spirit remained near the body for three days, and afterward decay set in and the spirit departed.  Thus, only God would be able to heal a person dead for longer than 3 days.  (4) Healing a man born with birth defects.  They believed birth defects were caused by sin based on a faulty interpretation of Exodus 34:7 (while ignoring the whole of Ezekiel 18, which repudiates this idea thoroughly.)  Since only God can forgive sin, they believed that only God or Messiah could heal a man born with birth defects.
  2. And His disciples asked Him a question, saying: “Rabbi, who sinned; this man or his parents that he was born blind?”
  3. Jesus answered: “Neither this man sinned, nor his parents; but this happened so the works of God might be revealed in him.
  4. It’s necessary for us to work the works of the One who sent Me as long as it’s day; night is coming when no one is able to work.
  5. “While I’m in the world, I’m the light of the world.”
  6. Having said these things, He spat on the ground, and made mud from the spit, and spread the mud on the man’s eyes.
  7. And He told him: “Go wash in the pool of Siloam” (which is translated ‘sent’).  So he went away, and washed, and came back seeing.
  8. So the neighbors and the men who observed him before – that he was a beggar – they were saying: “Isn’t this the man who sat and begged?”
  9. Others were saying: “It’s him.”  Others were saying: “No, but he’s similar to him.”  That man was saying: “I am him.”
  10. So they were saying to him: “So how were your eyes opened?”
  11. That man answered: “The man who is called Jesus made mud and spread it on my eyes, and He told me ‘Go to the pool of Siloam and wash’.  So having gone and washed, I recovered my sight.”
  12. And they said to him: “Where is this man?”  He says: “I don’t know.”
The Pharisees interrogate the man
  1. They bring him – the formerly blind man – to the Pharisees.
  2. (Now, the day on which Jesus made the clay and opened his eyes was a Sabbath.)
  3. So the Pharisees also were asking him again how he received sight.  And he told them: “He put mud on my eyes, and I washed, and now I see.”
  4. So some of the Pharisees were saying: “This man isn’t from God because He doesn’t keep the Sabbath.”  But others were saying: “How is a sinful man able to do such signs?”  And there was a schism among them.
  5. So they again say to the blind man: “What do you say about Him, since He opened your eyes?”  And he said: “He is a prophet.”
  6. So the Jews didn’t believe it about him – that he was blind and received sight – until they summoned the parents of the man who received sight.
  7. And they asked them saying: “Is this your son, of whom you say that he was born blind?  So how does he see now?”
  8. So his parents answered and said: “We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind.
  9. “But how he sees now, we don’t know.  Or who opened his eyes, we don’t know.  Ask him; he has reached maturity.  He will speak about himself.”
  10. His parents said these things because they were fearing the Jews, for the Jews had already agreed that if someone confessed Him as the Anointed, he would become expelled from the synagogue.
  11. His parents said: “he has reached maturity; ask him” because of this.
  12. So they summoned the man who was previously blind a second time and told him: “Give glory to God by testifying honestly:(408)“Give glory to God” is an idiom that means to place someone under and oath to tell the truth.  The Pharisees were commanding the man not to lie because doing so would dishonor God, while telling the truth would give glory to God.  The phrase “by testifying honestly” was added to make the idiom clear. we *know that this man is a sinner.”
  13. Then that man answered: “If he is a sinner, I don’t *know.  I do *know one thing: that while formerly being blind, now I see.”
  14. So they said to him: “What did He do to you?  How did He open your eyes?”
  15. He answered them: “I already told you and you didn’t listen.  Why do you want to hear it again?  You don’t want to become His disciples too, do you?”
  16. And they insulted him and said: “You are a disciple of that man, but we are disciples of Moses.
  17. “We *know that God spoke to Moses, but we don’t know where this man is from.”
  18. The man answered and told them: “That is indeed a marvelous thing; that He opened my eyes and you don’t *know where He is from.”
  19. “We *know that God doesn’t hear sinners.  But if someone is God-fearing and does His will, He hears him.
  20. “From the world’s beginning, it was never heard that anyone opened the eyes of a man born blind.
  21. “Unless this man was from God, He would be able to do nothing.”
  22. They answered and told him: “You were born entirely in sins, and you teach us?”  And they cast him out.
Jesus talks to the man
  1. Jesus heard that they cast him out, and having found him, He said: “Do you believe in the Son of Man?”
  2. He answered and said: “And who is He Lord, so I might believe in Him?”
  3. Jesus told Him: “You have seen Him, and He is the One who speaks with you.”
  4. And he was declaring: “I believe Lord.”  And he bowed down before(409)“bowed down before”  is one word in Greek, often translated “worship”. It comes from the Greek words: “pros” (meaning “towards”) and “kyneo” (meaning “to kiss”). It literally refers to bowing down on your hands and knees and kissing the ground in front of a superior or authority figure. Some Egyptian pictographs have the hand outstretched, as if to send the “kiss” toward the one being revered. Him.
  5. And Jesus said: “I came into the world for judgement, so that the men who don’t see might see; and the men who see might become blind.”
  6. The Pharisees who were with Him heard these things, and they said: “We aren’t also blind, are we?”
  7. Jesus told them: “If you were blind, you wouldn’t have sin.  But since you now say ‘We see’, your sin remains.”

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John Chapter 10

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The good shepherd
  1. “Amen, amen I tell you: the man who doesn’t enter into the sheep-fold through the door, but climbs in another way; that man is a thief and a robber.
  2. “But the One who enters in through the door is the shepherd of the sheep.
  3. “The doorkeeper opens for him, and the sheep hear his voice, and he summons his own sheep by name and leads them out.
  4. “When he ushered all his own sheep out, he travels ahead of them and the sheep follow him because they have known his voice.
  5. “And they definitely won’t follow a stranger, but will flee from him because they haven’t known the voice of strangers.”
  6. Jesus told them this metaphor, but those men didn’t know what He was telling them.
  7. So again He told them: “Amen, amen I tell you: I am the door of the sheep.
  8. “All who came before Me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep didn’t listen to them.
  9. “I am the door.  If anyone enters through Me, he will be saved.  And he will enter in and go out and will find pasture.
  10. “The thief doesn’t come unless it’s so he might steal, kill, and destroy.  I came so they might have life, and have it abundantly.
  11. “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sake of the sheep.
  12. “And the hired servant – not being the shepherd, the sheep aren’t his own – sees the wolf coming, and abandons the sheep, and flees.  And the wolf seizes them and scatters them,
  13. “because he’s a hired servant and he doesn’t care about the sheep.
  14. “I am the good shepherd, and I know My own, and My own know Me.
  15. “Just as the Father knows Me, I also know the Father, and I lay down my life for the sake of the sheep.
  16. “And I have other sheep which aren’t from this fold.  It’s necessary for Me to bring those also, and they will hear My voice, and they will become one flock under one shepherd.
  17. “The Father ^loves me because of this; because I lay down My life so I might take it again.
  18. “No one takes it away from Me, but I lay it down of My own accord.  I have authority to lay it down, and have authority take it again.  I received this command from My Father.”
  19. A schism happened again among the Jews because of these words.
  20. Many of them were saying: “He has a demon and speaks like a madman.  Why listen to Him?”
  21. Others were saying: “These words aren’t those of a demon-possessed man.  A demon isn’t able to open blind men’s eyes, is it?”
  22. This happened at the time of the Feast of Dedication(410)“Feast of Dedication” is another name for Hanukkah.  in Jerusalem.  It was winter.
I and the Father are One
  1. And Jesus was walking in the temple in the Colonnade of Solomon,
  2. So the Jews surrounded Him and were saying to Him: “How long do you keep our souls in suspense?  Tell us plainly if you are the Anointed.”
  3. Jesus answered them: “I told you and you don’t believe.  The works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify about Me.(411)Jesus had just healed a man born blind; see note on John 9:1
  4. “But you don’t believe because you aren’t of My sheep.
  5. “My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me.
  6. “I give them the life of ages, and they definitely won’t perish into the age, and no one will snatch them from My hand.
  7. “My Father who has given them to Me is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them from the Father’s hand.
  8. “I and the Father are one.”
  9. So the Jews again picked up stones so they might stone Him.
  10. Jesus answered them: “I showed you many noble works from the Father; for which work do you stone Me?”
  11. The Jews answered Him: “We don’t stone you for a noble work, but for blasphemy, and because you – being a man – make yourself God.”
  12. Jesus answered them: “Isn’t it *written in your law: ‘I said you are gods‘.(412)quotation/allusion to Psalms 82:6
  13. “If He called those men gods – to whom the word of God came – and the scripture isn’t able to be annulled,
  14. why do you say ‘you blaspheme’ about He who the Father made holy and sent into the world, because I said I’m the Son of God?”
  15. “If I don’t do the works of My Father, don’t believe me.”
  16. “But if I do, then even if you don’t believe Me, believe the works, so you might have known and might understand that the Father is in Me and I’m in the Father.
  17. Therefore they were seeking to seize Him again, but He went out of their hand.
  18. And He again departed across the Jordan to the place where John was first baptizing, and He remained there.
  19. And many came and were saying: “John did nothing for a sign, but as much as John said about this man, everything was true!”
  20. And many believed in Him there.

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John Chapter 11

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Lazarus dies
  1. Now a man was sick; Lazarus from Bethany, the village of Mary, and Martha her sister.
  2. (And Mary, whose brother Lazarus was sick, was the woman who anointed the Lord with scented oil and wiped His feet with her hair.)
  3. So the sisters sent word to Him saying: “Behold Lord, he who you love is sick.”
  4. But having heard this, Jesus said: “This sickness isn’t leading to death, but for the sake of God’s glory, so the Son of God might be glorified through it.”
  5. (And Jesus ^loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus.)
  6. So when He heard that Lazarus is sick, He then remained in the place He was staying two more days.
  7. Then after that, He tells the disciples: “Let us go into Judea again.”
  8. The disciples told Him: “Rabbi, the Jews were seeking to stone you just now, and you go there again?”
  9. Jesus answered: “Aren’t there twelve hours in the day?  If someone walks in the day he doesn’t stumble because he sees this world’s light.
  10. “But if someone walks in the night, he stumbles because the light isn’t in him.”
  11. He said these things, and after that tells them: “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go so I might wake him up.”
  12. So His disciples said: “Lord, he will be healed if he has fallen asleep.”
  13. And Jesus had spoken about his death, but those men thought that He speaks about a restful sleep.
  14. So Jesus then told them plainly: “Lazarus died.”
  15. “And I rejoice that I wasn’t there for your sake, so you might believe.  But let us go to him.”
  16. So Thomas (called Didymus) told his fellow disciples: “Let us go too, so we might die with him.”
  17. So having arrived, Jesus found him already having four days in the tomb.
Lazarus is raised
  1. And Bethany was near Jerusalem, about fifteen stadia(413)“fifteen stadia”.  A stadia is equal to 607 feet, so fifteen stadia is 9105 feet, or 1.72 miles. away.
  2. Now, many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary so they might comfort them concerning their brother.
  3. So when Martha heard that Jesus is coming, she met Him, but Mary was sitting in the house.
  4. So Martha told Jesus: “Lord, if you were here, my brother wouldn’t have died.
  5. “But even now, I *know that whatever you ask from God, God will give you.”
  6. Jesus tells her: “Your brother will rise.”
  7. Martha tells Him: “I *know that he will rise in the resurrection at the last day.”
  8. Jesus tells her: “I am the resurrection and the life.  The man who believes in me will live even if he dies.”
  9. “And every man who lives and believes in Me definitely won’t die, into the age.  Do you believe this?”
  10. She tells Him: “Yes Lord; I *believe that you are the Anointed; the Son of God, the One who is coming into the world.
  11. And having said this, she departed and called her sister Mary privately, saying: “The Teacher is coming and He is summoning you.”
  12. And when that woman heard, she quickly stood and was going to Him.
  13. And Jesus hadn’t yet come into the village, but was still at the place where Martha met Him.
  14. So having seen that Mary quickly stood and went out, the Jews who are with her in the house and comforting her followed her, thinking that she goes to the tomb so she might weep there.
  15. So when Mary came to where Jesus was and saw Him, she fell at His feet, telling Him: “Lord, if you were here, my brother wouldn’t have died.”
  16. Therefore, when Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who came with her weeping, he was indignant in Spirit and agitated in Himself.
  17. And He said: “Where have you laid him?”  They told Him: “Lord, come and see.”
  18. Jesus wept.
  19. So the Jews were saying: “See how He loves him.”
  20. But some of them said: “Isn’t this the man who opened the eyes of the blind man?  He’s able to do that, so also this man shouldn’t have died.”
  21. So again being indignant in Himself, Jesus  comes to the tomb.  It was a cave, and a stone was lying over it.
  22. Jesus says: “Remove the stone.”  Martha, the sister of the man who has died, tells Him: “Lord, it must already stink, for it’s been four days.”
  23. Jesus tells her: “Didn’t I tell you that if you believed you will the glory of God?”
  24. So they removed the stone.  And Jesus lifted His eyes up and said: “Father, I thank you that you heard Me.
  25. “And I had known that you always hear Me, but I said it because of the crowd which *stands around, so they might believe that you sent Me.”
  26. And having said these things, He cried out in a loud voice: “Lazarus, come out!”
  27. The man who was dead came out, having been bound feet and hands with graveclothes,(414)“graveclothes” usually strips of linen cloth wound around the body. and his head had been wrapped in a head cloth.   Jesus tells them: “Unbind him and allow him to go.”
  28. So many of the Jews who came to Mary and observed what He did believed in Him.
  29. But some of them departed to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus did.
The Pharisees plot against Jesus.  Again.
  1. So the chief priests and Pharisees gathered a council together and were saying: “What should we do, because this man does many signs.”
  2. “If we allow Him to continue this way, all will believe in Him, and the Romans will come and take both our place and the nation away.”
  3. But one of them – Caiaphas, being the high priest that year – told them: “You don’t *know anything.
  4. “Nor do you consider that it’s more profitable for you that one man might die for the sake of the people, and not have the whole nation perish.”
  5. And he didn’t say this from himself, but being the high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was intending to die for the sake of the nation.
  6. And not only for the sake of the nation, but also so He might assemble together into one the children of God who have been dispersed.
  7. So they took council from that day on so they might kill Him.
  8. So Jesus was no longer walking openly among the Jews, but departed from that place into the region near the wilderness, into a city named Ephraim.  And He remained there with the disciples.
  9. Now, the Passover of the Jews was drawing near, and many went up to Jerusalem from the region before the Passover so they might purify themselves.
  10. So the Jews were seeking Jesus, and while standing with one another in the temple were saying: “What do you think?  That He definitely won’t come to the feast?”
  11. And the chief priests and Pharisees had given a command that if someone knows where He is, He should report it so that they might arrest Him.

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John Chapter 12

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Mary Anoints Jesus’ feet.
  1. So six days before the Passover, Jesus came into Bethany where Lazarus was, who Jesus raised from the dead.
  2. So they made dinner for Him there, and Martha was serving it, and Lazarus was one of the men who reclined(415)“reclined” In the 1st century, they didn’t sit at a table.  Rather, they laid down with their feet sticking out. at the table with Him.
  3. So having taken a litra(416)“Litra” a Roman pound, approximately equal to 12 ounces or 328 grams of very expensive scented oil of pure nard,(417)“nard” also called ‘spikenard’ is the plant Nardostachys jatamansi, which grows on subalpine zones of the Himalayas.  The oil extracted from the plant is very fragrant, and various parts of the plant have medicinal use as well. Mary anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped His feet with her hair.  And the house filled with the scent of the oil.
  4. But Judas Iscariot – one of His disciples and the man who was about to betray Him – says:
  5. “Why wasn’t this scented oil sold for three hundred denarii(418)“denarii” is the plural of denarius, which was the going rate for a day’s worth of manual labor.  Thus, 300 denarii was approximately a year’s worth of wages, since they only worked six days a week, the seventh being the Sabbath. and the money given to the poor?”
  6. But he said this not because the poor were concerning to him, but because he was a thief.  And having the moneybag, he was taking what was put into it.
  7. So Jesus said: “Permit her, so she might keep it for the day of My burial.
  8. “For you always have the poor with you, but you don’t always have Me.”
  9. So a great crowd of the Jews learned that He is there and they came; not only because of Him, but also so they might see Lazarus who He raised from the dead.
  10. And the chief priests took counsel so they might also kill Lazarus,
  11. because many were leaving the Jews and were believing in Jesus because of him.
The Triumphal Entry
  1. The next day – having heard that Jesus is coming to Jerusalem – the great crowd which came to the feast
  2. took palm tree branches and went out for a meeting with Him.  And they were shouting: “Hosanna!  *Blessed is the One who comes in the name of the Lord,(419)quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:26 and the king of Israel!”
  3. And having found a young donkey, He sat on it; just as it is *written:
  4. Don’t fear daughter of Zion.  Behold, your King comes sitting on a donkey’s colt.”(420)quotation/allusion to Zechariah 9:9
  5. His disciples didn’t understand these things at first.  But when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written of Him, and that they did these things to Him.
  6. So the crowd that was with Him when He called Lazarus out of the tomb and raised him from the dead were testifying.
  7. And the crowd met Him because of this, because they heard He had done this sign.
  8. So the Pharisees said to themselves: “You see that you don’t benefit anything.  Behold, the world went after Him.”
The hour has come
  1. Now, some of the men who went up to Jerusalem so they might worship at the feast were Greeks.
  2. So these men came to Philip (the man from Bethsaida of Galilee) and they were asking him, saying: “Sir, we want to see Jesus.”
  3. Philip goes and tells Andrew; Andrew and Philip go tell Jesus.
  4. and Jesus answered them saying: “The hour has come so the Son of Man might be glorified.
  5. “Amen, Amen I tell you: unless a wheat seed which fell into the ground dies, it remains alone.  But if it dies, it bears much fruit.
  6. “The man who loves his life loses it, and the man who hates his life in this world will keep for the life of ages.
  7. “If anyone serves Me, let him follow Me.  And where I am, My servant will be there also.  If anyone serves Me, the Father will honor him.
  8. “My soul is *troubled now, and what might I say?  ‘Father save Me from this hour?’ But I came because of this; for this hour.
  9. “Father, glorify your name.”  Therefore a voice came from heaven: “I both glorified it and will glorify it again.”
  10. So the crowd stood, and having heard it was saying: “It was thunder.”  Others were saying “An angel has spoken to Him.”
  11. Jesus answered and said: “This voice hasn’t come for My sake, but for your sake.”
  12. “Judgement is now in this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out.
  13. “And if I’m lifted up(421)“lifted up”, this is an idiom referring to crucifixion from the earth, I will draw(422)“draw” this Greek word could also be translated “drag”, as that’s a more common usage in the New Testament. all men to Myself.”
  14. He was saying this, indicating what sort of death He was about to die.
  15. So the crowd answered Him: “We heard from the law that the Anointed remains into the age.  How do you say that it’s necessary for the Son of Man to be lifted up?  Who is this Son of Man”
  16. So Jesus told them: “The light is still with you a short time.  Walk while you have the light so the darkness might not seize you.  And the man who walks in the darkness doesn’t *know where he goes.
  17. “Believe the light while you have the light, so you might become sons of light.”  Jesus said these things and, having departed, He was hidden from them.
The people’s unbelief
  1. But despite Him *doing so many signs in front of them, they weren’t believing in Him,
  2. so the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which said: “Lord, who believed our report?  And to whom was the Lord’s arm revealed?(423)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 53:1
  3. They weren’t able to believe because of this, because again Isaiah said:
  4. He has blinded their eyes and He hardened their hearts, lest they see with their eyes and understand with their hearts, and turn, and I would heal them.”(424)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 6:10
  5. Isaiah said these things because he saw His glory and spoke about Him.
  6. But nevertheless, even of the rulers many believed in Him.  But they weren’t confessing Him because of the Pharisees, so they wouldn’t become expelled from the synagogue.
  7. For they ^loved the glory of men more than the glory of God.
  8. And Jesus cried out and said: “The man who believes in Me doesn’t believe in Me, but in the One who sent Me.
  9. “And the man who sees Me sees the One who sent Me.
  10. “I am a light which has come into the world, so that every man who believes in Me might not remain in darkness.
  11. “And if someone hears My words and doesn’t keep them, I don’t judge him; for I didn’t come so I might judge the world, but so I might save the world.
  12. “The man who rejects Me and doesn’t receive My words has one who judges him: the word which I spoke.  That will judge him on the last day,
  13. “because I didn’t speak from Myself, but the One who sent Me – the Father Himself – gave Me a commandment about what I should say and what I should speak.
  14. “And I *know that His commandment is the life of ages.  So what I speak, I speak just as the Father has spoken to Me.”

