Matthew Chapter 16

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Looking For A Sign
  1. And approaching Jesus to test Him, the Pharisees and Sadducees asked Him to show them a miraculous sign from heaven.
  2. But answering, He said to them; “When it becomes evening, you say: ‘It’ll be good weather, for the sky is red’.
  3. And in the morning you say: ‘today will be a storm, for the sky is red and cloudy’.  Indeed, you know how to discern the sky’s appearance, but you can’t discern the miraculous signs of the times.
  4. A wicked generation – and an adulteress[1]The traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery. – seeks a miraculous sign. And a sign won’t be given to her, except sign of Jonah.  And leaving them behind, He departed.
The Leaven of the Pharisees
  1. And coming to the other side, the disciples forgot[2]Many translations rendered this “had forgotten”, which is a pluperfect construction.  However, In Greek it’s an aorist verb not a pluperfect verb.  Hence “forgot” to take bread.
  2. Then Jesus said to them; “Look out and beware of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ leaven.”
  3. And they were reasoning among themselves, saying; “He said this because we didn’t bring bread.”
  4. But knowing this, Jesus said; “Why do you reason among yourselves; because you didn’t bring bread?  O You of little faith.
  5. “You don’t yet understand nor remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  6. “Nor the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  7. “How didn’t you understand, that I didn’t speak to you about bread?  Now, beware of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ leaven.”
  8. Then they understood that He didn’t say to beware of the leaven of bread, but of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ teaching.
Jesus, the Rock on Which the Church is Built
  1. Then coming to the region Caesarea Philippi, Jesus was questioning His disciples, saying; “Who do men say the Son of Man is?”
  2. And they said; “Indeed, Some say John the Baptist, but others Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.”
  3. He said to them; “But who do you say I am?”[3]The Greek construction here isn’t same as the “I am” statements where Jesus was proclaiming His deity (like John 8:58).  More literally, it’s “But who do you say Me to be?
  4. And answering, Simon Peter said; “You are The Anointed; The Son of the Living God.”
  5. And answering, Jesus said to Him; “Blessed are you Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood didn’t revealed this to you, but My Father in the heavens.
  6. And I also say to you, that you are Peter.  And on this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of the underworld[4]The Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”. won’t overpower her.[5]“her” is literal.  The Greek word here is a personal/possessive pronoun in the Feminine singular form. The only personal/possessive feminine pronoun in English is “her”.  This is likely a reference to the church being the Bride of Christ.
  7. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of the heavens.  And if you bind something[6]literally “whatever” on earth, it will be, has been – and is – bound[7]“will be, has been – and is – bound” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist”, typically translated “is”, “was” or “will be”.  Here, it’s in the future tense, so it means “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “bind”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here.  The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in the heavens.  And if you loose something[8]literally “whatever” on earth, it will be, has been – and is – loosed[9]“will be, has been – and is – loosed” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist”, typically translated “is”, “was”, or “will be”.  Here, it’s in the future tense, so it means “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “loosen”, which is in the Greek Perfect tense here.  The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. in the heavens.
  8. Then He clearly ordered the disciples, so they would tell no one He is The Anointed.
  9. From that time, Jesus The Anointed began to show His disciples that it’s essential for Him to go to Jerusalem.  And there to suffer many things from the elders, and chief priests, and Scribes.[10]In the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law.  And then to be killed and be raised up on the third day.
  10. And taking Him aside, Peter began to scold Him, saying; “God forbid[11]literally “God have mercy”, but the colloquial meaning is the idea or hope that God will prevent something bad because He’s merciful. it for you Lord; this definitely won’t[12]“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. happen to you.
  11. But being turned around, He said to Peter; “Go behind Me Satan!  You are a stumbling stone for Me, because you aren’t thinking the things of God, but the things of men.
The Cost of Discipleship
  1. Then Jesus said to His disciples; “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, pick up his cross, and follow Me.
  2. “For whoever wishes to save his life[13]The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  But whoever loses his life[14]The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. for My sake will find it.
  3. “For what good will it be if a man gains the whole world but loses his life?[15]The Greek word translated “life” here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, or soul in that sense.  Or what will a man give in exchange his life?[16]The Greek word translated “life” here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, or soul in that sense.
  4. “For the Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His Father with His angels.  And then He will pay back each according to his deeds.[17]quotation/allusion to Psalms 62 12, and Proverbs 24:12
  5. “Truly I tell you: some who were – and are – standing[18]“were – and are – standing” is one word in the Greek.  It’s in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. here definitely won’t[19]“definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek. taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.”

 

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Footnotes   [ + ]

1. The traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery.
2. Many translations rendered this “had forgotten”, which is a pluperfect construction.  However, In Greek it’s an aorist verb not a pluperfect verb.  Hence “forgot”
3. The Greek construction here isn’t same as the “I am” statements where Jesus was proclaiming His deity (like John 8:58).  More literally, it’s “But who do you say Me to be?
4. The Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”.
5. “her” is literal.  The Greek word here is a personal/possessive pronoun in the Feminine singular form. The only personal/possessive feminine pronoun in English is “her”.  This is likely a reference to the church being the Bride of Christ.
6, 8. literally “whatever”
7. “will be, has been – and is – bound” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist”, typically translated “is”, “was” or “will be”.  Here, it’s in the future tense, so it means “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “bind”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here.  The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.
9. “will be, has been – and is – loosed” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist”, typically translated “is”, “was”, or “will be”.  Here, it’s in the future tense, so it means “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “loosen”, which is in the Greek Perfect tense here.  The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.
10. In the New Testament, this Greek word is typically applied to those learned in the Mosaic Law.
11. literally “God have mercy”, but the colloquial meaning is the idea or hope that God will prevent something bad because He’s merciful.
12, 19. “definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, not) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek.
13, 14. The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul” (see note on verse 28 above).  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse.
15, 16. The Greek word translated “life” here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, or soul in that sense.
17. quotation/allusion to Psalms 62 12, and Proverbs 24:12
18. “were – and are – standing” is one word in the Greek.  It’s in the Greek perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.