Matthew Chapter 21

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The Triumphal Entry
  1. And when they drew near to Jerusalem and came to Bethphage(1)Bethphage was a small town located outside Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives. It’s name means “house of unripe figs”. on the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples out on an errand,(2)“sent out… …on an errand” is one word in Greek.  It’s the word “ἀποστέλλω” (apostelló) which is related to the Greek word we translate as “apostle”.  It literally means to send someone out on a mission.
  2. saying to them; “Go into the village before you, and at once you’ll find a donkey who was – and is – tied, and a colt with her.  After untying them, bring them to Me.
  3. “And if someone says anything, you will say: “The Lord has need of them.” and he will send them at once.”
  4. And this was – and is – happening so what was spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying:
  5. Tell the daughter of Zion: Behold! Your King comes to you strong but gentle.”(3)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 62:11.  “strong but gentle” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness. i.e. some who is strong but applies their strength gently.  “He was – and is – mounted on a donkey, even a colt; the foal of a beast of burden.”(4)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 9:9
  6. Then going and doing as Jesus instructed them, the disciples
  7. brought the donkey and the colt.  And they put their tunics on them, and He sat on them.
  8. Now, the massive crowd spread their cloaks on the road.  And others were cutting branches from the trees and were spreading them on the road.
  9. Now, the crowds who preceded Him, and those who followed, were crying out, saying; “Hosanna,(5)“Hosanna” A Hebrew word which means “save now”, or “please save now”. It was originally a cry for help, but apparently indicates exultation or joy. The “na” suffix indicates intense emotion, hence the emphatic sense here. to the Son of David!(6)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­the crowds. He was – and – is blessed who comes in the name of the Lord.(7)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:26 Hosanna(8)“Hosanna” A Hebrew word which means “save now”, or “please save now”. It was originally a cry for help, but apparently indicates exultation or joy. The “na” suffix indicates intense emotion, hence the emphatic sense here. in the highest!”
  10. And as He was entering Jerusalem, the whole city was agitated, saying; “Who is this?”
  11. And the crowds were saying; “This is the prophet, Jesus from Nazareth of Galilee.”
Cleansing the Temple
  1. And Jesus entered the temple and threw out all the men who were buying and selling in the temple. And He overturned the money-changers’ tables, and the chairs of the men who sold the doves.
  2. And He told them; “It was – and is – written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer‘,(9)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 56:7 but you made it a den of robbers.”(10)Quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 7:11
  3. And the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple, and He healed them.
  4. But seeing the wondrous deeds that He did, and the children who cried out in the temple saying; “Hosanna to the Son of David!”, the chief priests and scribes were indignant.
  5. And they said to Him; “Do you hear what these children say?”  And Jesus told them, “Absolutely.  Did you never read: “From out of the mouths of infants and nursing babes, you have prepared praise for yourself.”(11)quotation/allusion to Psalm 8:2?”
  6. And leaving them behind, He went outside the city to Bethany and spent the night there.
The Fig Tree Withers
  1. Then early in the morning, as He was returning to the city, He was hungry.
  2. And seeing one fig tree by the road, He went to it and found nothing on it except leaves alone.  And He said to it; “Fruit won’t come from you anymore; not throughout this age.”  And the tree instantly withered.
  3. And seeing this, the disciples marveled, saying; “How did the fig tree wither instantly?”
  4. And answering, Jesus said to them; “Truly I tell you: If you have faith and don’t doubt, you’ll not only do the miracle of the fig tree, but even if you tell this mountain: “be lifted up and thrown into the sea”, it will happen.
  5. And all things – as many as you ask in prayer while believing – you will receive.
Jesus’ Authority Challenged
  1. And after He went into the temple and was teaching, the chief priests and elders of the people approached Him, saying; “By what authority are you doing these things?  And who gave you this authority?”
  2. But answering, Jesus told them; “I’ll also ask you one question, which – if you answer Me – I’ll also tell you by what authority I do these things.
  3. “From where was the baptism of John; from heaven, or from men?”  And they were reasoning among themselves, saying; “If we say ‘from heaven’, He will say to us: “Then why didn’t you believe him?”.
  4. But if we say ‘from men’ we fear the crowd, for everyone regards John like a prophet.
  5. And answering Jesus, they said; “We didn’t – and don’t – know.”  And He told them; “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.
A Parable of Two Sons
  1. “But what’s your opinion?  A man had two children.  And approaching the first, He said; “Son, go work in the vineyard today”.
  2. “And answering, he said; “Sir, I’m not willing.”  But regretting it later, he went.
  3. “And approaching the second son, he said the same thing.  And answering, the son said; “I will sir.” and he didn’t go.
  4. “Which of the two did the will of the father?”  They said; “The first.”  Jesus said to them; “Truly I tell you: the tax collectors and prostitutes go into the kingdom of God before you.
  5. “For John came to you in the way of righteousness and you didn’t believe him, but the tax collectors and prostitutes believed him.  And after seeing, you didn’t even regret afterwards to believe him.
The Wicked Vinegrowers
  1. “Hear another parable: There was a man, a master of a house, who planted a vineyard.  And He placed a fence around it, and dug a winepress in it, and built a fortified tower,(12)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 5:1-2 and hired out vinegrowers, and traveled to a foreign country.
  2. “Then, when the fruit season was near, he sent his slaves to the vinegrowers to receive his fruit.
  3. “And the vinegrowers took his slaves; and indeed they beat one, and killed another, and another they stoned.
  4. “Again, he sent other slaves, more than the first time, and they did the same to them.
  5. “Afterwards, he sent his son to them, saying; “They will turn in shame and revere(13)“will turn in shame and revere” is one word in Greek.  It means “to turn about”, often in shame or away from shame and to revere something else. my son”.
  6. “But seeing the son, the vinegrowers said among themselves; “This is the heir.  Come; we’ll kill him and gain his inheritance.
  7. “And seizing him, they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.
  8. “Therefore, when the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to these vinegrowers?”
  9. They said to Him; “He will horribly destroy those horrible men.(14)“He will horribly destroy those horrible men” is literally “He will wickedly destroy those wicked men”, but not in the sense of the destruction being wicked.  Rather, the sense is “let the punishment fit the crime”. i.e. let “the wicked meet a wicked end”.  Therefore, “horribly/horrible” was chosen to avoid this confusion, and to avoid making the reader think the lord’s actions were wicked.  And he will hire out the vineyard to other vinegrowers, who will give him the fruits in their seasons.
  10. Jesus said to them; “Did you never read in the scriptures? The stone which the builders rejected; this has become the head corner stone.  This happened from the Lord, and is marvelous in our eyes.(15)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22-23
  11. “Because of this, I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a people(16)“people” is literal.  It’s the Greek word ” ἔθνος” (ethnos), which is typically translated “Gentiles” or “nations”  Here, it’s in the neuter gender. producing its fruit.
  12. “And the man who falls on this stone will be shattered, but whoever it falls on, it will crush him to pieces and scatter him like chaff.”(17)“will crush… …to pieces and scatter him like chaff” is one word In Greek.  It refers to the process of winnowing, where the whole grain is slightly crushed to break the (useless) chaff from the (useful) grain. Then, the mixture is thrown into the air so the wind carries it away, while the heavier (useful) grain falls back to the earth.  See note on Matthew 3:12 for more information on winnowing,
  13. And hearing His parables, the chief priests and Pharisees knew that He spoke about them.
  14. And they were seeking to seize Him, but they feared the crowds because they regarded Him as a prophet.

 

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