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John Chapter 13

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Washing the disciples’ feet
  1. And before the feast of Passover, Jesus *knew that His hour had come, that He would depart from this world to the Father, having ^loved His own who were in the world; He ^loved them to the end.
  2. And while dinner is happening, the Accuser had already *put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot (son of Simon) so he might betray Him.
  3. *Knowing that the Father gave all things into His hands, and that He came from God and departs to God,
  4. He rises from dinner and sets His outer garments down.  And having taken a towel, He girded Himself.(425)“girded Himself”.  This is a cultural reference, referring to the process of tying a belt or rope around the waist to gather the long robes and prevent them from getting in the way of work.  It figuratively came to mean getting ready for action or work.
  5. Afterwards, He poured water into the washing basin and began to wash the feet of the disciples, and to wipe them with the towel in which He was girded.
  6. So He comes to Simon Peter who says to Him: “Lord, you wash my feet?”
  7. Jesus answered and told him: “You *don’t perceive what I’m doing now, but you will understand after these things.”
  8. Peter tells Him: “You definitely won’t wash my feet through the age.”  Jesus answered him: “If I don’t wash you, you don’t have a share with Me.”
  9. Simon Peter tells Him: “Lord, don’t only wash my feet, but also my hands and head.”
  10. Jesus tells him: “The man who has bathed doesn’t have a need to wash anything except the feet, but is wholly clean.  And you men are clean, but not all of you.”
  11. (For He had known the man who betrays Him; because of this He said: “Not all of you are clean.”)
  12. So when He had washed their feet, and taken his outer garments, and reclined at the table again, He said to them: “Do you know what I have done for you?
  13. “You call Me teacher and Lord, and you speak rightly for I am.
  14. “So if I – the Lord and teacher – washed your feet, you also are obligated to wash one another’s feet.
  15. “For I gave you an example, so that just as I did, you also should do.
  16. “Amen, amen I tell you: a slave isn’t greater than his master, nor a messenger greater than the man who sent him.
  17. “If you have know these things, you are blessed if you do them.
Judas’ betray predicted
  1. “I don’t speak about all of you – I have know who I chose – but so the scripture might be fulfilled, saying: ‘The man who eats My bread raised his heel against Me.'(426)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 41:9
  2. “I tell you of this now before it happened, so when it happened you might believe that I Am.”(427)quotation/allusion to Exodus 3:14
  3. “Amen, amen I tell you: the man who receives someone I sent receives Me.  And the man who receives Me receives the One who sent Me.”
  4. Having said these things, Jesus was agitated in spirit and said: “Amen, amen I tell you that one of you will betray Me.”
  5. The disciples were looking at one another, being perplexed about whom He speaks.
  6. One of His disciples was reclining in the bosom of Jesus; he who Jesus ^loved.
  7. Therefore, Simon Peter gestures to him [and tells him] to ask: “Who is it that He speaks about?”
  8. So that man, having leaned on the chest of Jesus, he says to Him: “Lord, who is it?”
  9. So Jesus answers: “That man is he to whom I will dip the morsel and give it to him.”  So having dipped the morsel, He takes it and gives it to Judas, son of Simon Iscariot.
  10. And after taking the morsel, then Satan entered into that man.  So Jesus tells him: “What you do, do faster.”
  11. And none of the men who recline at the table knew why He said this to him.
  12. For since Judas was holding the moneybag, some were supposing that Jesus tells him: “Buy what we have need of for the feast”, or that he should give something to the poor.
  13. So having received the morsel, that man immediately went out.  It was night.
Peter’s denial predicted
  1. So when he went out, Jesus says: “The Son of Man is glorified now, and God is glorified in Him.”
  2. “If God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and will glorify Him immediately.
  3. “Little children, I’m with you for a short time.  You will seek Me, and just as I told the Jews, I also tell you now: ‘Where I go, you aren’t able to come’.
  4. “I give a new commandment to you, that you should ^love one another.  Just as I ^loved you, so also you should ^love one another.
  5. “All will know that you are My disciples by this: if you have ^love among one another.”
  6. Simon Peter says to Him: “Lord, where are you going?”  Jesus answered him: “Where I go, you aren’t able to follow Me now.  But you will follow later.”
  7. Peter says to Him: “Lord, why am I not able to follow you now?  I will lay down my life for your sake.”
  8. Jesus answered: “You will lay down your life for Me?  Amen, amen I tell you that the rooster definitely won’t crow until you will deny Me three times.

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John Chapter 14

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Dwellings
  1. “Don’t let your heart be shaken.  You believe in God; also believe in Me.(428)“You believe in God, also believe in Me” The Greek here is slightly ambiguous, since the verb “believe” here (repeated twice in the this clause) in both cases could either be indicative (statement of fact = “you believe”) or imperative (a command = “believe”).  Additionally though less probably, either instance could be interrogative (question = “do you believe?”).  Thus it could be translated one of 9 ways, and all are equally valid.  Here are the four most likely meanings:  (1) “Believe in God and believe in Me” (both imperative(2) “You believe in God; also believe in Me.” (first indicative, second imperative(3) “Do you believe in God?  Also believe in Me.” (first interrogative, second imperative(4) “You believe in God and you believe in Me.”  (both indicative)
  2. There are many dwellings in My Father’s house, and I would have told you if there weren’t because I’m going to prepare a place for you.
  3. “And if I go and prepare a place for you, I am coming again and will bring you to Myself, so you also might be where I am.
  4. “And you *know the way to the place I go.”
  5. Thomas says to Him: “Lord, we don’t *know where you’re going; how are we able to know the way?”
  6. Jesus tells him: “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.  No one comes to the Father except through Me.”
  7. “If you men had known Me, you would have known My Father also.  And now you know Him and have seen Him.”
  8. Philip says to Him: “Lord, show us the Father and that is satisfying for us.”
  9. Jesus tells him: “I’m with you men for so much time and you haven’t known Me Philip?  The man who has seen Me has seen the Father; how do you say ‘show us the Father’?
  10. “Don’t you believe that I’m in the Father and the Father is in Me?  The words that I speak to you I don’t speak from Myself, but the Father dwelling in Me does His works.
  11. “Believe Me that I’m in the Father and the Father is in Me.  But if not, believe because of the works themselves.
  12. “Amen, amen I tell you: the man who believes in Me, that man will also do the works that I do.  And he will do greater works than these because I’m going to the Father.
  13. “And whatever you ask in My name, I will do it so the Father might be glorified in the Son.
  14. “If you ask Me something in My name, I will do it.
Another Advocate, the Holy Spirit
  1. “If you ^love Me, you will keep my commandments,
  2. “and I will ask the Father and He will give you another advocate,(429)“advocate” this Greek word as a legal term for a lawyer in NT times, and thus also has the idea of an advisor.   In the widest sense, it was also a general term for one who offers aid. so He might be with you into the age.
  3. He is the Spirit of Truth, who the world isn’t able to receive because it doesn’t see Him nor know Him.  You know Him because He dwells with you and will be in you.
  4. “I won’t leave you as orphans; I am coming to you.
  5. There’s still a short time, and then the world no longer sees Me; but you see Me.  Because I live, you also will live.
  6. “In that day you will know that I’m in My Father, and you in Me,  and I in you.
  7. “The man who has My commandments and keeps them, that is the man who ^loves Me.  And the man who ^loves Me will be ^loved by My Father; and I will ^love him and will reveal Myself to him.”
  8. Judas (not Iscariot) says to Him: “Lord, and what has happened that you are about to reveal yourself to us and not to the world?”
  9. Jesus answered and told him: “If anyone ^loves Me, he will keep My word, and My Father will ^love him, and We will go to him and will make Our dwelling with him.
  10. “The man who doesn’t ^love Me doesn’t keep my words.  And the word that you hear isn’t Mine, but it’s from the Father who sent Me.
  11. “I have told you these things while remaining with you.
  12. “But the Advocate – the Holy Spirit who the Father will send in My name – He will teach you all things and will remind you of all things that I told you.
  13. “I leave you peace; I give you My peace, I don’t give to you as the world does.  Don’t be shaken in your heart nor fearfully timid.
  14. “You heard that I told you: ‘I am departing and am coming to you’.  If you were ^loving Me, you would’ve rejoiced that I am going to the Father because the Father is great than I.
  15. “And now I have told you before it happens, so when it happens you might believe.
  16. “I won’t speak with you much longer, for the ruler of the world is coming and he doesn’t have anything in Me.
  17. “But so the world might know that I ^love the Father, and just as the Father commanded me, I do it this way.   Rise, so we might go from here.”

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John Chapter 15

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Vines and branches
  1. “I am the true vine and My Father is the vinegrower.
  2. “Every branch that’s in Me but not bearing fruit, He removes it.  And every branch which bears fruit He cleans it by pruning(430)“cleans… …by pruning” is one word in Greek, which means to clean something by purging it of anything unclean, and was thus applied to pruning. so it might bear more fruit.
  3. “You are already clean because of the word that I have spoken to you.
  4. “Remain in Me, and I in you.  Just as the branch isn’t able to bear fruit from itself if it doesn’t remain in the vine, so neither can you unless you remain in Me.
  5. I am the vine, you are the branches.  The man who remains in Me and I in him; this man bears much fruit because without Me you are able to do nothing.
  6. “If someone doesn’t remain in Me, he’s cast out like a branch and withered.  And they collect them and cast them into the fire and it’s burned.
  7. “If you remain in Me and My words remain in you, ask whatever you desire and it will happen for you.
  8. “My Father is glorified in this, that you might bear much fruit, and you will become My disciples.
Love one another
  1. “Just as the Father ^loved Me, I also ^loved you; remain in My ^love.
  2. “If you keep My commandments you will remain in My ^love, just as I have kept the commandments of My Father and I remain in His ^love.
  3. “I have told you these things so My joy might be in you, and your joy might be full.
  4. “This is My commandment, that you should ^love one another just as I ^loved you.
  5. “No one has greater ^love than this: that someone lays down his life for his friends.
  6. “You are My friends if you do what I command you.
  7. “I call you slaves no longer, because a slave doesn’t *know what his master is doing.  But I *call you friends, because I declared to you all things that I heard from My Father.
  8. “You didn’t choose Me, but I chose you and appointed you, so you might go and bear fruit and your fruit might remain, so that whatever you ask the Father in My name, He might give you.
  9. “These things I command you so you might ^love one another.
The world will hate you
  1. “If the world hates you, you know that it has hated Me before you.
  2. “If you were of the world, the world would be loving its own.  But because you aren’t of the world, but I chose you from the world, the world hates you because of this.
  3. “Remember the word I told you: A slave isn’t greater his master.  If they persecuted Me, they will also persecute you.  If they kept My word, they will also keep yours.
  4. “But they will do all these things to you because of My name, because they haven’t known the One who sent Me.
  5. “If I hadn’t come and spoken to them, they wouldn’t have sin.  But now they don’t have an excuse for their sin.
  6. “The man who hates Me also hates My Father.
  7. “If I hadn’t done works among them that no other did, they wouldn’t have sin.  But now they have both seen and hated both Me and My Father.
  8. “But this happened so the word which is *written in their law might be fulfilled: “They hated me without cause.”(431)quotation/allusion to Psalm 69:4 and/or Psalm 35:19
  9. “When the Advocate whom I will send to you from the Father comes – the Spirit of Truth who proceeds from the Father – He will testify about Me.
  10. “And you also testify, because you are with Me from the beginning.”

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John Chapter 16

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The Spirit will come
  1. “I have said these things to you so you might not stumble.
  2. “They will make you exiles from the synagogue, but an hour is coming that every man who killed you did so because he thought to offer a service to God.
  3. “And they will do these things because they didn’t know the Father nor Me.
  4. “But I have said these things so that when their hour came, you remember that I said them to you.  And I didn’t say these things to you from the beginning because I was with you.
  5. “And now I’m going to the One who sent Me, and none of you asks Me: Where are you going?
  6. “But grief has filled your hearts because of these things I have told you.
  7. “But I tell you the truth: It’s better for you that I go away.  For if I don’t go away, the Helper definitely won’t come to you.  Yet if I go, I will send Him to you.
  8. “And having come, He will convict the world about sin, and about righteousness, and about judgement.
  9. “About sin because they don’t believe in Me.
  10. “And about righteousness because I’m going away to the Father, and you’ll see Me no more.”
  11. “And about judgement because the ruler of this world has been judged.
  12. “Yet I have many things to tell you, but you aren’t able to bear them now.
  13. “But when He – the Spirit of Truth – comes, He will lead you into all truth.  For He won’t speak from Himself, but He will speak whatever He hears; and He will report to you the things which are coming.
  14. “He will glorify Me, because He will take what’s Mine and report it to you.
  15. “All things whatsoever that the Father has are Mine.  Because of this, I said that He will take what’s Mine and report it to you.
Coming and departing
  1. “A little longer and then you see Me no longer.  And a little longer again and then you will see Me [because I’m going away to the Father].”
  2. So some of His disciples said to one another: “What’s this that He’s telling us: ‘a little longer and then you don’t see Me’, and ‘a little longer again and then you will see Me’, and ‘because I’m going away to the Father’?”
  3. So they were saying: “What is this that He’s saying: ‘A little longer’?  We don’t *know what He’s saying.”
  4. Jesus knew that they were wanting to ask Him, and He tells them: “Are you inquiring with one another because I said: ‘A little longer and then you don’t see Me’, and ‘a little longer again and then you will see Me.’?
  5. “Amen, Amen I tell you that you will weep and you will mourn, but the world will rejoice.  You will be grieved, but your grief will become joy.
  6. “The woman has pain when she gives birth because her hour came.  But when she birthed the child, she remembers the tribulation no longer because of her joy that a man was born into the world.
  7. “So you also have grief now; but I will see you again and you will rejoice, and no one will take your joy from you.
  8. “And in that day, you won’t ask Me anything.(432)” you won’t ask Me anything” could also be translated ” you won’t question Me about anything”  the difference is small, but potentially significant.  Amen, amen I tell you: anything you ask the Father, He will give you.
  9. “Until now, you asked for nothing in My name; ask and you will receive so your joy might be full.
  10. “I have spoken these things to you in parables.  An hour is coming when I will speak to you in parables no more, but will report plainly about the Father to you.
  11. “In that day you will ask in My name, and I don’t tell you that I will ask the Father concerning you,
  12. “for the Father Himself loves you because you have loved Me, and have believed that I came out from God.
  13. “I came out from the Father and have come into the world.  I am leaving the world again and departing to the Father.”
  14. His disciples say: “Behold, you speak in plainness now and speak nothing in a parable.
  15. “We *know that you have known all things, and you have no need that you should ask anyone.  We believe in this: that you came out from God.”
  16. Jesus answered them: “Now you believe?
  17. “Behold, and hour is coming and has come that you will be scattered – each to his own – and leave Me alone.  And yet I’m not alone because the Father is with Me.
  18. “I have spoken these things to you so you might have peace in Me.  You will have tribulation in the world, but have courage; I have overcome the world.”

