Matthew Chapter 16

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.(12)"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

Looking For A Sign
  1. And having approached Jesus to test Him, the Pharisees and Sadducees asked Him to show them a sign from heaven.
  2. And answering, He told them; “When it becomes evening, you say: ‘It’ll be good weather, for the sky is red’.
  3. And in the morning you say: ‘today will be a storm, for the sky is red and cloudy’.  Indeed, you know how to discern the sky’s appearance, but you aren’t able to discern the signs of the times.
  4. A wicked generation and an adulteress(1)“adulteress” the traditional interpretation here is “a wicked and adulterous generation”.  However, the word translated “adulteress” is a noun here, not an adjective. Additionally, a feminine singular pronoun – “she” in English – is used later in the verse.  In order to make the traditional interpretation fit, “she” must be changed to the neuter pronoun, “it”.  Jesus was calling that whole generation an “adulteress”, or a woman guilty of adultery.seeks a sign. And a sign won’t be given to her except the sign of Jonah.”  And having left them behind, He departed.
The Leaven of the Pharisees
  1. And having come to the other side of the sea, the disciples had forgot to take bread.
  2. Then Jesus told them; “Look out and beware the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
  3. And they were reasoning among themselves, saying; “He said this because we didn’t bring bread.”
  4. But having known this, Jesus said; “Why do you reason among yourselves?  Because you don’t have bread?  O you men of little faith.
  5. “You don’t yet understand nor remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  6. “Nor the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you picked up?
  7. “How do you not understand that I didn’t speak to you about bread?  Now, beware the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
  8. Then they understood that He didn’t say to beware the leaven of bread, but of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ teaching.
Jesus, the Rock on Which the Church is Built
  1. Then having come to the region Caesarea Philippi, Jesus was questioning His disciples, saying; “Who do men declare the Son of Man to be?”
  2. And they said; “Indeed, some say John the Baptizer, but others Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.”
  3. He says to them; “But who do you declare Me to be?”
  4. And answering, Simon Peter said; “You are the Anointed; The Son of the Living God.”
  5. And answering, Jesus told Him; “Blessed are you Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood didn’t reveal this to you, but My Father in the heavens.
  6. And I also tell you that you are Peter.  And on that(2)“that”, the Greek demonstrative pronoun is traditionally translated “this” here.  While some say that the church was build on the ‘rock’ of Peter (since his name means rock), that’s impossible because in Greek, the word here is grammatically feminine, while Peter is grammatically masculine.  In order for the demonstrative pronoun to refer to Peter, it would need to match grammatical gender with the word Peter by being masculine, which it isn’t. rock I will build My Church, and the gates of the underworld(3)“underworld” the Greek word here is “ᾍδης” (Hades).  Hades was the name of the Greek god of the underworld, and the word became synonymous with the underworld itself.  In Greek mythology, the underworld (Hades) was the place that all departed spirits went, whether good or bad.  It is directly equivalent to the Hebrew world “sheol”. won’t overpower her.
  7. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens.  And whatever you bind on earth will have been bound(4)“will have been bound” is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “bind”.  Here it’s in the Greek Perfect tense here, which indicates an action that was completed in the past that results in a state that’s ongoing until the present. in the heavens.  And whatever you loose on earth will have been loosed(5)“will have been loosed” Is two words in Greek.  The first is the Greek word for “to exist” in the future tense, so “will be”.  The second is the Greek work for “loosen”, which is in the Greek Perfect tense here. The perfect tense is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.  It indicates an action that was completed in the past that results in a state that’s ongoing until the present. in the heavens.
  8. Then He clearly ordered the disciples, so they would tell no one that He is the Anointed.
  9. From that time on, Jesus the Anointed began to show His disciples that it’s essential for Him to go to Jerusalem, and to suffer many things from the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and to be killed, and to be raised up on the third day.
  10. And having taken Him aside, Peter began to scold Him, saying; “God forbid(6)“God forbid” is one word in Greek.  The primary meaning is “merciful” or to “have mercy”, and it’s only used one other place: Hebrews 8:12 where it’s typically translated “merciful”.  A more colloquial meaning was “God have mercy”, in the sense of forbidding something because God was merciful. you Lord; this definitely won’t happen to you.”
  11. But having turned around, He said to Peter; “Get behind Me Satan!  You’re a offense to Me because you aren’t thinking the things of God, but the things of men.”
The Cost of Discipleship
  1. Then Jesus told His disciples; “If anyone wants to come after Me, he must deny himself, pick up his cross, and follow Me.
  2. “For whoever wants to save his life(7)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”, though sometimes it’s translated “soul”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.  This latter sense adds an interesting nuance of meaning to this verse. will lose it.  But whoever loses his life(8)“life” see previous note for My sake will find it.
  3. “For how will it benefit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his life?(9)“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché).  It’s typically translated “soul” in this verse, but “life” in the previous verse.  That destroys the parallelism and distorts this verse, making it sound like this verse is about the afterlife.  However, psuché does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment. (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, or soul in that sense.  Or what will a man give in exchange for his life?(10)“life” see previous note
  4. “For the Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His Father with His angels.  And then ‘He will pay back each according to his deeds’.(11)quotation/allusion to Psalms 62:12 and Proverbs 24:12
  5. “Amen I tell you: some who have been standing here definitely won’t taste death until they saw the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.”

 

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