Matthew Chapter 10

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Sending Out the Twelve
  1. And summoning His twelve disciples, He gave them authority over unclean spirits, so they could cast them out, and to heal every chronic disease and every sickness.
  2. Now, these are the names of the twelve apostles.  First, Simon called Peter and Andrew his brother. Also, James the son of Zebedee and John his brother.
  3. Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Mathew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus;
  4. Simon the Zealot; and Judas Iscariot, the one betraying[1]the Greek word here does not have a defined tense, and thus has not been given one in English.  Read simply, it sounds like Judas was betraying Jesus all along.  That’s was probably intentional, because we know from John 12:6 he would regularly steal from them. Him.
  5. Jesus sent out these twelve, commanding them by saying; “Don’t go near the way of the Gentiles, and don’t go into a city of the Samaritans.”
  6. “But more importantly, go to the sheep of the house of Israel; they were – and are – being utterly lost.
  7. In your traveling, also preach saying; “The kingdom of the heavens was – and is – drawing near.”
  8. “Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received; freely give.
  9. “Don’t acquire gold, nor silver, nor copper in your money belts.[2]in that age, belts were often hollow and used as a safe way to store money.
  10. “Don’t bring a food pouch for the way, nor two cloaks, nor sandals, nor a staff.  For the worker is worthy of his food.
  11. “Now, whatever city or village you enter into, carefully inquire who is worthy in it, and there stay until you might leave.
  12. “Then entering into the house, greet it.
  13. “And if the house is truly worthy, let your peace come on it.  But if it’s not worthy, let your peace return to you.
  14. “And whoever won’t welcome you, nor hear your words, then going outside that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet.
  15. Truly I tell you; it will be more bearable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgement than that city.
  16. “”Behold; I send you out like sheep in the midst of wolves.  Therefore, become shrewd as serpents and pure as doves.
Warning about Persecution
  1. “But beware of men, for they will hand you over to the Sanhedrins,[3]A Sanhedrin was a Jewish court that had authority in both civil and religious matters.  There was a lesser Sanhedrin in cities of significant size, and the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.  The Great Sanhedrin functioned like a Supreme Court over the lesser Sanhedrins. and will lash you with whips[4]“lash… …with whips”.  The Greek word here specifically refers to tying someone to a pole or frame and striking them repeatedly with a whip as a punishment. in their synagogues.
  2. “And also, you’ll be brought to governors and kings because of Me; to be a witness to them and the nations.
  3. “Now, when they hand you over, don’t be anxious about how or what you might say, for you will be given what to say in that very hour.
  4. “For you won’t be speaking; but the Spirit of your Father will be speaking through you.
  5. “Now, brother will betray brother to death, and a father will betray his child, and children will rise up against parents and will kill them.
  6. “And all will hate[5]literally “all will be hating”. you because of My name.  But the man who endures to the end; he will be saved.
  7. “So when they persecute you in that city, flee to another.  For truly I tell you; you definitely won’t[6]“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. finish fleeing through the cities of Israel until the Son of Man comes.
  8. “A disciple isn’t above the teacher, nor a slave above his master.[7]This is also the Greek word that’s usually translated “Lord” when referring to Jesus.  It can mean either depending on the context.
  9. It’s enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master.  If they call the master of the house Beelzebub,[8]From the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”.   It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal.  One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”.  Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god.  Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon.  There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon. how much more the members of His household?
Fear God, not Man
  1. “Therefore, don’t be afraid of them.  For nothing was – or is – hidden which won’t be uncovered; and there’s nothing secret which won’t be known.
  2. “What I tell you in the dark, speak in the light.  And what you hear whispered in the ear, preach on the rooftops.
  3. “And don’t fear those who kill the body, but can’t kill the soul.[9]The Greek word translated “soul” here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  The exact same word is used in verse 39. where we must lose our psuché to gain it.  But rather, fear those able to destroy[10]The Greek word here is “ἀπόλλυμι” (apollumi).  It means to utterly lose (as in Matthew 10:6), to ruin, or to destroy.  Its root word emphasizes the loss incurred, not the destruction. both body and soul[11]The Greek word translated “soul” here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  The exact same word is used in verse 39. where we must lose our psuché to gain it. in the Valley of Hinnom.[12]Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife.  But this might refer to Israel’s history instead. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) It was the worst sentence/judgement Israel had yet seen.  This happened again a few decades later when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. See following note. [13]Verse Note: While Jesus might have been referring to judgement in the afterlife, it’s unlikely. (See note on the word “soul” in this verse.)  He might’ve been referring to the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.  If you look at “soul” here in the sense of “identity” (again, see note) it makes some sense. Some of those trapped inside Jerusalem during the siege became so depraved, what they did isn’t fit to be put into print.  That could count as a destruction of “body and soul/identity”.
  4. “Aren’t two sparrows sold for a brass coin?[14]“a brass coin” is literally and specifically an “assarion”.  It was worth one tenth of a drachma.  The drachma was the going rate for a day’s worth of unskilled labor.  And not one among them will fall to the ground without your Father willing it.
  5. “Now, even the hairs on your head were – and are – all counted.
  6. “So don’t fear.  You have more value than many sparrows.
  7. “Therefore; everyone who will endorse Me in front of men, I will also endorse him in front of My Father in the heavens.
  8. “But whoever might deny Me in front of men, I will also deny him in front of My Father in the heavens.
  9. “Don’t assume that I came to bring[15]literally “set” or “put”, as in putting down something you are holding. peace on the earth. I didn’t come to bring[16]literally “set” or “put”, as in putting down something you are holding. peace, but a sword.
  10. “For I came to divide; a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law.
  11. And a man’s enemies will be the members of his household.[17]quotation/allusion to Micah 7:6
  12. The man who loves his father or mother more than Me isn’t worthy of Me.  And the man who loves his son or daughter more than Me isn’t worthy of Me.
  13. And whoever doesn’t take his cross and follow after me isn’t worthy of Me.
  14. The man who finds his life[18]The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  And the man who loses his life[19]The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. because of Me will find it.
  15. The man who welcomes you, welcomes Me.  And the man who welcomes Me, welcomes the One who sent Me.
  16. The man who welcomes a prophet because[20]literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was often equivalent to “because” (Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, #3686 “ὄνομα”, definition 2).  This departure from strict literalism here is because idioms stubbornly resist attempts at literal translations.  A literal translation would be confusing to English readers because we don’t share the idiom. he’s a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward.  And he who welcomes a righteous man because[21]literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was often equivalent to “because” (Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, #3686 “ὄνομα”, definition 2).  This departure from strict literalism here is because idioms stubbornly resist attempts at literal translations.  A literal translation would be confusing to English readers because we don’t share the idiom. he’s righteous will receive a righteous man’s reward.
  17. And whoever gives[22]literally “and if whoever might give to drink…” with “might give to drink” being a single word in Greek. The “to drink” part was moved to conform to English rules of grammar. one of these little ones a cup of cool water to drink, just because[23]literally “in the name of”, which in that culture was often equivalent to “because” (Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, #3686 “ὄνομα”, definition 2).  This departure from strict literalism here is because idioms stubbornly resist attempts at literal translations.  A literal translation would be confusing to English readers because we don’t share the idiom. he’s a disciple…  Truly I tell you; he definitely won’t[24]“definitely won’t”.  In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis.  Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. lose his reward.

 

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