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John Chapter 17

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Glorify the Son
  1. Jesus said these things, and having lifted His eyes to heaven He said: “Father, the hour has come.  Glorify your Son so the Son might glorify you.
  2. “Just as you gave Him authority over all flesh, so He might give the life of ages to all them who you have given to Him.
  3. “And this is the life of ages: that they might know you – the only true God – and He who you sent: Jesus the Anointed.
  4. “I glorified you on the earth, having accomplished the work that you have given Me, so I might do it.
  5. “And now Father; glorify Me with yourself, with the glory that I had with you before the world existed.
  6. “I revealed your name to the men who you gave Me out of the world.  They were yours, and you gave them to Me, and they have kept your word.
  7. “Now they have known that all things – as much as you have given Me – are of you,
  8. “because the words that you gave to Me, I have given to them.  And they received them and truly knew that I came out from you, and they believed that you sent Me.
  9. “I ask concerning them.  I don’t ask concerning the world, but concerning who you have given Me, because they are yours.
  10. “And all My things are yours, and your things Mine; and I have been glorified in them.
Unity
  1. “And I’m in the world no longer, and they are in the world, and I am going to you.  Holy Father, keep them in your name, which you have given to Me, so they might be one just as we are One.
  2. “When I was with them, I was keeping them in your name, which you have given to Me.  And I guarded them, and none of them perished except the son of ruin, so the scriptures might be fulfilled.
  3. “But now I’m going to you, and I say these things in the world so they might have My joy which has been completed in themselves.
  4. “I have given them your word, and the world hated them because they aren’t of the world, just as I’m not of the world.
  5. “I don’t ask that you take them out of the world, but that you keep them from evil.(433)“evil” could also be translated “the evil one“, since the Greek construction is slightly ambiguous.
  6. “They aren’t of the world, just as I’m not of the world.
  7. “Make them holy by the truth; your word is truth.
  8. “Just as you sent Me into the world, I sent them into the world.
  9. “And I make Myself holy for their sake, so they also might be *made holy in truth.
  10. “I ask not only for these men, but also for the men who believe in Me through their word,
  11. “so all might be one; just as you Father are in Me and I in you, so also they might be in Us, so the world might believe that you sent Me.
  12. “And the glory that you have given me, I have given to them so they might be one, just as We are one.”
  13. “I in them and you in Me, so they might have been perfected into one, so the world might know that you sent Me and loved them just as you loved Me.
  14. “Father, I desire that where I am, those who you have given to Me might also be with Me; so they might observe My glory which you have given to Me because you loved Me before the foundation of the world.
  15. “Righteous Father, even though the world didn’t know you, yet I knew you, and these men knew that you sent Me.
  16. “And I made your name known to them, and will make it known, so that the love with which you loved Me might be in them, and I in them.”

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John Chapter 18

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Jesus is arrested
  1. Having said these things, Jesus went out with His disciples across the winter-stream(434)“winter-stream” refers to a river that only flows in the Middle Eastern equivalent of winter, which can also have heavy rain in addition to snow.  Large amounts of water can flow through it during the winter period of heavy rains, but it’s dry most of the rest of the year. of Kidron where a garden was, into which He and His disciples entered.
  2. And, Judas – the man who is betraying Him – had also known the place because Jesus often gathered there with His disciples.
  3. So Judas, having received the cohort and officers from the chief priests and from the Pharisees, goes there with torches, and lanterns, and weapons.
  4. So *knowing everything which is coming upon Him, Jesus also went out and said to them: “Who do you seek?”
  5. They answered Him: “Jesus the Nazarene.”  He tells them: “I Am.”  (And Judas – the man who is betraying Him – had been standing with them.)
  6. So as He told them: “I Am.”, they drew back and fell to the ground.
  7. So He questioned them again: “Who do you seek?”  And they answered Him: “Jesus the Nazarene.”
  8. Jesus answered: “I told you that I Am.  So if you seek Me, allow these men to depart.”
  9. This happened so the word which He spoke might be fulfilled that: “Who you gave Me, I lost not a one of them.”
  10. So having a sword, Simon Peter unsheathed it and struck the slave of the high priest, and cut off his right ear, and his name was Malchus.
  11. So Jesus told Peter: “Put the sword into its scabbard.  The cup that the Father has given me, won’t I certainly drink from it?”
  12. So the cohort, and the officers, and the Jewish commanders seized Jesus and bound Him,
  13. and they led Him to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was the high priest that year.
  14. And, Caiaphas was the man who counseled the Jews that it’s profitable for one man to die for the sake of the people.
Peter’s first denial
  1. Now, Simon Peter and another disciple were following Jesus.  And since that disciple was an acquaintance of the high priest, he also entered with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest,
  2. but Peter had stood outside at the door.  So the other disciple (who was an acquaintance of the high priest) went out and spoke to the doorkeeper and brought Peter in.
  3. So the servant girl who was the doorkeeper says to Peter: “Aren’t you also one of this man’s disciples?”  He says: “I’m not.”
  4. Now, having *made a bed of coals because it was cold, the officers and the slaves had stood near it and they were warming themselves.  And Peter also was *standing with them and warming himself.
Jesus before the high priest
  1. So the high priest questioned Jesus about His disciples and His teaching.
  2. Jesus answered him: “I have spoken with open boldness to the world.  I taught in the synagogues and in the temple where all the Jews assemble, and spoke nothing in secret.
  3. “Why do you question Me?  Question the men who have heard what I spoke to them.  Behold, they *know what I said.”
  4. And having said these things to him, one of the officers *standing there gave Jesus a slap after saying: “Is this the way you answer the high priest?”
  5. Jesus answered him: “If I spoke evil, testify about the evil.  But if I spoke rightly, why do you strike Me?”
  6. So Annas sent Him *bound to Caiaphas the high priest.
Peter’s second and third denials
  1. Now, Simon Peter was *standing and warming himself.  So they said to him: “Aren’t you also one of His disciples?”  He denied it and said: “I’m not.”
  2. One of the high priest’s slaves – being a relative of the man whose ear Peter cut off – says: “Didn’t I see you in the garden with Him?”
  3. So Peter denied it again, and immediately a rooster crowed.
Jesus before Pilate
  1. So they lead Jesus from Caiaphas into the Praetorium.  Now, it was early and they didn’t enter into the Praetorium so they wouldn’t be defiled, but might eat the Passover.
  2. So Pilate went out to them and said: “What accusation do you bring against this man?”
  3. They answered and told him: “If He weren’t doing evil, would we have delivered Him to you?”
  4. So Pilate told them: “You take Him and judge him according to your law.”  The Jews said to him: “It’s not lawful for us to kill anyone.”
  5. (This happened so the word of Jesus which He spoke might be fulfilled, signifying what sort of death He was about to die.)
  6. So Pilate entered into the Praetorium again and called Jesus and said to Him: “Are you king of the Jews?”
  7. Jesus answered: “Do you say this from yourself, or did others tell you this about Me?”
  8. Pilate answered: “I’m not a Jew am I?  Your nation and the chief priests delivered you to me; what did you do?”
  9. Jesus answered: “My kingdom isn’t of this world.  If My kingdom were of this world, My subordinates would have been fighting so I wouldn’t be handed over to the Jews.  But presently, My kingdom isn’t of this place.
  10. So Pilate said to Him: “Then you are a king?”  Jesus answered: “You say that I am a king.  For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world: so I might testify to the truth.  Every man who is of the truth hears My voice.
  11. Pilate says to Him: “What is truth?”  And having said this again, he went out to the Jews and tells them: “I find nothing guilty in Him.
  12. “But it’s a custom with you that I release one prisoner to you at the Passover.  So, do you intended that I release the king of the Jews to you?”
  13. So they cried out again saying: “Not this man, but Barabbas.”  (And Barabbas was violent robber.)

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John Chapter 19

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Jesus is mocked and sentenced
  1. So, then Pilate took Jesus and flogged Him.
  2. And having woven a crown of thorns, the soldiers put it on His head and clothed Him in a purple robe.
  3. And they were going to Him and were saying: “Hail, the king of the Jews!” and were giving Him slaps.
  4. And Pilate went out to the Jews again and tells them: “Behold, I bring Him out to you so you might know that I find nothing guilty in Him.”
  5. So Jesus went out wearing the thorny crown and purple robe, and he tells them: “Behold the man.”
  6. So when they saw Him, the chief priests and the officers cried out saying: “Crucify! Crucify!”  Pilate tells them: “Take Him and crucify Him yourselves, for I find no guilt in Him.”
  7. The Jews answered him: “We have a law, and according to the law He ought to die because He made Himself out to be God’s Son.
  8. So when Pilate heard this statement, he feared even more.
  9. And he went into the Praetorian again and says to Jesus: “Where are you from?”  But Jesus didn’t give him an answer.
  10. So Pilate says to Him: “You don’t speak to me?  Don’t you *know that I have authority to release you, and I have authority to crucify you?”
  11. Jesus answered him: “You wouldn’t have any authority over Me unless it has been given to you from above.  Because of this, the man who delivered Me to you has a greater sin.”
  12. From this, Pilate was seeking to release Him, but the Jews cried out saying: “If you release this man, you aren’t a friend of Caesar.  Every man who makes Himself out to be a king contradicts Caesar.”
  13. So having heard these words, Pilate brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgement seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Hebrew: Gabbatha.
  14. Now, it was the Day of Preparation for the Passover, and it was about the sixth hour.  And he tells the Jews: “Behold your king!”
  15. So they cried out: “Away!  Away with this man!  Crucify Him!”  Pilate says to them: “Should I crucify your king?”  The chief priests answered: “We have no king except Caesar.”
Jesus is crucified
  1. So then he handed Him over to them so He might be crucified.  So they took Jesus,
  2. and carrying His own cross, He went out to the place which is called “place of a skull”, which in Hebrew is called ‘Golgotha’,
  3. where they crucified Him and two others with Him, one on one side and one on the other side, and Jesus in between.
  4. And Pilate also wrote a placard and put it on the cross, and it was *written: “Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews.”
  5. So many of the Jews read this placard because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it was written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek.
  6. So the chief priests of the Jews were saying to Pilate: “Don’t write ‘the king of the Jews’, but: ‘this man said: I’m king of the Jews’.”
  7. Pilate answered: “I have written what I have written.”
  8. So when the soldiers crucified Jesus, they took His garments and made four portions, one portion for each soldier.  But the tunic was seamless from the top down because it was entirely woven.
  9. So they said to one another: “We shouldn’t tear it, but we should cast lots for it to decide whose it will be.”  This happened so the scripture might be fulfilled, the one which says: “They divided My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for my clothing.”(435)quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:18  So the soldiers indeed did these things.
  10. Now, His mother had been standing by Jesus’ cross, and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.
  11. So having seen His mother and the disciple who He ^loved *standing there, Jesus says to His mother: “Woman, behold your son.”
  12. Next He says to the disciple: “Behold your mother.”  And from that hour on, the disciple took her into his own household.
Jesus’ death and burial
  1. After this, *knowing that all things have been accomplished so the scriptures might be fulfilled, Jesus says: “I thirst.”
  2. A vessel full of sour wine was lying nearby, so having put a sponge filled with sour wine on a hyssop stalk, they brought it to His mouth.
  3. So when Jesus took the sour wine, He said: “It has been finished!”  And having bowed His head, He handed over His spirit.
  4. So since it was a Sabbath preparation day, and so that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a great holy day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and they might be taken away.
  5. So the soldiers came and indeed broke the legs of the first man, and the other man who was crucified with Him.
  6. But having come to Jesus, they didn’t break His legs when they saw that He already *died.
  7. But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.
  8. And the man who has seen this has testified, and his testimony is true.  And that man knows that he is speaking the truth, so you also might believe,
  9. for these things took place so the scripture might be fulfilled: “Not a bone of His will be broken.”(436)quotation/allusion to Psalm 34:20, and also tangentially to Exodus 12:46 and Numbers 9:12
  10. And again another scripture says: “They will see He who they pierced.”(437)quotation/allusion to Zechariah 12:10
  11. And after these things, Joseph from Arimathea – being a disciple of Jesus, but concealing this because of the fear of the Jews – asked Pilate so he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate allowed it.  So he came and took away His body.
  12. And Nicodemus – the man who first came to Him at night – also came bearing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about 100 litras.(438)“litras” is the plural of litra, which was a Roman pound.  It’s approximately equivalent to twelve ounces, or 327.5 grams.
  13. So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices, as is the custom for Jews to prepare a body for burial.
  14. Now, at the place where He was crucified was a garden, and in the garden was a new tomb in which no one has ever been laid.
  15. So they laid Jesus there because of the preparation day of the Jews, because it was near the tomb.

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John Chapter 20

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The empty tomb
  1. Now, on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene goes to the tomb early, with it still being dark, and she sees that the stone has been removed from the tomb.
  2. So she runs and comes to Simon Peter and the other disciple who Jesus loved and she tells them: “They took the Lord from the tomb, and we don’t *know where they put Him.”
  3. So Peter and the other disciple went out and were going to the tomb.
  4. And the two were running together, and the other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first.
  5. And having stooped down, he sees the linen wrapping lying there, yet he didn’t enter.
  6. So Simon Peter also comes following him, and he entered the tomb and observes the linen wrappings lying there,
  7. and the head cloth (which was on His head) not lying with the linen wrappings, but *folded separately in another place.
  8. So the other disciple – the one who came to the tomb first – then also entered and saw and believed,
  9. for they hadn’t yet understood the scripture, that it’s necessary for Him to rise from the dead.
  10. So the disciples departed to their own homes.
  11. But Mary had stood at the tomb, weeping outside.  So as she was weeping, she stooped down into the tomb,
  12. and she sees two angels in white sitting – one at the head and one at the feet – where the body of Jesus had been lying.
  13. And those angels say to her: “Woman, why are you weeping?”  She tells them: “Because they took my Lord, and I don’t *know where they put Him.”
  14. Having said these things, she turned around and sees Jesus *standing there, and she hadn’t known that it’s Jesus.
  15. Jesus says to her: “Woman, why are you weeping?  Who are you seeking?”  Thinking that He’s the gardener, she tells Him: “Sir, if you carried Him away, tell me where you put Him and I will take Him away.”
  16. Jesus says to her: “Mary.”  Having turned, that woman says to Him in Hebrew: “Rabboni?” (which means: “teacher”)
  17. Jesus tells her: “Don’t cling to Me, for I haven’t yet ascended to the Father.  But go to My brothers and tell them: ‘I’m ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God’.”
  18. Mary Magdalene goes to the disciples, announcing that “I have seen the Lord!” and those things He told her.
 Jesus appears to the disciples
  1. So it being evening that same day (the first of the week) and the doors having been *shut where the disciples were because of fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst.  And He tells them: “Peace be with you.”
  2. And having said this, He showed both His hands and His side to them.  So having seen the Lord, the disciples rejoiced.
  3. So Jesus told them: “Peace be with you.  Just as the Father has sent Me out, I also send you.”
  4. And having said this, He breathed on them and tells them: “Receive the Holy Spirit.
  5. “If you forgive someone’s sin, they have been forgiven.  If you retain someone’s sins, they have been retained.”
  6. But Thomas (one of the twelve, the man called “Didymus”) wasn’t with them when Jesus came.
  7. So the other disciples were telling him: “We have seen the Lord!”  But he told them: “Unless I see the mark of the nails in His hands, and put my finger into the mark of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I definitely won’t believe.”
  8. And after eight days, His disciples were inside again and Thomas was with them.  Jesus comes despite the *shut doors, and He stood in their midst and said: “Peace be with you.”
  9. Next He tells Thomas: “Bring your finger here and see My hands, and bring your hand and put it into My side; and don’t be unbelieving, but believing.
  10. Thomas answered and said to Him: “My Lord and My God.”
  11. Jesus tells him: “You have believed because you have seen; blessed are the men who didn’t see and yet believed.”
  12. So indeed, Jesus did many other signs in His disciples’ presence which haven’t been written in this book.
  13. But these have been written so you might believe that Jesus is the Anointed, the Son of God, and that by believing you might have life in His name.

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John Chapter 21

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The 3rd appearance of Jesus
  1. After these things, Jesus revealed Himself to the disciples again at the Sea of Tiberias, and He revealed Himself this way:
  2. Simon Peter, and Thomas (the man who is called Didymus), and Nathanael the man from Cana of Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others from His disciples were together.
  3. Simon Peter tells them: “I’m going to fish.”  They say to him: “We’re also coming with you.”  They went out and embarked into the boat, and they caught nothing that night.
  4. And it having become morning already, Jesus stood at the shore, yet the disciples hadn’t known that it’s Jesus.
  5. So Jesus says to them: “Children, don’t you have any fish?”  They answered Him: “No.”
  6. And He tells them: “Throw the net to the right side of the boat, and you will find fish.”  So they threw it, and they were no longer able to drag it in from the plethora of fish.
  7. So the disciple who Jesus ^loved says to Peter: “It’s the Lord!”  So having heard that it’s the Lord, Simon Peter put on his outer tunic (for he was stripped for work) and threw himself into the sea.
  8. And the other disciples in the boat came dragging the net with the fish, for they weren’t far from the land, but about 200 cubits(439)“cubits”, the plural of “cubit”, which is about 18 inches, or about 46 centimeters.  Thus, 200 cubits is about 300 feet. away.
  9. So when they disembarked onto the land, they see a coal-fire lying there, and fish placed on it, and bread.
  10. Jesus tells them: “Bring some of the fish which you caught just now.”
  11. So Simon Peter went up and pulled the net full of large fish to the land; 153 fish, and though there were so many, the net wasn’t torn.
  12. Jesus tells them: “Come, eat breakfast.” But none of the disciples dared to ask Him “Who are you?”, *knowing that it’s the Lord.
  13. Jesus comes and takes the bread and gives it to them, and He did likewise with the fish.
  14. This was already the third time Jesus was revealed to the disciples after having been raised from the dead.
Jesus, Peter, and John
  1. So when they had eaten breakfast, Jesus says to Simon Peter: “Simon son of John, do you ^love Me more than these men?”  He tells Him: “Yes Lord, you *know that I love(440)“love” The Greek word here is “φιλέω” (phileó), and it denotes warm feelings of affection, friendship and kinship, or a great fondness for someone or something.  The contrast with “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó) used earlier in this verse can be adequately understood as a heart/head difference.  Thus, agapaó is the “love” based on the will, choice and the mind; whereas phileó is the “love” based on emotions, feelings, and the heart. you.”  He says: “Feed my lambs.”
  2. He says to him a second time: “Simon son of John, do you ^love Me?”  He tells Him: “Yes Lord, you *know that I love you.”  He says to him: “Shepherd My sheep.”
  3. He says to him the third time: “Simon son of John, do you love Me?”  Peter was grieved because the third time He said to him: “Do you love Me?”  And he said to Him: “Lord, you *know all things. You know that I love you.”  Jesus tells him: “feed My sheep.
  4. “Amen, amen I tell you: when you were younger, you were girding yourself(441)“girding yourself” is a cultural reference, referring to the process of tying a belt or rope around the waist to gather their long robes and prevent them from getting in the way of work.  It can also carry the connotation of clothing yourself.  It figuratively came to mean getting ready for action or work. and were walking where you were wanting.  But when you grow old, you will reach out your hands and another will gird you and will bring you where you don’t desire.
  5. And He said this, signifying by what kind of death he will glorify God.  And having said this, He tells him: “Follow Me.”
  6. Having turned, Peter sees the disciple who Jesus ^loved following (who also reclined at the supper on His chest and said: “Lord, who is the man who betrays you?”)
  7. So having seen that man, Peter says to Jesus: “Lord, and what about this man?”
  8. Jesus tells him: “If I want him to remain until I come, what is that to you?  You follow Me.”
  9. So this saying went out among the brothers, that this disciple doesn’t die.  But Jesus didn’t say that he doesn’t die, but only: “If I want him to remain until I come, what is that to you?”
  10. This is the disciple who testifies about these things, and the man who wrote these things, and we *know his testimony is true.
  11. Now, there are also many other things that Jesus did, which if every one would be written, I think not even the world itself would have space for the books which would be written.

