Matthew Chapter 21

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.(16)"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

The Triumphal Entry
  1. And when they drew near to Jerusalem and came to Bethphage on the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent out two disciples,
  2. saying to them: “Go into the village before you, and at once you’ll find a donkey who has been tied, and a colt with her.  Having untied them, bring them to Me.
  3. “And if someone says anything, you will say that ‘The Lord has need of them.’ and he will send them immediately.”
  4. And this has happened so what was spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying:
  5. Tell the daughter of Zion: Behold! Your King comes to you(1)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 62:11.  “He’s strong but gentle(2)“strong but gentle” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness.  i.e. some who is strong, but applies his strength gently. and *mounted on a donkey, even on a colt; the foal of a beast of burden.”(3)Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 9:9
  6. Then having gone and done as Jesus instructed them, the disciples
  7. brought the donkey and the colt, and they put their tunics on them, and He sat on them.
  8. And the largest crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others were cutting branches from the trees and were spreading them on the road.
  9. And the crowds who preceded Him, and the crowds who followed, were crying out, saying: “Hosanna(4)“Hosanna” A Hebrew word which means “save now”, or “please save now”. It was originally a cry for help, but apparently indicates exultation or joy. The “na” suffix indicates intense emotion, hence the emphatic sense here. to the Son of David!(5)“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­the crowds. Blessed is the One who comes in the name of the Lord!(6)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:26 Hosanna in the highest!”
  10. And having entered Jerusalem, the whole city was stirred up, saying: “Who is this?”
  11. And the crowds were saying: “This is the prophet, Jesus from Nazareth of Galilee.”
Cleansing the Temple
  1. And Jesus entered the temple and threw out all the men who buy and sell in the temple, and He overturned the money-changers’ tables, and the chairs of the men who sell the doves.
  2. And He tells them: “It is *written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer‘,(7)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 56:7 but you made it a den of robbers.”(8)Quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 7:11
  3. And the blind and the lame came to Him in the temple, and He healed them.
  4. But having seen the wondrous deeds that He did, and the children who cried out in the temple saying: “Hosanna to the Son of David!”, the chief priests and scribes were incensed.
  5. And they said to Him: “Do you hear what these children say?”  And Jesus tells them, “Absolutely.  Did you never read: “From the mouths of infants and nursing babes, you prepared praise for yourself.”(9)quotation/allusion to Psalm 8:2?”
  6. And having left them behind, He went out of the city to Bethany and spent the night there.
The Fig Tree Withers
  1. And while returning to the city early in the morning, He was hungry.
  2. And having seen one fig tree on the road, He went to it and found nothing on it except leaves alone.  And He says to it: “Fruit won’t come from you any longer; not into the age.”  And the tree instantly withered.
  3. And having seen this, the disciples marveled, saying: “How did the fig tree wither instantly?”
  4. And answering, Jesus said to them: “Amen I tell you: If you have faith and don’t doubt, you’ll not only do the miracle of the fig tree, but even if you tell this mountain: ‘be lifted up and thrown into the sea’, it will happen.
  5. “And all things – as many as you ask in prayer while believing – you will receive.
Jesus’ Authority Challenged
  1. And after He went into the temple, the chief priests and elders of the people approached Him while He was teaching, saying: “By what authority do you do these things?  And who gave you this authority?”
  2. But answering, Jesus told them: “I’ll also ask you one question, which – if you answer Me – I’ll also tell you by what authority I do these things.
  3. “From where was the baptism of John: from heaven, or from men?”  And they were reasoning among themselves, saying: “If we say ‘from heaven’, He will say to us: “Then why didn’t you believe him?”.
  4. But if we say ‘from men’ we fear the crowd, for everyone regards John as a prophet.
  5. And answering Jesus, they said: “We don’t *know.”  And He was telling them: “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.
A Parable of Two Sons
  1. “But what do you think?  A man had two children.  And having approached the first, He said: “Child, go work in the vineyard today”.
  2. “And answering, he said: “Sir, I’m not willing.”  But having regretted it later, he went.
  3. “And having approached the second, he said the same thing.  And answering, he said: “I will sir.” and he didn’t go.
  4. “Which of the two did the will of the father?”  They said: “The first.”  Jesus said to them: “Amen I tell you: the tax collectors and prostitutes go into the kingdom of God before you.
  5. “For John came to you in the way of righteousness and you didn’t believe him, but the tax collectors and prostitutes believed him.  And having seen this, you didn’t even regret it afterwards to believe him.
The Wicked Vinegrowers
  1. “Hear another parable: There was a man, a master of a house, who planted a vineyard.  And He placed a fence around it, and dug a winepress in it, and built a fortified tower,(10)Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 5:1-2 and hired out vinegrowers, and traveled to a foreign country.
  2. “And when the fruit season was near, he sent his slaves to the vinegrowers to receive his fruit.
  3. “And the vinegrowers took his slaves: and indeed they beat one, and killed another, and another they stoned.
  4. “Again, he sent other slaves, more than the first time, and they did the same to them.
  5. “Afterwards, he sent his son to them, saying: “They will turn in shame and revere(11)“will turn in shame and revere” is one word in Greek.  It means “to turn about”, often in shame or away from shame and to revere something else. my son”.
  6. “But having seen the son, the vinegrowers said among themselves: “This is the heir.  Come: we’ll kill him and gain his inheritance.
  7. “And having seized him, they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.
  8. “Therefore, when the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to these vinegrowers?”
  9. They tell Him: “He will horribly destroy those horrible men.(12)“He will horribly destroy those horrible men” is literally “He will wickedly destroy those wicked men”, but not in the sense of the destruction being wicked.  Rather, the sense is “let the punishment fit the crime”. i.e. let “the wicked meet a wicked end”.  Therefore, “horribly/horrible” was chosen to avoid this confusion, and to avoid making the reader think the lord’s actions were wicked.  And he will hire out the vineyard to other vinegrowers, who will give him the fruits in their seasons.
  10. Jesus says to them: “Did you never read in the scriptures? The stone which the men who build rejected; this has become the head corner stone.  This happened from the Lord, and is marvelous in our eyes.(13)Quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22-23
  11. “Because of this, I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a people(14)“people” is literal.  It’s the Greek word ” ἔθνος” (ethnos), which is typically translated “Gentiles” or “nations”. producing its fruit.
  12. “And the man who fell on this stone will be shattered, but whoever it fell on, it will crush him to pieces and scatter him like chaff.”(15)“will crush… …to pieces and scatter him like chaff” is one word In Greek.  It refers to the process of winnowing, where the whole grain is slightly crushed to break the (useless) chaff from the (useful) grain. Then, the mixture is thrown into the air so the wind carries the chaff away, while the heavier (useful) grain falls back to the earth.  See note on Matthew 3:12 for more information on winnowing,
  13. And hearing His parables, the chief priests and Pharisees knew that He speaks about them.
  14. And they were seeking to seize Him, but they feared the crowds because they were regarding Him as a prophet.

 

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