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Acts

 

Paul’s Epistles

Romans

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Romans Chapter 1

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Greeting
  1. Paul, a slave of Jesus the Anointed, called to be an apostle, having been *set apart for God’s gospel
  2. which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy scriptures,
  3. concerning His son; the One who came from the seed of David according to the flesh,
  4. the One who was declared God’s Son in power according to the Spirit of holiness by His resurrection from the dead; Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
  5. through whom we received grace and apostleship for the obedience of faith in all the gentiles for His name’s sake,
  6. including in you, who are also called to be of Jesus the Anointed.
  7. To all the men who are beloved by God and called to be saints in Rome: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
Paul and the Gospel
  1. First, I indeed thank my God through Jesus the Anointed for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed in the whole world.
  2. For God – who I serve in my spirit by the gospel of His Son – is my witness of how unceasingly I make mention of you,
  3. always in my prayers imploring to come to you, if at last I will somehow successfully travel to you by the will of God.
  4. For I long to see you so I might impart some spiritual gift to you, for you to be strengthened.
  5. That is, I wish to be encouraged together among you through each other’s faith, both your faith and mine.
  6. And brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant that I frequently purposed to come to you (and was hindered until now), so I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the rest of the gentiles.
  7. I’m indebted to both Greeks and barbarians; to both wise and foolish.
  8. Thus for me, I’m also ready to preach the gospel to you, the men in Rome.
  9. For I’m not ashamed of the gospel, for it’s the power of God for salvation to all the men who believe, to both the Jew first and also to the Greek.
  10. For God’s righteousness is revealed in it from faith to faith, just as it is *written: “And the righteous shall live by faith.”(442)quotation/allusion to Habakkuk 2:4
God’s wrath upon unrighteousness
  1. For God’s wrath is revealed from heaven upon all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, the men who suppress the truth by unrighteousness.
  2. because what’s known of God is obvious among them, for God revealed it to them.
  3. For since the creation of the world, His invisible attributes – both His eternal power and divine nature – were understood by the created things, for them to be without excuse,
  4. because while having know God, they didn’t glorify Him or be thankful, but they became futile in their reasoning and their foolish heart was darkened.
  5. Though professing to be wise, they became fools.
  6. And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into a likeness of the image of corruptible man, and birds, and four-legged animals, and creeping things.(443)“creeping things” is one word in Greek, which can refer to reptiles, especially snakes.
  7. Therefore, God handed them over to the cravings of their hearts; to impurity, to disgrace their bodies among them,
  8. who changed the truth of God into a lie, and reverently feared and served the creation instead of the One who created it, who is blessed through the ages. Amen.
  9. Because of this, God handed their men(444)“their men” is more literally “them” in the masculine form.  However, since gender matters to this verse, “their men” was chosen to avoid readers misinterpreting “them” as applying to both genders.  It should be noted that the word “their” in the later phrase “their females” is also masculine. over to disgraceful, depraved passions; for both they and(445)“both they and” is a single word in Greek which properly means “both and”.  It’s a less common conjugation, though is used seven times in Romans 1, every time with the meaning of “both and”.  The antecedent for the “both” part is clearly the men in the first clause, thus “they” was added for clarity. their females exchanged the natural use of intercourse(446)“use of intercourse” is one word in Greek.  It should be noted that the Greek word χρῆσις (chrésis) refers specifically to intercourse, which requires penetration by the male.  While this verse is typically translated and interpreted to apply to female homosexuality, that is impossible because χρῆσις requires a male’s involvement.  Without a male, it isn’t χρῆσις.  There is no instance in all of Greek literature where χρῆσις is applied to female homosexuality.  The early church fathers applied this verse not to female homosexuality, but to sodomy, which requires a male penetrating another person (male or female).  Thus the “natural use of intercourse” (vaginal intercourse) is contrasted with sodomy, which is “close beside but contrary to nature”.  The “female homosexuality” interpretation of this verse arose primarily after the church began to use a Latin translation of the Bible instead of the original Greek, and thus the specificity of χρῆσις was lost in translation. for the one that’s close beside but contrary to(447)“close beside but contrary to” is one word in Greek.  It’s the Greek word “παρά” (para) which is the root of our word parallel.  The primary meaning is “close beside”, but when followed by a word in the Greek accusative case – which it is here – it also gains the nuance of being “contrary to”. nature.
  10. And doing the same thing, the males both rejected the natural use of the female and were inflamed in their lust for one another; males in(448)“in” is literal, almost certainly a reference to the sodomy that homosexual males engage in. males, bringing about their shame and receiving in themselves the recompense which is proper for their error.
  11. And as they didn’t see fit to have recognition of God, God handed them over to a perversely unfit mind, to do what isn’t proper;
  12. having been *filled with all unrighteousness, depravity, covetousness, wickedness, full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malevolence, secret slander;
  13. slanderous, haters of God, violent, arrogant, boasters, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,
  14. without understanding, oath-breakers, without familial affection, and without mercy.
  15. Men who, while having known the righteous judgement and ordinance of God – that the men who practice such things are worthy of death – not only do them, but also join in approvingly with the men who practice them.

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Romans Chapter 2

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God’s righteous, impartial judgement
  1. Therefore, you O man are inexcusable; every man who judges.  For by what you judge the other man, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things.
  2. We *know that the judgement of God is based on truth upon the men who practice such things.
  3. Consider this O man; you who judges the men who practice such things (even while doing them yourself) do you think that you will escape the judgement of God?
  4. Or do you scorn the richness of His benevolence, and forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the benevolence of God leads you to repentance.
  5. And according to your hardness and your unrepentant heart, you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and the revelation of the righteous judgement of God,
  6. who will repay each according to his deeds.(449)quotation/allusion to Psalm 62:12
  7. To the men who seek good work with endurance, glory, honor, and incorruptibility: the life of ages. (450)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”
  8. But to the men who disobey the truth from selfish ambition (also being persuaded of unrighteousness): anger and wrath.
  9. Tribulation and anguish will come upon every man’s soul who practices wickedness; both to the Jew first and then to the Greek.
  10. But glory, and honor, and peace to every man who practices good; both to the Jew first and also to the Greek,
  11. for there’s no partiality with God.
Obedience matters, not circumcision
  1. For as many as sinned without the law will also perish without the law.  And as many as sinned with the law will be judged by the law.
  2. For the hearers of the law aren’t righteous with God, but the doers of the law will be proved righteous –
  3. (For when the gentiles who don’t have the law do the things of the law by nature, these men who don’t have the law are a law to themselves,
  4. who clearly demonstrate the work of the law written in their hearts; witnessing together with their conscience, and their thoughts accusing or even defending one another afterwards.
  5. – on that day when God judges the hidden things of men through Jesus the Anointed according to my gospel.
  6. But if you bear the name of ‘Jew’, and rely on the law, and boast in God,
  7. and you know His will, and you examine things to prove what is excellent, being taught from the law,
  8. and you are *confident in yourself to be both a guide to blind men and a light to men in darkness;
  9. a strict schoolmaster of foolish men, a teacher of immature men, having the embodiment of knowledge and the truth in the law;
  10. therefore, you man who teaches another, don’t you teach yourself?  You man who preaches not to steal, do you steal?
  11. You man who says not to have sex with another man’s wife,(451)“have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication. do you have sex with another man’s wife?  You man who detests idols, do you rob temples?
  12. You who boast in the law, do you dishonor God through deliberate violations of the law?
  13. For: “the name of God is blasphemed among the gentiles through you(452)quotation/allusion to Ezekiel 36:20 just as it is *written.
  14. For circumcision indeed benefits you if you practice the law.  But if you are a deliberate violator of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision.
  15. Therefore, if the uncircumcised man keeps the ordinances of the law, won’t his uncircumcision be considered circumcision?
  16. And the uncircumcised by birth (the man who’s fulfilling the law) will judge you (a deliberate violator of the law) though having the letter of the law and circumcision.
  17. For the one with the appearance of a Jew isn’t, nor the one with the appearance of circumcision in the flesh,
  18. but the man who’s a Jew internally is a Jew; who also has circumcision of the heart in spirit, not in the letter, whose approval isn’t from men, but from God.

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Romans Chapter 3

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God is righteous
  1. Then what is the advantage of the Jew?  Or what is the benefit the circumcision?
  2. Much in every way; primarily that they were entrusted with the oracles of God.
  3. Then what if some disbelieved?  Their unbelief doesn’t nullify the faithfulness of God does it?
  4. May it never be!  But let God be true though every man is a liar; just as it is *written: “that you might be made righteous in your words, and will prevail when you’re to be judged.”(453)quotation/allusion to Psalm 51:4
  5. But if our unrighteousness proves God’s righteousness, what will we say: is God – the One who inflicts wrath – unrighteous?  (I speak as a man might.)
  6. May it never be!  Otherwise, how will God judge the world?
  7. But if the truth of God overflowed for His glory by my lie, why am I also still judged a sinner?
  8. And why not say: “let us do evil so good might come”?  Just as we’re blasphemously charged with saying and as some report us to say; their condemnation is just.
No man is righteous
  1. What then, are we better?  Not at all!  For we previously brought an accusation against both Jews and Greeks that all are under sin.
  2. Just as it is *written: “There is none righteous, not even one.
  3. There is no man who understands, there is no man who seeks God.
  4. All have turned away; together they have become like worthless spoiled milk.(454)” they have become like worthless spoiled milk” is one word in Greek, originally referring to milk that had spoiled, and thus was worthless and good for nothing.  Thus, this word also has the connotation of being corrupt/spoiled/ruined.  There is no man who does good; there isn’t even one.”(455)quotation/allusion to Psalm 14:1-3
  5. Their throat is a *open grave, their tongues were continually deceiving.”(456)quotation/allusion to Psalm 5:9  “An asp’s(457)an “asp” is a highly poisonous snake who’s venom is very often fatal when left untreated.  Further, the venom works quickly, making it even more dangerous. venom is under their lips;”(458)quotation/allusion to Psalm 140:3
  6. whose mouth is full of curses and bitterness.”(459)quotation/allusion to Psalm 10:7
  7. Their feet are swift to spill blood,
  8. complete ruin and misery are in their ways,
  9. and they didn’t know the way of peace.”(460)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 59:7-8
  10. There is no fear of God before their eyes.”(461)quotation/allusion to Psalm 36:1
  11. Yet we have known that whatever the law says, it speaks to the men under the law so that every mouth might be stopped, and all the world might be brought to trial, being guilty(462)“might be brought to trial, being guilty” is one word in Greek.  It refers to bringing someone who is guilty to trial to answer for their crimes.   It can also refer to the sentence of the condemned. before God.
  12. Therefore, no flesh will be made righteous in His sight by the works of the law, for through the law comes knowledge of sin.
Righteousness from God through Jesus
  1. But now, the righteousness of God has been made known apart from the law, being testified of by the law and the prophets;
  2. the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus the Anointed for all the men who believe.  For there’s no distinction,
  3. for all sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
  4. being made righteous by His grace through the repurchase payment(463)“repurchase payment” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”.  It properly refers to the price paid to “buy back” something that had been lost. in Jesus the Anointed,
  5. who God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood for a demonstration of His righteousness, by the forbearance of God through the overlooking of sins which have been previously committed,
  6. for the demonstration of His righteousness in the present season, for Him to be righteous and to make righteous the man whose faith is in Jesus.
  7. Where then is the boasting?  It’s excluded.  Because of what Law?  Of works?  By no means, but through the law of faith.
  8. For we consider a man to be made righteous by faith apart from the works of the law.
  9. Or is God only God of the Jews?  Isn’t He also God of the gentiles?  Yes!  Of the gentiles too,
  10. since there’s one God, who will make the circumcision righteous by faith, and the uncircumcision righteous through the same faith.
  11. Then, do we nullify the law through faith?  May it never be!  Instead, we establish the law.

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Romans Chapter 4

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Righteousness from works vs faith
  1. Therefore, what will we say that Abraham has discovered?  (Who is our father according to the flesh.)
  2. For if Abraham was made righteous by works, he has a reason to boast (but not to God).
  3. For what does the scripture say: “And Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness.”(464)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
  4. Now, to the man who works, his wages aren’t credited as grace, but as what’s owed.
  5. But to the man who doesn’t work but believes on the One who makes him righteous, his faith is credited as righteousness,
  6. Just as David also speaks of how blessed is the man for whom God credits righteousness apart from works:
  7. Blessed are the men whose lawlessness was forgiven, and whose sins were covered;
  8. blessed is the man to whom God definitely won’t credit his sin.”(465)quotation/allusion to Psalm 32:1
  9. Then, is this blessing only on the circumcision, or also on the uncircumcision?  (For we say faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.)(466)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
  10. Then how was it credited?  While being in circumcision or in uncircumcision?  Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.
  11. And he received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness of faith while in uncircumcision, for him to be the father of all the men who believe while in uncircumcision, for it to be credited to them as righteousness also.
  12. And the father of circumcision isn’t only father to the men of circumcision, but also to the men who walk in the footsteps of our father Abraham while in uncircumcision.
Through faith, not law
  1. For the promise – for him to be an heir to the world – wasn’t given to Abraham or his descendants through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.
  2. For if the men of the law are heirs, faith has been made void and the promise has been nullified.
  3. For the law brings about wrath; but where there’s no law, there’s no deliberate sin either.
  4. Therefore, it’s from faith so that it’s by grace, for all the seed to be certain of the promise; not only to those of the law, but also to those of Abraham’s faith, who is the father of us all.
  5. Just as it is *written: “I have established you as a father of many nations.”(467)quotation/allusion to Genesis 17:5   He believed before God, the One who gives life to the dead and calls the things which don’t exist into being.
  6. With hope against hope, Abraham believed the promise for him to become a father of many nations, according to what has been spoken: “So will your descendants be.”(468)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:5
  7. And not having been weak in faith, he considered his own body as [already] *dying (being one hundred years old) and the deadness of Sarah’s womb.
  8. But he didn’t doubt the promise of God in unbelief, but was strengthened in faith; having given glory to God
  9. and having been fully convinced that what God has promised, He is also able to do.
  10. And therefore: “It was credited to him as righteousness.”(469)quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
  11. Yet it wasn’t written that “it was credited to him” because of him alone,
  12. but also because of us (to whom it’s about to be credited); to the men who believe on the One who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,
  13. who was handed over because of our missteps(470)“missteps”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional., and was raised for the sake of us being made righteous.

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Romans Chapter 5

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Peace with God
  1. Therefore, having been made righteous by faith, we have peace with God through our Anointed Lord Jesus.
  2. Through whom we also *have access by faith into this grace in which we *stand, and we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.
  3. And not only that, but we also rejoice in tribulations; *knowing that tribulation produces endurance,
  4. and endurance produces proven character, and proven character produces hope.
  5. And hope doesn’t make us ashamed because the ^love of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit; the One who was given to us.
  6. For while we were still weak, the Anointed still died for the sake of the ungodly at the opportune time.
  7. For rarely will someone die for the sake of a righteous man, though for the sake of a good man perhaps someone might even dare to die.
  8. But God proved His own ^love for us, because with us still being sinners, the Anointed died for our sake.
  9. Therefore, having now been made righteous by His blood, how much more will we be saved from wrath through Him!
  10. For if we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son while being enemies, then having been reconciled, how much more will we be saved by His life!
  11. And not only this, but we’re also rejoicing in God through our Anointed Lord Jesus, through whom we received our reconciliation.
Death through Adam’s sin, life through Jesus’ righteousness
  1. Because of this, just as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin, so also death spread to all men, because all have sinned.
  2. For sin was in the world until the law, but sin isn’t charged to an account when there’s no law.
  3. But regardless, death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over the men who didn’t sin in the likeness of the deliberate sin of Adam, who is a type of the One who is about to come.
  4. But the gift isn’t like the misstep.(471)“missteps”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional.  For if the many died by one man’s misstep, the grace of God and the gift by the grace of one man – Jesus the Anointed – overflowed much more to the many.
  5. For also, the gift isn’t like what came through the one who sinned. For indeed, the judgement from one resulted in a sentence of punishment, but the grace from many missteps resulted in our being made righteous.
  6. For if death reigned through the one misstep of the one, how much more will the men who received the abundance of grace and gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus the Anointed!
  7. So therefore, just as a sentence of punishment came to all men through one misstep, so also being made righteous in life came to all men through one righteous deed.
  8. For just as the many were made sinners through the disobedience of one man, so also the many will be made righteous through the obedience of One man.
  9. And the law entered so the missteps might abound.  But where sin abounded, grace super-abounded,
  10. so just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to the life of ages(472)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?” through Jesus the Anointed our Lord.

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Romans Chapter 6

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Dead to sin, Alive to the Anointed
  1. Therefore, what will we say?  Might we continue in sin so grace might abound?
  2. May it never be!  How will we who died to sin still live in it?
  3. Or do you not know that as many as were baptized into the Anointed were baptized into His death?
  4. Therefore, we were buried with Him through baptism into death, so just as the Anointed was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we might also walk in newness of life.
  5. For if we have become united with the likeness of His death, we will also be the same in the resurrection,
  6. knowing this: that our old man was crucified with Him, so the body of sin might be nullified, to enslave us to sin no longer.
  7. For the man who died has been absolved from sin.
  8. And if we died with the Anointed, we believe that we will also live with Him,
  9. *knowing that the Anointed (having been raised from the dead) no longer dies; death no longer has authority over Him.
  10. For the death that He died, He died to sin once for all; but the life that He lives, He lives to God.
  11. Likewise, also consider yourselves to be indeed dead to sin, but alive to God in Jesus the Anointed.
  12. Therefore, don’t let sin reign in your mortal body in order to obey its cravings,
  13. nor present your parts as tools of unrighteousness in sin, but present yourselves to God as alive from the dead, and your parts as tools of righteousness to God.
  14. For sin won’t have authority over you, for you aren’t under the law, but under grace.
Sin into death, obedience into righteousness
  1. What then, might we sin because we aren’t under the law but under grace?   May it never be!
  2. Don’t you *know that whoever you present yourselves to as slaves for obedience, you are slaves to him who you obey?  (Whether of sin into death or obedience into righteousness.)
  3. But grace be to God because while you were being slaves of sin, you are now obedient from the heart to the pattern of teaching which was handed over to you,
  4. and having been freed from sin, you were enslaved to righteousness.
  5. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.  For just as you presented your parts as slaves to impurity and lawlessness resulting in more lawlessness, so now present your parts as slaves to righteousness leading into becoming holy.
  6. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness.
  7. Therefore, what fruit did you have then on account of the things about which you’re now ashamed?  For the end of those things is death.
  8. But presently – having been freed from sin and having been made slaves to God – you have your fruit for becoming holy, and the end is the life of ages.(473)“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”
  9. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of grace in God is the life of ages(474)“life of ages” see previous note. in Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.

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Romans Chapter 7

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The law, sin, and death
  1. Or do you not know brothers – for I speak to men knowing the law – that the law has authority over a man for as long as he lives?
  2. For the married woman *is bound by law to her husband while he’s living.  But if the husband dies, she is *severed from the law concerning the husband.
  3. So then, if she became joined to another man while her husband is living, she will publicly be called an adulteress.  But she is free from the law if the husband dies, so she’s not an adulteress though having become joined to another man.
  4. So then my brothers, you also died to the law through the body of the Anointed, for you to belong to another; the One who was raised from the dead so we might bear fruit to God.
  5. For when we were in the flesh, the passions of sin were working in our limbs through the law to bear the fruit of death.
  6. But now, we have been severed from the law, having died to what we were bound, in order for us to serve in newness of the Spirit and not oldness of the letter.
  7. Then what will we say?  Is the law sin?  May it never be!  But I wouldn’t have recognized sin except through the law.  For I wouldn’t have been aware of covetousness except the law was saying: “You shall not covet.”(475)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21
  8. But having taken an opportunity through the commandment, sin produced all sorts of covetousness in me; for apart from the law, sin is dead.
  9. Yet I once was alive apart from the law; but having come, the commandment revived the sin and I died.
  10. And the commandment that was to result in life, was found to result in death.
  11. For having taken an opportunity through the commandment, sin thoroughly deceived me and through it put me to death.
  12. So then the law is indeed holy; and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good.
Desiring to do good, but not doing it
  1. Therefore, has something good become death to me?  May it never be!  But sin – so it might be revealed as sin – was working out death in me through what’s good, so sin might become sinful beyond excess through the commandment.
  2. For we have known that the law is spiritual, but I’m fleshly; having been *sold under sin’s authority.
  3. For I don’t understand what I do.  For what I desire, this I don’t do.  But what I hate, this I do.
  4. But if what I don’t desire, this I do; I agree with the law that the law good.
  5. And now I no longer do it, but the sin which dwells in me.
  6. For I have known that good doesn’t dwell in me (that is, in my flesh).  For to desire is present in me, but the doing of good isn’t.
  7. For I don’t do the good that I desire, but the evil that I don’t desire, this I practice.
  8. And if what I don’t desire, this I do; it’s no longer I who does it, but the sin which dwells in me.
  9. Therefore, I find the law that evil is present in me, the man who desires to do good,
  10. for I delight in the law of God according to the inward man.
  11. But I see another law in my limbs, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner of the law of sin which is present in my limbs.
  12. What a wretched man I am!  Who will rescue me from this body of death?
  13. But grace be to God through Jesus the Anointed our Lord!  So then, I myself indeed serve God’s law with my mind, but sin’s law with my flesh.

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Romans Chapter 8

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Walking in Flesh vs Spirit
  1. Therefore, there is now no sentence of punishment to the men in Jesus the Anointed [who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.](476)This textual variant is disputed, with the majority of manuscripts supporting its inclusion, but the earliest manuscripts supporting its omission. The exact same words occur in verse 4.  It possible that scribes copied this down from there to “soften” the verse, or that Paul repeated it for emphasis. The debate is ongoing.
  2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Jesus the Anointed set you free from the law of sin and death.
  3. For the law was powerless in that it was weak through the flesh.  But God sent His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh; and concerning sin, He condemned sin in the flesh,
  4. so the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, the men who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.
  5. For the men who are walking according to the flesh mind the things of the flesh, but the men walking according to the Spirit, mind the things of the Spirit.
  6. For the mind of flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace;
  7. because the mind of flesh has hostility for God because it’s not subject to the law of God, nor can it be.
  8. And the men who are in the flesh aren’t able to please God.
  9. But you aren’t in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed God’s Spirit dwells in you.  But if someone doesn’t have the Spirit of the Anointed, this man isn’t of Him.
  10. But if the Anointed is in you, your body is dead because of sin.  But the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
  11. But if the Spirit of the One who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the One who raised Jesus the Anointed [from the dead] will also resurrect your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.
  12. So then brothers, we aren’t debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.
  13. For if you live according to the flesh, you’re about to die.  But if you put the deeds of the body to death by the Spirit, you will live.
Adoption as Sons
  1. For as many as are led by God’s Spirit, these are sons of God.
  2. For you didn’t receive a spirit of slavery to fear again, but you received the Spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry “Abba,(477)“Abba” is a Greek form of the Hebrew word for father.  It is a term of greater closeness and familiarity than “father”, though the degree of closeness is widely debated.  Some think “Papa” or “Daddy” is appropriate, while others say that’s is too familiar and prefer “Dad” or perhaps “Pa”.  Some of the latter group prefer to render as an adjective and would translate it “dear father”. Father.”
  3. The same Spirit testifies together with our spirit that we are children of God.
  4. And if children, also heirs; indeed, we’re heirs of God and co-heirs with the Anointed, if indeed we suffer with Him so we might also be glorified with Him.
  5. For I conclude that the sufferings of the present season aren’t worthy of comparison to the glory which is about to be revealed to us.
  6. For the creation eagerly awaits in earnest expectation for the revelation of the sons of God.
  7. For the creation was subjected to futility; not voluntarily, but because of the One who subjected it in the confidence
  8. that the creation itself will be freed from the slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
  9. For we have known that all creation groans together and suffers birthing pains until now.
  10. And not only that, but even we ourselves – though having the firstfruit of the Spirit – even we ourselves groan in ourselves eagerly awaiting the adoption as sons; the ransoming back(478)“ransoming back” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”.  It properly refers to a released secured by paying a ransom. of our body.
  11. For we were saved in this hope.  But hope that’s seen isn’t hope, for does someone hope for what he sees?
  12. but if we hope for what we don’t see, we eagerly await through patient endurance.
  13. And likewise also, the Spirit helps in our weakness, for we don’t *know which things we should pray for as is proper, but the Spirit Himself intercedes with groanings that can’t be expressed in words.
  14. And the One who searches hearts *knows what’s in the mind of the Spirit, because He intercedes on behalf of the saints before God.
  15. And we have known that all things work together for good to the men who ^love God; to the men who are called according to His purpose,
  16. because who He knew beforehand, He also appointed beforehand to be conformed to the image of His Son, for Him to be the firstborn among many brothers.
  17. And who He appointed beforehand, these He also called.  And who He called, these He also made righteous.  And who He made righteous, these He also glorified.
Nothing can separate us from God
  1. What then will we say to these things?  For if God is for us, who can be against us?
  2. Indeed, He who didn’t spare His own Son but handed Him over for all our sake, how won’t He also freely give all things to us with Him?
  3. Who will bring a charge against God’s elect?  God is the One who makes righteous.
  4. Who is the man who condemns?  For Jesus the Anointed – the One who died and was raised [from the dead] and who is at the right hand of God – also intercedes on our behalf.
  5. Who will separate us from the ^love of the Anointed?  Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword?
  6. Just as it is *written: “We are put to death all day long for your sake; we were considered like sheep to slaughter.”(479)quotation/allusion to Psalm 4:22
  7. But in all these things, we are more than conquerors through the One who ^loved to us.
  8. For I am *convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things which have been present, nor things to come, nor powers,
  9. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing will be able to separate us from the ^love of God in Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.

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Romans Chapter 9

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Concern for Jews
  1. I speak the truth in the Anointed.  I don’t lie; my conscience is testifying with me in the Holy Spirit
  2. that my grief is great, and the deep sorrow in my heart is unceasing.
  3. For I was wishing myself to be anathema(480)“anathema” likely because of the Bible, this Greek word has entered the English vocabulary.  In Greek it literally means to curse someone, or more specifically to offer a curse to them to devote them to God’ destruction.  It can also have the connotation of being abominable and/or detestable.separated from the Anointed – for the sake of my brothers; my kinsmen according to the flesh,
  4. who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory, and the covenants, and the Mosaic legislation, and the sacred service, and the promises;
  5. to whom belongs the forefathers, and from whom came the Anointed according to the flesh; the One who is God over all and blessed through the ages, Amen.
  6. But it’s not that the word of God has failed, for not all the men of Israel are these men of Israel.
  7. Nor are all children because they’re Abraham’s seed, but “In Isaac your seed will be called.”(481)quotation/allusion to Genesis 21:12
  8. That is, these children of the flesh aren’t children of God; but the children of the promise are considered as seed.
  9. For the word of promise was this: “At this time, I will come and there will be a son through Sarah.”(482)quotation/allusion to Genesis 18:10
  10. And not only that, but also Rebecca had her conception by one man; Isaac our father.
  11. For while not yet having been born nor having done anything good or evil – so the purpose of God in regards to His elect might remain not from works, but from the One who calls –
  12. it was said to her: “The older will serve the younger.”(483)quotation/allusion to Genesis 25:23
  13. Just as it is *written: “Jacob I ^loved, but Esau I hated.”(484)quotation/allusion to Malachi 1:2
The Potter and the Clay
  1. Then what will we say?  There isn’t injustice with God is there?  May it never be!
  2. For He says to Moses: “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”(485)quotation/allusion to Exodus 33:15
  3. So then it’s not up to the men who desire, nor the men who run; but to God who has mercy.
  4. For the Scripture says of Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this: so that I might demonstrate My power in you, and so that My name might be proclaimed in all the Earth.”(486)quotation/allusion to Exodus 9:16
  5. So then He has mercy on who He desires, but He also hardens who He desires.
  6. Therefore you say to me: “Then why does He still find fault?  For who has resisted His will?”
  7. On the contrary O man, who are you?  The man who contradicts God?  The thing that’s molded won’t say to the man who molded it: “Why did you make me this way?”, will it?
  8. Or doesn’t the potter have the authority over the clay, to make from the same lump one vessel for honor and another for dishonor?
  9. What if God – desiring to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known – bore in much patience the vessels of wrath *fit for destruction?
  10. And so He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory;
  11. who He also called us; not only from the Jews, but also from the gentiles.
  12. Just as in Hosea, He says: “I will call the men who aren’t my people, my people; and the woman who hasn’t been ^loved, the woman who has been ^loved.”(487)quotation/allusion to Hosea 2:23
  13. And: “it will be in the place where it was said, “you aren’t my people”, there they will be called sons of the living God.” (488)quotation/allusion to Hosea 1:10
  14. Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel might be as the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved.
  15. For the Lord will do His word; fulfilling and swiftly executing it upon the land.”(489)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 10:22
  16. And as it has been foretold to Isaiah: “Unless the Lord of hosts had left us descendants, we would’ve become like Sodom, and we would’ve been made like Gomorrah.” (490)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 1:9
  17. Then what will we say?  That the gentiles which weren’t pursuing righteousness have attained righteousness?  (The righteousness from faith)
  18. But Israel pursuing a law of righteousness didn’t attain that law?
  19. Why?  Because it wasn’t from faith, but as from works, they stumbled at the stone of stumbling,
  20. just as it is *written: “Behold, I placed a stone of stumbling in Zion, and a rock of offense.  The man who believes on Him won’t be made ashamed.” (491)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16

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Romans Chapter 10

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Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved
  1. Brothers, the delight of my heart and earnest prayer to God on their behalf is for their salvation.
  2. For I testify about them (that they have zeal for God) but it’s not according to accurate knowledge.
  3. For not knowing God’s righteousness and seeking to establish their own [righteousness], they weren’t submitted to the righteousness of God.
  4. For the end of the law is the Anointed, for righteousness to every man who believes.
  5. For Moses writes of the righteousness from the law: “The man who does them, he will live by them.”(492)quotation/allusion to Leviticus 18:5
  6. But of the righteousness from faith speaks this way: “You shouldn’t say in your heart “who will ascend into heaven?”(493)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:12 (that is, to bring the Anointed down.)
  7. or “Who will descend into the abyss?”(494)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:13; the Greek word for “abyss” here can refer to anything for which the bottom is not known.  In the Septuagint, it was used for the deep sea in several places. (That is, to bring the Anointed up from the dead)
  8. But what does it say?  “The spoken word is near you; in your mouth and in your heart.”(495)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:14  That’s the spoken word which we proclaim.
  9. That if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.
  10. For you believe with the heart for righteousness, and you confess with the mouth for salvation.
  11. For the Scripture says: “Every man who believes on Him won’t be put to shame.”(496)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16
  12. For there’s no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all the men who call on Him.
  13. For “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”(497)quotation/allusion to Joel 2:32
  14. Therefore, how could they call on Him who they didn’t believe?  And how could they believe in Him who they haven’t heard?  And how could they hear without someone proclaiming?
  15. And how could they proclaim if they weren’t sent?  Just as it is *written: “How beautiful are the feet [of the men who proclaim the good news of peace;] of the men who proclaim the good news of good things.”(498)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:7
Not all Listened
  1. But not all listened to the good news.  For Isaiah says: “Lord, who believed our report?”(499)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 53:1
  2. So faith is from hearing, and hearing through a spoken word about the Anointed.
  3. But I say: “Didn’t they hear?”  Indeed; “Their voice has gone into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.”(500)quotation/allusion to Psalm 19:4
  4. But I say: “Didn’t Israel know?”  First, Moses says: “I will make you jealous by those who aren’t a nation; I will anger you by a nation without understanding.”(501)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:21
  5. Then Isaiah is very bold and says: “I was found by the men who didn’t seek Me; I became manifest to the men who didn’t inquire after Me.”(502)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 65:1
  6. But to Israel he says: “I extended My hand the whole day to a people who disobey and contradict Me.”(503)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 65:2

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Romans Chapter 11

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Israel’s Remnant
  1. Therefore I say: “Didn’t God reject His people?”  May it never be!  For I’m also an Israelite of Abraham’s seed, of Benjamin’s tribe.
  2. God didn’t reject His people who He knew beforehand.  Or haven’t you known what the Scripture says in Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel:
  3. Lord, they’ve killed your prophets, they’ve torn down your altars, and I alone remain, and they are seeking my life.”(504)quotation/allusion to 1 Kings 19:10
  4. But what does the divine response tell him?  “I have reserved seven thousand men for Myself who haven’t bowed the knee to Baal.” (505)quotation/allusion to 1 Kings 19:18
  5. Then in this way also, there *is a remnant in the present season according to the election of grace.
  6. And if its by grace, it’s no longer from works; otherwise grace is no longer grace.  [And if its from works, it’s no longer grace; otherwise, the work is no longer work.]
  7. What then?  What Israel is seeking, they haven’t obtained it; but the elect obtained it and the rest were hardened,
  8. just as it is *written: “God gave them a spirit of stupor; to not see with the eyes, and to not hear with the ears, until the present day.”(506)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 29:4, and Isaiah 29:10
  9. And David says: “Let their table be a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling block, and a recompense for them.
  10. Let their eyes be darkened to not see, and their backs oppressively bent through all time.”(507)quotation/allusion to Psalm 69:22-23
  11. Therefore I say: “Didn’t they stumble so they might fall?”  May it never be!  But by their misstep,(508) “misstep”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. salvation came to the gentiles to make them jealous.
  12. But if their misstep brought riches to the world, and their loss brought riches to the gentiles, how much more will their fullness bring?
  13. But I speak to you, the gentiles.  In as much as I’m indeed an apostle to the gentiles, I magnify my ministry
  14. if somehow it will make my kinsmen of flesh jealous and I will save some of them.
  15. For if their rejection brought the world’s reconciliation, what could their acceptance bring, except life from the dead?
Grafting in
  1. And if the firstfruit is holy, the whole lump is also.  And if the root is holy, the branches are also.
  2. But if some of the branches were broken off and you – though being a wild olive tree – were grafted in among them, and became a fellow partaker of the richness of the olive tree’s root,
  3. don’t boast over the branches. But if you exalt yourself over them, remember that you don’t sustain the root, but the root sustains you.
  4. Then you will say: “Branches were broken off so I might be grafted in.”
  5. Rightly so; they were broken off in unbelief; but you *stand by faith.  Don’t be high-minded, but fear:
  6. for if God didn’t spare the natural branches, neither will He spare you.
  7. Therefore, behold the benevolence and severity of God.  Indeed, severity upon the men who fell; but the benevolence of God to you if you remain in benevolence, otherwise you also will be cut off.
  8. And yet if they don’t continue in unbelief, they will be grafted in.  For God is able to graft them in again.
  9. For if you were from a wild olive tree by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will those who are natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree?
All Israel will be saved
  1. For brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant of this mystery so you won’t be wise in your own estimation; that a partial hardening of Israel has happened until the fullness of the gentiles might come in.
  2. And all Israel will be saved in this way, just as it is *written: “He will come out of Zion; the One who delivers by drawing to Himself.(509)“delivers by drawing to Himself” is one word in Greek.  It properly means to rescue or deliver someone by pulling them out of danger toward yourself.  He will remove ungodliness from Jacob.”(510)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 59:20
  3. And “This is My covenant with them, when I take away their sins.”(511)quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:33-34
  4. As it concerns the gospel, they are indeed enemies because of you.  But as it concerns the election, they are beloved because of the forefathers.
  5. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.
  6. For just as you were once disobedient to God, but now were shown mercy because of the disobedience of these men,
  7. in this way also, these men are now disobedient for your mercy, so now they also might be shown mercy.
  8. For God enclosed all in disobedience so He might show mercy on all.
  9. O, the depths of the riches, and wisdom, and knowledge of God!  How unsearchable are His judgements and unfathomable are His ways!
  10. For who knew the mind of the Lord, or who became His advisor?
  11. Or “Who has given to Him first, and it will be repaid to him?”(512)quotation/allusion to Job 41:11
  12. Because all things are from Him, and through Him, and for Him.  To Him be the glory through the ages!  Amen.

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Romans Chapter 12

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Living Sacrifices
  1. Therefore brothers, because of the compassions of God, I urge you to present your bodies as a living sacrifice; holy and pleasing to God as your reasonable service in response.
  2. And don’t be conformed to this age, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, for you to prove by testing what is the good, and pleasing, and perfect will of God.
  3. For through the grace which was given to me, I tell all the men among you not to be overly proud beyond what’s proper to think, but to think so as to be sober-minded; to each as God distributed a measure of faith.
  4. For just as we have many parts in one body, but all the parts don’t have the same function,
  5. in this way, we the many parts are one body in The Anointed, and individually parts of one another,
  6. but having different gifts of grace according to the grace which was given to us.  If prophecy, in proportion to faith;
  7. if service, in serving; or the man who teaches in teaching;
  8. or the man who exhorts in exhortation; the man who gives in generosity; the man who leads with diligent zeal; the man who shows mercy with cheerfulness.
  9. Let ^love be without hypocrisy; abhorring evil, adhering to good.
  10. Be tenderly devoted to one another in brotherly love, preferring one another in honor,
  11. not slothful in diligent zeal, being fervent in spirit, serving the Lord,
  12. rejoicing in hope, enduring tribulation, constantly persevering in prayer,
  13. contributing to the needs of the saints, and pursuing hospitality.
  14. Bless the men who persecute you; bless and don’t curse.
  15. You are to rejoice with those who are rejoicing, to weep with those who are weeping;
  16. being of the same mind toward one another, not minding haughty things, but associating with humble men; don’t become wise in your own estimation;
  17. repaying evil for evil to no one, but respecting good in the sight of all men;
  18. If possible, from what depends on you, living in peace with all men;
  19. not avenging yourselves beloved, but give a place for God’s wrath.  For it is *written: “Vengeance is Mine; I will repay.”(513)quotation/allusion to Proverbs 24:29 says the Lord.
  20. But “If your enemy hungers, feed him.  If he thirsts, give him a drink.  For in doing this, you will heap fiery coals on his head.”(514)quotation/allusion to Proverbs 25:21-22
  21. Don’t be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good.

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Romans Chapter 13

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Submission to Authorities
  1. Let every soul be submitted to the higher authorities.  For there’s no authority except under God, and those that exist have been appointed by God.
  2. Therefore, the man who sets himself against the authority has resisted the mandate of God; and the men who have resisted shall incur judgement on themselves.
  3. For the rulers aren’t a terror to good works, but to evil.  And do you want to not fear the authority?  Do good and you will have praise from the authority.
  4. For he is a servant to you for good.  But if you do evil, be afraid; for he doesn’t bear the sword in vain.  For he is a servant of God; an avenger for wrath to the man who practices evil.
  5. Therefore, it’s necessary to be submitted; not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience.
  6. For because of this, you also pay taxes; for they are servants of God, continually attending on this same thing.
  7. Repay to all what is owed; tax to whom tax is due; the toll to whom the toll is due, fear to whom fear is due, honor to whom honor is due.
  8. Owe nothing to anyone, except to ^love one another; for the man who ^loves another has fulfilled the law.
  9. For “You shall not have sex with another man’s wife.”(515)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14 and Deuteronomy 5:18.  “have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication.You shall not murder(516)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13 and Deuteronomy 5:17You shall not steal(517)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:15 and Deuteronomy 5:19You shall not covet“,(518)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21 and if there’s any other commandment, it is summarized in this statement: “You shall show preference(519)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s).  Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó does not center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to your neighbor as yourself.”(520)Quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  10. ^Love doesn’t do evil to its neighbor.  Therefore, ^love is the fulfillment of the law.
Clothe yourselves in the Anointed
  1. And do this *knowing the season; that it’s already the hour for you to awaken from sleep.  For now, our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.
  2. The night has advanced and the day has drawn near.  Therefore, we should cast off the works of darkness and clothe ourselves in the war equipment(521)“war equipment” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the various tools, implements, and weapons used to wage war.  The Greek word is “ὅπλον” (hoplon), which was one name for the large wooden shield from which the “Hoplites” in the ancient Grecian military got their name. of light.
  3. We should walk properly as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in immoral sex and wanton debauchery, not in strife and jealousy.
  4. But clothe yourselves in the Anointed Lord Jesus, and don’t make provision for the cravings of the flesh.

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Romans Chapter 14

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The weaker brother
  1. Now, welcome the man who is weak in faith, but not to make a judgement on his reasonings.
  2. Indeed, a man who believes is able to eat all things; but the man who is weak eats only vegetables.
  3. Let the man who eats not disdain the man who doesn’t eat.  And let the man who doesn’t eat not judge the man who does eat, for God welcomed him.
  4. Who are you to judge the household servant of another?  He stands or falls by his own master, but he will stand, for the Lord is able to make him stand.  Let each man be fully convinced in his own mind.
  5. For indeed, one esteems a day above another day, but another esteems every day evenly.
  6. The man who observes the day, observes it to the Lord.  [And the man who doesn’t observe the day, doesn’t observe it to the Lord.]  The man who eats, eats to the Lord for he thanks God.  And the man who doesn’t eat, doesn’t eat to the Lord and he thanks God.
  7. For none of us lives for himself, and none dies for himself.
  8. For if we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we also die for the Lord.  Therefore, both if we live and if we die, we are the Lord’s.
  9. For the Anointed died and lived for this: so He might rule over both the living and the dead.
  10. But you, why do you judge your brother?  Or also, why do you disdain your brother?  For we will all stand before the judgement seat of God.
  11. For it is *written: “As I live says the Lord: every knee will bow, and every tongue will confess to God.”(522)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 45:23
  12. So then, each of us will give an account of himself to God.
  13. Therefore, we should no longer judge one another, but rather resolve this: to not put a stumbling block or bait that ensnares(523)“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim.  It can also refer to offending someone or to someone stumbling. before your brother.
  14. I have known, and have been convinced in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean because of itself, except to the man who considers something to be unclean; to that man, it’s unclean.
  15. For if your brother is grieved because of food, you no longer walk according to ^love.  Don’t utterly ruin with your food that man for whose sake the Anointed died.
  16. Therefore, don’t let your good be slandered as evil.
  17. For the Kingdom of God isn’t eating and drinking, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit.
  18. For the man who serves the Anointed in these things is pleasing to God and approved by men.
  19. So then, we should pursue the things of peace, and the things for building up into one another.
  20. Don’t demolish(524)“demolish” this Greek word is often translated “destroy” here.  It can refer to the tearing down of a buildings, though it has many other nuances of meaning depending on the context. the work of God for the sake of food.  All things are indeed clean, but they are evil for the man who eats because of bait that ensnares.(525)“bait that ensnares” see note on verse 13.
  21. Its good neither to eat meat, nor to drink wine, nor anything by which your brother stumbles, or is ensnared, or is weak.
  22. The faith that you have, have it in yourself in the sight of God.  Blessed is the man who doesn’t condemn himself in what he approves.
  23. But if the man who doubts eats, he has condemned himself because it’s not from faith, and everything that’s not from faith is sin.

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Romans Chapter 15

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The weaker brother (continued)
  1. Now, we (the strong) ought to bear with the weaknesses of the weak and not to please ourselves.
  2. Let each of us please his neighbor for his good for building him up.
  3. For even the Anointed didn’t please Himself, but just as it is *written: “The slander of the men who slandered you fell on Me.”(526)quotation/allusion Psalm 69:9
  4. For whatever was previously written, it was [all] written for our instruction, so through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures, we might have hope.
  5. And may the God of endurance and encouragement grant you to be of the same mind in one another according to Jesus the Anointed,
  6. so that single-mindedly and with one mouth, you might glorify the God and Father of our Anointed Lord Jesus.
  7. Therefore, accept one another just as the Anointed also accepted you, to the glory of God.
The work of the Anointed
  1. For I say that the Anointed has become a servant to the circumcision for the truth in God, in order to confirm the promise to the fathers.
  2. and to the gentiles for the sake of mercy, to glorify God.  Just as it is *written: “Because of this, I will confess praise to you among the gentiles, and I will sing of your name.”(527)quotation/allusion to 2 Samuel 22:50 and Psalm 18:49
  3. And again it says: “Gentiles, be merry with His people.”(528)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:43
  4. And again: “Praise the Lord All you gentiles; and exalt Him all peoples.”(529)quotation/allusion to Psalm 117:1
  5. And again, Isaiah says: “There will be the root of Jesse; and the One who arises to rule over the gentiles, and in Him gentiles will hope.”(530)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 11:10
  6. And may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace among you to believe, for you to overflow in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.
  7. And my brothers, I myself have been convinced concerning you, that you yourselves are full of goodness; having been *filled with all knowledge and being able to admonish one another.
  8. And I wrote to you more boldly, in part reminding you because of the grace which was given to me by God,
  9. for me to be a minister of Jesus the Anointed to the gentiles, ministering as a priest of the gospel of God, so the offering of the gentiles might become acceptable; having been *made holy by the Holy Spirit.
  10. Therefore in Jesus the Anointed, I have a reason for boasting of things pertaining to God.
  11. For I won’t dare to speak of anything that the Anointed didn’t accomplished through me for the obedience of the gentiles in word and deed,
  12. by the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the Spirit [of God], in order to have fulfilled the proclamation of the gospel of the Anointed from Jerusalem and around as far as Illyricum.
  13. And so I’m earnestly desiring to proclaim the gospel where the Anointed hasn’t been named, so I won’t build on another man’s foundation.
  14. But just as it is *written: “They will see Him about whom it wasn’t reported, and men who haven’t heard will understand.”(531)quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:15
  15. And because of that, I’m often being hindered from coming to you.
Paul’s travel plans
  1. But now – no longer having a place in these regions and having a yearning to come to you for many years –
  2. I hope to see you while passing through when I travel into Spain; and to be equipped by you there, so I might be satisfied by your company first.
  3. But now I travel to Jerusalem, ministering to the saints.
  4. For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a contribution to the poor saints in Jerusalem.
  5. For, they were pleased and they are debtors of them.  For if they shared their spiritual things with the gentiles, they ought to minister to them in earthly things also.
  6. Therefore, having accomplished this and having sealed this fruit to them, I will depart through you into Spain.
  7. And I have known that in coming to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the Anointed.
  8. And brothers, I urge you now because of our Anointed Lord Jesus and because of the ^love of the Spirit, to strive together with me in prayers to God for me,
  9. so I might be delivered from the men in Judea who refuse to believe, and so my service in Jerusalem might be acceptable to the saints,
  10. so that having come to you with joy through the will of God, I might be refreshed in spirit with you.
  11. And the God of peace be with you all.  Amen.

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Romans Chapter 16

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Personal Greetings
  1. Now, I commend our sister Phoebe to you, (who’s also being a servant of the church in Cenchrea)
  2. so you might receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and you might stand by her in what she might need of you in the matter;(532)“matter” the Greek word here is singular, apparently indicating that Phoebe was dealing with some matter affecting her personally.  Given her status as a patroness, it’s possible she had some business which required attention, and the church of Rome was to “stand by” her in this matter. for she also has become a patroness of many, even of me myself.
  3. Greet Prisca(533)“Prisca” is the proper form of “Priscilla”, the latter being more informal and familiar. and Aquila, my fellow workers in Jesus the Anointed –
  4. who risked their neck for my life; whom not only I thank, but also all the churches of the gentiles –
  5. and also greet the church at their house.  Greet Epenetus, my beloved who is the firsttfruit of Asia for the Anointed.
  6. Greet Mary, who often laboriously toiled for you.
  7. Greet Andronicus and Junia,(534)“Junia” there is some debate whether this name is feminine or masculine.  The only way to tell is with the accents on the Greek letters, but manuscripts lacked accents until the late first millennium.   Most of the early church fathers seemed to think she was female, while most of the (later) manuscripts with accents support the masculine reading.  Both the feminine and masculine forms are rare in Greek, but the masculine form is almost unheard of.  The evidence certainly tilts toward feminine, but masculine cannot be wholly ruled out. my kinsmen and fellow prisoners with me, who are well-known by(535)“who are well-known by”.  There is a great debate as to how this phrase should be translated because one of the people being discussed is likely a woman (see note on “Junia”).  Egalitarian Christians argue it should be translated: “who are notable among the apostles”, making Junia/Junias an apostle and – they argue – a woman in authority in the early church.  Complementarian and Patriarchal Christians prefer “who are well-known by the apostles”, which excludes Junia/Junias from being an apostle.  Dan Wallace, who literally wrote the book on advanced Greek grammar, argues that “well-known by” has the better syntactic evidence.  Further, even if “among” is the proper understanding, it doesn’t necessarily make Junia/Junias and apostle, since the wording is still unclear.  For example: Shakespeare is “notable among modern literary scholars”, but that doesn’t make him a modern literary scholar.  Additionally, in 2 Cor 1:24, Paul – who always identifies as an apostle – makes it clear that he has no authority, even over churches that he planted.  Thus, whether Junia/Junias was an apostle or not, he or she didn’t possess any authority. the apostles, and who *were in the Anointed earlier than me.
  8. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord.
  9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in the Anointed, and my beloved Stachys.
  10. Greet Apelles, who’s proved as genuine in the Anointed.  Greet the men of Aristobulus’ household.
  11. Greet Herodion my kinsman.  Greet the men of Narcissus’ household who are in the Lord.
  12. Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa; women who laboriously toil in the Lord. Greet the beloved Persis, who has often laboriously toiled in the Lord.
  13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, also his mother and mine.
  14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers with them.
  15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the saints with them.
  16. Greet one another with a holy kiss.  All the churches of the Anointed greet you.
Beware divisive men
  1. Now brothers, I urge you to watch out for men causing divisions and snares contrary to the teaching that you learned and turn away from them.
  2. For such men don’t serve our Lord the Anointed, but their own appetite; and they thoroughly deceive the hearts of the naïve through smooth speech, flattery and blessings.(536)“flattery and blessings” is one word in Greek.  It can mean either depending on the context, but since both seem applicable here, both were included.
  3. For word of your obedience has gone forth to all.  Therefore, I rejoice over you.  But I desire you to be wise in good, but innocent in evil.
  4. And the God of peace will soon crush the Adversary under your feet.  The grace of our Anointed Lord Jesus be with you.  Amen.
Final greetings and closing
  1. My fellow worker Timothy greets you, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater my kinsmen.
  2. I, Tertius – the man who wrote down this letter – greet you in the Lord.
  3. Gaius my host greets you, and all the church.  The steward of the city Erastus greets you, and the brother Quartus.
  4. The grace of our Anointed Lord Jesus be with you all.  Amen.
  5. Now, to the One who is able to strengthen you according my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus the Anointed, according to the revelation of the mystery *kept secret during the time of ages,
  6. but now having been revealed through prophetic Scriptures; according to the command of the God of ages, having been made known to all the gentiles for the obedience of faith
  7. to the only wise God through Jesus the Anointed, to whom be the glory through the ages.  Amen.

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1 Corinthians

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1 Corinthians Chapter 1

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Greeting From Paul and Sosthenes
  1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus the Anointed through God’s will, and Sosthenes our brother,
  2. to the church of God living in Corinth, (who have been made holy in Jesus the Anointed) called to be holy with all the men who call on the name of the Anointed Lord Jesus in every place, both theirs and ours;
  3. grace(537)“grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”.  It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place.  The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis) for someone.  A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron.  The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”.  Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation.  A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons.  The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met.  Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system.  The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. and peace to you from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
  4. I thank My God always concerning you, for God’s grace which was given to you in Jesus the Anointed,
  5. because in everything you’ve been made rich in Him; in every word and all knowledge,
  6. even as the testimony of the Anointed was secured in you,
  7. so you won’t lack – not even in one gift(539)or “grace”, see note on verse 3.as you’re eagerly awaiting the unveiling of our Anointed Lord Jesus,
  8. who will also secure you until the end; blameless in the day of our Anointed Lord Jesus.
  9. God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
Call for Unity
  1. But brothers, I urge you because of the name of our Anointed Lord Jesus that you all speak the same things, and that there wouldn’t be divisions among you, and that you might be joining together(538)“joining together” is a single difficult-to-translate word in Greek. It properly means to “fully adjust” so the object is prepared and in a proper working order.  Thus, it can also have the sense of repairing/mending something which was already prepared so it’s prepared again, or joining two things together a first time so they function properly.  Further, the passive and middle voice of this verb share the same ending.  Therefore, Paul could be saying they should “join themselves together” (middle voice) or “be joined together” (passive voice).  Either or both could’ve been intended. in the same mind and in the same judgement.
  2. For about you my brothers, it was revealed to me by Chloe’s men that there are quarrels among you.
  3. Now, I mean this: each of you says: “I’m following Paul.” or “I’m following Apollos.” or “I’m following Cephas.”(540)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. or “I’m following the Anointed.”
  4. Has the Anointed been divided?  Paul wasn’t crucified for you, was he?”  Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?
  5. I thank God that I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius,
  6. so someone can’t say that you were baptized in my name.
  7. Now, I also baptized the household of Stephanas.  But about the rest, I don’t *remember if I baptized any other.
  8. For the Anointed didn’t send me to baptize, but to proclaim the Gospel.  And not in wise speech, so the cross of the Anointed won’t be emptied of its power and value.(541)“emptied of its power and value” is one word in Greek.  It’s in the passive form here, which means to be emptied out, which can carry the connotation of losing power, losing value, or both.  I.e. it becomes powerless and/or valueless.
Wisdom of God and Foolishness of Man
  1. For the preaching of the cross is indeed foolishness to the men who perish; but it’s the power of God to us, the men who are saved.
  2. For it is *written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will nullify the intelligence of the intelligent.”(542)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 29:14
  3. Where is the wise man?  Where is the Scribe?  Where is the debater of this age?  Didn’t God surely prove the wisdom of the world foolish?(543)“prove… …foolish” is one word in Greek.  It can also mean to make something foolish; either or both senses might’ve been intended.
  4. For since in God’s wisdom, the world didn’t know God through wisdom, God was pleased to save the men who believe through the foolishness of the gospel’s proclamation.
  5. And since Jews ask for miraculous signs and the Greeks seek wisdom,
  6. we preach the Anointed who has been crucified, (which indeed is a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles)
  7. but to the called – both Jews and Greeks – God’s Anointed is the power and wisdom of God.
  8. For the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
  9. For look at your calling brothers; that not many are wise according to the flesh, not many are powerful, and not many are of noble birth.
  10. But God chose the world’s foolish so He might shame the wise.  And God chose the world’s weak so He might shame the strong.
  11. And God chose the world’s low-born; and the things which are *despised; and the things which are not, so He might abolish the things which are,
  12. so that no flesh might boast before God.
  13. But because of Him, you are in Jesus the Anointed, who became wisdom to us from God, and also righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption,
  14. so that just as it is *written; “The man who boasts, let him boast in the Lord.(544)Quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 9:23-24

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1 Corinthians Chapter 2

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God’s Wisdom (Continued)
  1. And when I came to you brothers, I didn’t come with excellent speech or wisdom; I was proclaiming the testimony of God to you.
  2. For I had decided not to know anything among you except Jesus the Anointed, and that He has been crucified.
  3. And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling.
  4. And my words and my preaching weren’t in persuasive words of wisdom; but in a demonstration(545)“demonstration” the Greek word here means to demonstrate something as proof of something else. of the Spirit and power,
  5. so your faith wouldn’t be in man’s wisdom, but in God’s power.
  6. Now, we do speak wisdom among the mature; but not the wisdom of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, the men who come to nothing.(546)“come to nothing” The Greek word here refers to rendering something completely inactive or inert, so it’s without force, ability or power; to do away with something completely.
  7. But we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery which has been hidden; which God predestined before the ages for our glory,
  8. which none of the rulers of this age has understand.  For if they understood it, they wouldn’t have crucified the Lord of glory.
  9. But just as it is *written; “which the eye hasn’t seen, and ear hasn’t heard, and it hasn’t entered(547)literally “sprung up” or “arisen” into the heart of man how much God prepared for the men who ^love Him.”
  10. For God revealed it to us through the Spirit, for the Spirit searches everything; even the depths of God.
  11. For who among men *knows the depths of the man, except the man’s spirit within him?   And likewise, no man *knows the depths of God, except the Spirit of God.
  12. But we haven’t received the spirit of the world, but the Spirit from God, so we might have known the things which were graced to us by God.
  13. Things of which we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but taught by the Spirit interpreting(548)“interpreting” This Greek word has the root meaning of “judging together”, with the idea of putting two things together and comparing them, which leads to a proper understanding of what’s being compared.  Thus it can be translated as combine, compare, or interpret depending on the context. spiritual things with spiritual wisdom.
  14. But the natural man doesn’t welcome the things of God’s Spirit, for they are foolishness to him and he isn’t able to understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.
  15. But the spiritual man, he discerns everything but is discerned by no one.
  16. For who understands the Lord’s mind?  Who will instruct Him?(549)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:13 But we have the mind of the Anointed.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 3

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Spirit and Flesh
  1. And brothers, I couldn’t talk to you as spiritual men, but as men of flesh; like infants in the Anointed.
  2. I gave you milk to drink not solid food, for you couldn’t receive it yet.  But you still can’t even now,
  3. for you’re still of the flesh.   For where jealousy and quarrels are among you, aren’t you of the flesh?  And don’t you walk according to man?
  4. For when someone says, “I’m of Paul.” but another says, “I’m of Apollos.” aren’t you in the flesh?
  5. Therefore, who is Apollos?  And who is Paul?  Servants through whom you believed, and each one just as the Lord gave.
  6. I planted, Apollos watered, but God was causing the growth.
  7. So neither the man who plants nor the man who waters is anyone, but only the One who causes the growth: God.
  8. Now, the man who plants and the man who waters are one, and each will receive his own reward according to his own labor.
  9. For we are fellow workers of God – of God’s field – and you are God’s building.
Christ is the Foundation, and Testing by Fire
  1. According to the grace of God which was given to me, I laid the foundation like a wise master craftsman, but another builds on it.  And each man must carefully examine how he builds on it.
  2. For no one can lay another foundation besides the one already laid, which is Jesus the Anointed.
  3. Now if anyone builds gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw on the foundation, then
  4. the work of each will become obvious.  For the day will make it clear because it’s revealed in fire, and the fire itself will test what sort of work each is.
  5. If anyone’s work which he built remains, he will receive his wages.(550)wages is literal.  It’s traditionally translated “reward” here (which isn’t wrong) but is less literal.
  6. If anyone’s work burns up, he will suffer loss.  However he will be saved, but like as through a fire.
  7. Don’t you *know that you are God’s temple, and the Spirit of God dwells in you?
  8. If someone ruinously corrupts(551)“ruinously corrupts” is one word in Greek, typically translated “destroy” here.  It literally means to corrupt, rot, or spoil something so that it wastes away to ruin.  It’s typically associated with moral corruption/decay leading to ruin. the temple of God, God will ruinously corrupt him; for God’s temple is holy, whoever you are.
  9. Let no one utterly deceive himself: if someone among you thinks he is wise in this age, let him become foolish so he might become wise.
  10. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God, for it is *written; “He’s the One who traps the wise in their craftiness.”(552)quotation/allusion to Job 5:13
  11. And again, “the Lord knows the reasonings of the wise, that they are futile.(553)quotation/allusion to Psalm 94:11
  12. So then, let no one boast in men, for all things are yours.
  13. Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas,(554)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. or the world, or life, or death, or what’s *present, or what will be; all are yours.
  14. But you belong to the Anointed, and the Anointed belongs to God.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 4

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Judging and being judged
  1. Let any man consider us like this: as servants of the Anointed and stewards of God’s mysteries.
  2. Furthermore, in this case it’s required that someone among the stewards be found faithful.
  3. But to me, it’s a most trivial thing that I’m examined by you, or by a human court.  But I don’t examine myself either,
  4. for I have been aware of nothing against myself, but I haven’t been made righteous by this, yet the One who examines me is the Lord.
  5. So then, don’t judge anything before the proper time – until the Lord has come – who will also reveal the hidden things of darkness and will expose the plans(555)“plans”, The Greek word here could also be translated “motives”, “counsel”, “purposes”, etc. of their hearts.  And then appropriate praise will come to each from God.
Don’t go beyond what’s written
  1. And brothers, I’ve applied these things to myself and Apollos because of you, so that in us you might learn not to go beyond what is *written; so not even one of you will be puffed up, favoring one over another.
  2. For why are you distinguished?  And what do you have that you didn’t receive?  But if you received it, why do you boast like you didn’t receive it?
  3. You already have been satisfied.  You were already rich.  You reigned without us, and I wish you really did reign so we might reign with you.
  4. For I think that God displayed us (the apostles) last as proof,(556)“displayed… …as proof” is one word in Greek.  It means to prove that something is what it appears to be, like men about to die,(557)“about to die” is one word in Greek, which could also be translated “condemned to death”. because we became a spectacle(558)“spectacle” The Greek word here is “θέατρον” (theatron), which both means “theater” and is the root of our English word “theater”.  It can also mean a “spectacle”, like one would see in a theater. to the world, to both angels and men.
  5. We’re foolish for the Anointed, but you’re prudent in the Anointed.  We’re weak, you’re strong.  You’re greatly honored, but we’re without honor.
  6. Up to this present hour, we both hunger and thirst, and are poorly clothed, and are beaten(559)“beaten” This Greek word specifically refers to being struck with a closed fist; i.e. “punched”, and wander without a home,
  7. and we exhaust ourselves working with our own hands. Being insulted, we bless; being persecuted, we endure;
  8. being slandered, we encourage.  Like the scum of the earth, we all became like dregs until now.
  9. I’m not shaming you by writing these things, but admonishing you as my beloved children.
  10. For since you have ten thousand(560)“ten thousand” this Greek word was also to indicate “countless” so that would also be an accurate translation here. tutors(561)“tutors” is one word in Greek.  It refers to a legally appointed instructor who had charge over a boy, and especially his moral development.  It was usually a slave, and typically the boy couldn’t even leave the house without this tutor’s permission. in the Anointed but not many fathers, I indeed fathered you in Jesus the Anointed through the Gospel.
  11. Therefore I urge you: become imitators of me.
  12. Because of this, I sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways in Jesus the Anointed, just like I teach everywhere, in every church.
  13. But some of you are puffed up like I’m not coming to you.
  14. But I will come to you very soon, if the Lord wills.  And I will know; not the words of the men who have been puffed up, but the power.
  15. For the kingdom of God isn’t in word, but in power.
  16. What do you wish?  That I come to you with a rod?  Or in ^love and a spirit of gentle strength?(562)“gentle strength” is one word in Greek.  It comes from the root “pra-” which is typically translated “meek”.  It more accurately refers to power that’s exercised gently, without harshness.  Our English word “meek” lacks the Greeks word’s blend of gentleness, reserve, and strength.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 5

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Rebuking Fornication
  1. Fornication is actually reported among you.  And fornication of such a kind, it’s not even done among the pagans, as someone has the wife of his father.
  2. And you are *puffed up.  And more, you weren’t grieved at all, so that the man who did this deed might be removed from your midst.
  3. For indeed I’m absent in body, but present in spirit. And like I’m present, I have already judged the man who committed this deed.
  4. When you (and I in spirit) are assembled with the power of our Lord Jesus, then in the name of our Lord Jesus(563)There are four ways to assemble the three significant parts of this verse with the infinitive verb “to deliver” in the beginning of the next verse. The principle parts are: the phrase “in the name” (of our Lord Jesus), the participle “being assembled”, the phrase “with the power” (of our Lord Jesus).   In a shortened form, here are the ways to look at it: (1) “Assembled in the name… with the power of Jesus deliver…”  (2) “Assembled in the name and with the power…  deliver…”  (3) “Assembled… in the name and with the power deliver…”  (4) “Assembled with the power… in the name of Jesus deliver…”  Versions #2 and #3 seem out of place because they repeat the authority/power twice in the same clause.  While #1 has no obvious issues, the phrase “in the name” is more commonly used of pronouncements in the New Testament, (as in 2 Thessalonians 3:6; Acts 3:6; Acts 16:18).  Therefore (#4) was chosen.
  5. you are to deliver such a man to Satan for the ruin of the flesh, so that his spirit might be saved in the day of the Lord.
  6. Your boast isn’t good.  Don’t you *know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump of dough?
  7. Purge the old leaven so you might be a new lump of dough, just as you are unleavened.  For also our Passover Lamb was sacrificed – the Anointed –
  8. so we might observe the feast;(564)During the Feast of Unleavened Bread (The Passover), the Jews were required by the Mosaic Law to remove all the leaven/yeast from their houses, and to abstain from eating leaven. (Exodus 12:15-20)  Those who ate leaven during this period were “cut off” from the people.   In the law, there was a symbolic connection between leaven and sin, which Jesus also alluded to. (Matthew 16:6-12).  Thus, being “unleavened” can symbolize righteousness or being without the stain of sin. not in old leaven, nor in leaven of malice and wickedness, but in unleavened purity and truth.
Don’t socialize with “Christian” fornicators
  1. I wrote in my letter that you aren’t to socialize with fornicators,
  2. not at all meaning the fornicators of this world – or the covetous, and robbers, or idolaters – since then you’d need to leave the world.
  3. But now, I wrote telling you not to socialize with anyone calling himself a brother if he’s a fornicator, or a coveter, or idolater, or slanderer, or drunkard, or robber.  Don’t even eat with such a man.
  4. For why is it my place to judge the men outside the church?  Don’t you judge the men inside the church?
  5. However, God judges the men outside.  Remove the wicked man from among you.(565)quotation/allusion to several verses in Deuteronomy, namely: 13:5, 17:7, 21:21, 22:21

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1 Corinthians Chapter 6

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Lawsuits Among Believers
  1. Does any of you – when he has a case against another brother – dare to bring it to court before the unjust and not before the saints?
  2. Or don’t you *know that the saints will judge the world?  And if the world is judged by you, are you unworthy of the smallest court cases?
  3. Don’t you *know that we will judge angels?  How much more the ordinary things of life?
  4. So if you indeed have judgement in the ordinary things of life, why appoint the men who aren’t *esteemed in the church to judge?
  5. I say this to your shame.  So isn’t there a wise man among you who’s able to judge between his brothers?
  6. But instead, brother goes to court against brother, and this before unbelievers!
  7. Therefore, it’s actually already a loss for you that you have lawsuits among one another.  Why not suffer wrong instead?  Why not be defrauded instead?
  8. But you do wrong and defraud… and do these things to brothers!
Fornication And The Body
  1. Or don’t you *know that the unrighteous won’t inherit the kingdom of God?  Don’t be misled; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor men who have sex with other men’s wives,(566)“men who have sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, usually translated “adulterers” in this verse. However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife. Whereas the English word “adultery” means either spouse engaging in sex with someone else. The Hebrews divided sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman. A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery. A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication. Both are serious sins, but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words. nor effeminate men,(567)“effeminate men” This Greek word usually has the meaning of “soft”, but when used in a negative sense it can refer to “perversely effeminate” men.  This has three possible connotations, all of which Paul likely intended.  (1) Men who intentionally behaved like women, i.e. dressing in female clothing and behaving in an effeminate manner.  (2) This could be an allusion to early transgenderism.  We have Sumerian and Akkadian texts from ~2500 BC which document transgender or transvestite priests.  There are other accounts of transgenderism scattered throughout ancient history as well.  (3) It could refer to a (typically pubescent) boy who was the sexual companion – voluntary or not – of an adult man (pederasty).  In this sense, the boy is “perversely effeminate” because he is serving the function of a woman during sex (being penetrated; see Romans 1:26-27 and footnotes.).  This last meaning is unlikely though, especially given the next item on this list. nor men who sleep with other men,(568)“men who sleep with other men” is one word in Greek.  It literally means “a man in bed with another man“, but is more properly “a man engaging in sexual activity with another man“.  Male homosexuality is also mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:10 (using the same word in a similar list), in Romans 1:27 by description, and in Leviticus 18:22, and Leviticus 20:13.
  2. nor thieves, nor coveters, nor drunkards, nor slanderers, nor robbers, will inherit the kingdom of God.
  3. And some of you were these things; but you washed yourselves;(569)“you washed yourselves” is one word in the Greek middle voice, however virtually all modern translations change it to the passive voice (you were washed) with no justification.  English doesn’t have the middle voice, but it’s similar to our active voice except the agent is more involved with the result.  For example: “I sacrificed a cow” is in the active voice. “I sacrificed a cow for my benefit” or “…for myself” is the middle voice.  Given that the verb here for “wash” includes the connotation of water, it could refer to baptism.  Or it could refer to being washed in the “water of life” at the point of salvation.  Or, more likely that the believers in question have “washed themselves” of the sins mentioned in the previous two verses. but you were made holy; but you were declared righteous in the name of our Lord Jesus the Anointed, and by the Spirit of our God.
  4. All things are lawful for me, but all things aren’t profitable.  All things are lawful for me, but I won’t be mastered by anything.
  5. The stomach is for foods, and foods for the stomach; but God will nullify(570)“nullify” the Greek word here means to make something completely idle and/or to no effect, which can have a peripheral meaning of abolishing something (by making it of no effect). both of them.(571)literally “both this and these”, referring to the stomach and foods respectively.  And the body isn’t for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord is for the body.
  6. And God both raised the Lord and will fully raise us through His power.
  7. Don’t you *know that your bodies are parts of the Anointed?  Having taken the parts of the Anointed, should I make them parts of a prostitute?  May it never happen!
  8. Or don’t you *know that the man who joins to a prostitute is one body with her?  For it says: the two will be in one flesh.(572)Quotation allusion to Genesis 2:24.
  9. But the man who joins to the Lord is one spirit with Him.
  10. Flee fornication.  Every sin that a man commits is outside the body.  But the man who fornicates sins against his own body.
  11. Or don’t you *know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit in you, who you have from God?  And you aren’t your own,
  12. for you were bought with a price.  So then, glorify God in your body [and in your spirit, which are both God’s]

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1 Corinthians Chapter 7

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Marriage and Sex
  1. Now, about what you wrote.  It’s good for a man not to touch(573)“touch” this Greek word has the basic meaning of “touch” It’s most often used to indicate a simple touch, like Jesus “touching” various sick people to heal them.  However, it can vary considerably in nuance depending on the context.  At the other end of the spectrum, it can mean to “touch sexually”, which is interesting considering the same word can also be used of kindling a fire.  It can also mean to “fasten or adhere to” perhaps in an affectionate sense, like how we would use the words “snuggle” or cuddle”.  It can also mean to feel around with the fingers; i.e. to “grope”. a woman.
  2. But because of temptation to fornication, let each man have the wife to himself,(576)“wife to himself” is literal, though most translations render it “his own wife” making it more similar to Paul’s statement in the second half of the verse regarding wives (see following footnote).  However, the two clauses are different.  The Greek word translated “himself” here is “ἑαυτοῦ” (heautou). In this verse, it’s a 3rd person singular masculine reflexive pronoun, of which English has exactly one: “himself”.  For some reason, Paul made a distinction between how husbands “have” their wives vs. how wives “have” their husbands.  This difference has been accurately translated here, but we won’t speculate on why Paul made the two clauses different. and let each wife have her husband.(574)literally “her own husband”, but not in the sense of ownership, like the wife “owns” the husband.  Rather, it’s an emphatic way to refer to the wife’s ‘own’ husband, as opposed to a man who isn’t her husband.  The Greek word is “ἴδιος” (idios), and it’s often used of ownership in a non-exclusive sense.  Example: “his own city” in Matthew 9:1, “his own country” in John 4:44, “his own language” in Acts 2:6, and “on their own” in Matthew 17:1, plus many similar passages.  It refers to something that ‘belongs’ to someone, but usually not exclusively to that person. As an example, this same Greek word is used twice in verse 4, and translated “own” both times.
  3. Let the husband give what is owed(575)“give what is owed” is literal, and the two Greek words used here implies the payment (or repayment) of a debt, or – more likely – the fulfillment of an obligation which they are required to fulfill. to the wife, and likewise also the wife to the husband.
  4. The wife doesn’t have authority over her own body, but the husband does.  And likewise also, the husband doesn’t have authority over his own body, but the wife does.
  5. Don’t defraud(577)“defraud” is literal.  The Greek word literally means to take away or deprive someone of something that is rightfully theirs. each other, except by agreement for a suitable time, that you might devote yourselves to prayer; and then be together again so Satan won’t tempt you through your lack of self-control.
  6. But I say this as a concession not as a command.
  7. Now, I wish all men were like myself, but each has his own gift from God.  Indeed, one man has this gift, but another man that.
  8. But I tell the unmarried and the widows that it’s good if they remain single like I am.
  9. But if they can’t exercise self-control, let them marry; for it’s better to marry than to burn.
On Divorce
  1. And to the men who are *married,(578)“the men who are *married” is an definite article + participle phrase in Greek.  Nearly all translations change the gender of this (masculine) definite article + participle phrase at the beginning of the verse (changing it from “the men who are married” into the genderless “the married”). I command (not I, but the Lord) that a wife isn’t to be separated(579)“to be separated” is literal, as the Greek verb is a passive infinitive.  Nearly all translations change this verb to an active verb, often with the imperative sense (“must not separate from”), making the wife the active agent of the verb. In this word specifically, it can have reflexive force (“to separates herself” in some cases. from her husband.
  2. But if she was indeed separated, let her remain unmarried or be reconciled to the husband.  Also, a husband isn’t to divorce his wife.
  3. And to the rest, I say (I, not the Lord) if any brother has an unbelieving wife and she happily agrees(580)“happily agrees” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It could also be translated “happily consents” or “happily approves”.  It’s only used 6 times; once here, once in the following verse, plus in Luke 11:48, Acts 8:1, Acts 20:22, and Romans 1:32.  The latter three of which clearly mean enthusiastic approval of something, and Luke 11:48 clearly leans that way also. to live with him, let him not divorce her.
  4. And if any wife has an unbelieving husband and he happily agrees(581)“happily agrees” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It could also be translated “happily consents” or “happily approves”.  It’s only used 6 times; once here, once in the previous verse, plus in Luke 11:48, Acts 8:1, Acts 20:22, and Romans 1:32.  The latter three of which clearly mean enthusiastic approval of something, and Luke 11:48 clearly leans that way also. to live with her, let her not divorce the husband.
  5. For the unbelieving husband has been made holy by the wife, and the unbelieving wife has been made holy by the husband.  For otherwise your children are unclean; but now they’re holy.
  6. But if the unbeliever separates himself,(582)“separates himself” is literally “is separated”.  However, this Greek word can have reflexive force (himself/herself/itself) even in the passive voice. let him be separated.  The brother or sister isn’t *under bondage in such cases.  But God has called you to peace.
  7. For wife, how do you *know if you will save the husband?  Or husband, how do you *know if you will save the wife?
Walk in Your Calling
  1. Only as the Lord assigned to each; only as God has called each; so he must walk.  And I give instruction like this in all the churches.
  2. Was someone called who has been circumcised?  He shouldn’t become uncircumcised.(583)“become uncircumcised” is one word in Greek, with a literal meaning of “to draw out/over”.  Some Jews would use implements to stretch the foreskin so it would again cover the glans, thus simulating what an uncircumcised male would look like.  This was done for multiple reasons, but one was to participate in the Olympic Games (in which competitors were traditionally nude). Has someone been called while uncircumcised?   He shouldn’t be circumcised.
  3. Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing; but observing God’s commandments is what matters.
  4. Let each man remain in the calling in which he was called.
  5. Were you called as a slave?  Don’t let it concern you.  But also, if you’re able to become free, it’s better to make use of the opportunity.
  6. For the slave who was called in the Lord is a freedman(584)“freedman” the Greek word here refers to a slave who has been freed, not a person born into freedom. of the Lord.  Likewise, the free man who was called is a slave of the Anointed.
  7. You were bought with a price; don’t become slaves of men.
  8. Brothers, in whatever state each was called, let him remain in that state with God.
To marry or not marry
  1. Now concerning the virgins, I don’t have a commandment from the Lord.  However, I give counsel as one who has received mercy from the Lord to be trustworthy.
  2. Therefore, I think this is good – because of the present distress – that it’s good for a man to be just as he is.
  3. Have you been bound to a wife?  Don’t seek release.  Have you been released from a wife?  Don’t seek a wife.
  4. But also, you haven’t sinned if you marry.  And if the virgin marries, she hasn’t sinned.  However, such will have trouble in the flesh, and I want to spare you.
  5. Now, I declare this brothers: the opportune moment has been shortened so that from now on, even the men who have wives might be like they don’t have a wife,
  6. and the men who are weep like they aren’t weeping, and the men who rejoice like they aren’t rejoicing, and the men who buy like they aren’t taking possession,
  7. and the men who use this world like they aren’t using it; for the form of this world is passing away.
  8. Now, I wish you to be free from care.  The unmarried man cares for the things of the Lord, and how he might please the Lord.
  9. But the man who married cares for the things of the world, how he might please the wife,
  10. and he *divides himself.(585)Or “he is *divided”.  The passive and middle endings for this word are identical, so either could be intended.  And the unmarried woman and the virgin cares for the things of the Lord; that she might be holy in both body and spirit.  But the woman who married cares for the things of the world, how she might please her husband.
  11. Now, I say this for your own benefit, not so I might throw a restraint(586)“restraint” the Greek word here refers to a rope with a slipknot – like a cowboy’s lasso – used to catch animals, and restrain them from escaping after they are caught. on you, but toward the honorable and devoted service to the Lord without distraction.
  12. Now, if someone thinks he acts unjustly over his virgin daughter(587)“daughter” was added for clarity, as the Greek word for “virgin” here is feminine.  Some translations alter verses 36-38 so they refer to a fiancée and his betrothed.  Most translations which mistranslate these verses will mistranslate “virgin” as “betrothed”, completely leave out the clause “if she is past the bloom of youth”, and add the word “passion” somewhere to make this interpretation fit.  Further, in verse 38 they will usually mistranslate the Greek verb which means “to give in marriage” (and more specifically to betroth a daughter to a husband) as “marry” or something similar. – if she is past the bloom of youth(588)“past the bloom of youth” is one word in Greek.  There are two views as to its meaning.  (1) “The bloom of youth” refers to menstruation and “past” this bloom means the girl has not only begun to menstruate, but also has been menstruating long enough to be regular.  Historically, this would’ve happened at 15-16 years old, though women did marry younger.  (2) “Past the bloom of youth” refers to a woman who is past her prime and thus past the ideal age to be married; i.e. an “old maid”.  Some ancient sources fixed this at 20 years old. and thus ought(589)“ought” is the weakest possible way to translate the Greek word used here.  It more literally means “is morally or legally obligated” The word was originally a financial term that literally meant to owe or be indebted to. (It’s used of debts in Matthew 18:28, 30, and 34.)  In New Testament times, it referred to anything which someone was legally or morally obligated to do, which included obligations to the gods. to be married – let him do as he wishes; he doesn’t sin, let her(590)literally “let them marry” as the verb here is plural, referring either to multiple daughters, or more likely the daughters in general of the men Paul was addressing.  Since English doesn’t have a plural feminine pronoun (they/them in a feminine form) it was changed to “she” to prevent anyone thinking that Paul was condoning a father marrying his daughter, which is incest and thoroughly condemned elsewhere in the Bible. marry.
  13. But a man who has stood firm in his heart (not having a need, but having authority over his own will) and has judged in his own heart to keep the virgin with himself, he will do well.
  14. And so, the man who gives his own virgin daughter in marriage(591)“gives… …daughter in marriage” is one word in Greek, with that exact meaning.  It properly refers to a father betrothing his daughter to a husband.  (In betrothal, the groom-to-be pays a bride price to literally buy a man’s daughter to be his wife; see Exodus 22:16-17, and the footnote on 1 Thessalonians 4:4.)  Many translations translate this word as “marry” in this verse as if the man were marrying the girl himself (see the first footnote on verse 36), but this Greek word never means that.  It only ever means a father betrothing his daughter to a husband, and never means a man marrying a woman himself. does well, and the man who doesn’t give her in marriage will do better.
  15. A wife has been bound for as long as her husband lives.  But if her husband dies, she’s free to be married to who she wishes, but only in the Lord.
  16. But in my opinion, she’s more blessed if she remains the way she is; and I think I also have God’s Spirit.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 8

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Things Sacrificed to Idols
  1. Now, about things sacrificed to idols.  We *know that we all have knowledge; knowledge puffs up, but ^love builds up.
  2. If anyone thinks to have known anything, he doesn’t yet know as he needs to know.
  3. But if anyone ^loves God, he is *known by Him.
  4. Therefore, about food sacrificed to idols; we have known that an idol in the world is nothing, and that there’s no God except One.
  5. For indeed, even if some are being called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords),
  6. But to us, there’s one God – the Father – from whom are all things, and we exist for Him; and one Lord – Jesus the Anointed – through(592)or “because of”, as the Greek word can – and does – mean either depending on the context.  It also quite possible Paul left it slightly ambiguous, and intended both meanings. whom all things exist, and we exist through(593)or “because of”; see previous note. Him.
  7. But this knowledge isn’t in everyone.  And until now, some are accustomed to eating food sacrificed to an idol as if the idol is real; and their conscience – being weak – is defiled.(594)“is defiled” could also be translated “they defile themselves” as the endings for the passive voice and middle voice are the exact same for this Greek word.  The idea is these Christians with a weak conscience believes the food is consecrated to the idol, and thus eating food consecrated to another god would displease the True God.  While Paul says since the other “god” don’t even exist, the food can’t be consecrated to a god who doesn’t exist.
  8. But food won’t bring us closer to God; we neither fall short if we don’t eat, nor excel if we do eat.
  9. But beware, lest your liberty in this somehow becomes a stumbling block to the weak.
  10. For if someone sees you (the man who has knowledge) reclining at the table in an idol’s temple, with his conscience being weak, won’t he be encouraged to eat the things sacrificed to idols?
  11. For then the man who’s weak is ruined by your knowledge; the brother for whom the Anointed died.
  12. And thus, in sinning against the brothers and wounding their weak conscience, you sin against the Anointed.
  13. Therefore, if food ensnares my brother, I definitely won’t eat meat sacrificed to idols through the age, so I won’t ensnare my brother.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 9

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The Rights of the Apostles
  1. Am I not free?  Am I not an apostle?  Haven’t I seen Jesus our Lord?  Aren’t you my work in the Lord?
  2. If I’m not an apostle to others, then at least I am to you; for you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord.
  3. My defense(595)The Greek word here is “ἀπολογία” (apologia) is the root of our English word “apologetics”.  It specifically refers to a verbal defense, and the term was used for a legal defense in court. It implies providing compelling evidence to answer an accusation or objection that was raised. to the men who examine me is this:
  4. Don’t we definitely have the right to eat and drink?
  5. Don’t we definitely have the right to bring along a believing(596)literally “a sister wife”, with sister indicating a wife who is Christian. wife? (Just as also the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas(597)“Cephas” is Aramaic for “a rock”, and is another name for the disciple/apostle Peter. do.)
  6. Or do only Barnabas and I lack the right to not work?
  7. Who ever serves as a soldier at his own expense?  Who plants a vineyard and doesn’t eat of its fruit?  Or who shepherds a flock and doesn’t drink the milk of the flock?
  8. I don’t speak these things according to man, do I?  Doesn’t the law also say these things?
  9. For it is *written in the Law of Moses; “you shall not muzzle an ox that’s threshing(598)quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:4  Threshing is part of the process for separating chaff from grain.  Threshing involves beating the grain to break the chaff free from the grain.  It was typically done on a “threshing floor” with either a tool or by animals.  Once the chaff is broken free, you then “winnow” the chaff and grain mixture by throwing it in the air so the wind carries away the lighter, useless chaff, while the heavier grain falls back to the earth. Once ground into flour and cooked, the grains are ready to eat.  God isn’t concerned about the oxen, is He?
  10. Or does He speak entirely for our sake?  For it was written for our sake, because the man who plows ought to plow in expectation, and the man who threshes(599)“threshes” is literal. See note on previous verse does so in expectation to partake of the grain.
  11. If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it a great thing if we reap material things from you?
  12. If others partake of their right from you, couldn’t we do so more?  But we didn’t make use of this right, but instead, we patiently endured everything so we wouldn’t put any hindrance on the gospel of the Anointed.
  13. Don’t you *know the men who work in the temple eat the food in the temple?  And don’t the men who serve at the altar have a share in the altar sacrifices?
  14. And in this way, the Lord appointed for the men who proclaim the gospel to live from the gospel.
  15. But I haven’t made use of these rights.  (And I didn’t write these things so it might become this way with me.)  For it’s better for me to die than for anyone to make my boasting empty.
  16. For if I proclaim the gospel, there isn’t a boast for me, for a compulsion is placed on me; for woe is me if I don’t proclaim the gospel.
  17. For if I do this willingly, I have a reward; but if unwillingly, I have been entrusted with a stewardship.
  18. What then is my reward?  That in preaching the gospel free of charge, I might offer the gospel without needing to use my right in the gospel.
All things to all men
  1. For while being free from all men, I made myself a slave to all men so I might gain more of them.
  2. And I became like a Jew to the Jews, so I might win the Jews.  To men under the law, like I’m under the law – though not being under the law myself – so I might win men under the law.
  3. To men without the law,(600)“without the law” is one word in Greek.  It can mean “lawless” in the sense of wicked, but it can also refer to those without the Mosaic Law; i.e. Gentiles.  That is likely the intended sense here. like a man without the law – though not being without God’s law, but lawful in the Anointed – so I might win men without the law.
  4. I became weak to the weak, so I might win the weak.  I *become all things to all men, so that by all means I might save some.
  5. But I do everything for the gospel’s sake, so I might become a fellow partaker in it.
  6. Don’t you *know that the men who run in a race all indeed run, but only one receives the prize?  Run like this so you might seize it.
  7. And every man who competes uses self-control in everything. Then these men indeed compete so they might receive a perishable crown, but we an imperishable one.
  8. Therefore, I indeed run like this, but not aimlessly.  I box like this, but not like punching air.
  9. But I discipline my body and make it my slave, lest after having preached to others, I might become disqualified.

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1 Corinthians Chapter 10

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Warnings from Israel’s History
  1. For I don’t want you to be ignorant brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea,
  2. and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,
  3. and all ate the same spiritual food,
  4. And all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from the spiritual rock that followed them; and the rock is the Anointed.
  5. But God wasn’t pleased with most of them, for their bodies were scattered in the desert.
  6. Now, these things have become examples to us; for us not to be coveters(601)or “cravers”; either is a correct translation of this Greek word. of wicked things, just as they also coveted.(602)or “craved them“; either is a correct translation of this Greek word.
  7. And don’t become idolaters, just as some of them did.  As it is *written; “The people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose to play.”(603)quotation/allusion to Exodus 32:4-6
  8. Nor should we fornicate, just as some of them fornicated and twenty three thousand fell in one day.
  9. Nor should we test the Anointed, just as some of them tested Him and were destroyed by the serpents.
  10. And don’t grumble, just as some of them grumbled and perished(604)“perished” The Greek word here is in the middle voice, not the active voice, making the agent significantly more involved in the result. Translating it “killed themselves” wouldn’t be out of place.  This is likely a reference to Numbers 16:41-49, where all of Israel grumbled against Moses and Arron, ascribing to them the fault of God’s divine judgement on Korah’s rebellion. by the destroyer.
  11. Now, these things were happening to them as examples, and were written as a warning to us, to whom the ends of the ages have come.
  12. Therefore, the man who thinks he *stands; let him beware, lest he fall.
  13. Temptation hasn’t seized you except what’s common to man.  But God is faithful, who won’t allow you to be tempted beyond what you can bear, but with the temptation will also make an escape, so you’ll be able to endure it.
  14. Therefore my beloved, flee from idolatry.
  15. I speak as I would to prudent men; you judge what I declare.
Things sacrificed to idols
  1. Isn’t the cup of blessings that we bless a participation in the blood of the Anointed?  Isn’t the bread that we break a participation in the body of the Anointed?
  2. Since there’s one bread, we the many are one body, for all partake from the one bread.
  3. Look at Israel according to the flesh.  Aren’t the men who eat the sacrifices partakers in the altar?
  4. Therefore, what do I mean?   That what is sacrificed to idols is anything?  Or that an idol is anything?
  5. Rather, I mean that what [the gentiles] sacrifice to demons, they don’t sacrifice to God.  Now, I don’t want you to become partakers with demons.
  6. You aren’t able to drink the Lord’s cup and a demon’s cup.  You aren’t able to partake of the Lord’s table and a demon’s table.
  7. Or, do we provoke the Lord to jealousy?  We aren’t stronger than Him, are we?
  8. All things are lawful, but not all things are profitable.  All things are lawful, but not all things edify.
  9. Let no one seek to edify himself, but to edify another.
Eat everything
  1. Eat everything which is sold in the meat market, investigating nothing for your conscience’ sake.
  2. For “The earth is the Lord’s, and all its fullness.”(605)quotation/allusion to Psalm 24:1
  3. If some unbeliever invites you and you want to go, eat everything which is set before you; investigating nothing for conscience’ sake.