Mark Chapter 12

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

The Wicked Vinegrowers
  1. And He began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard, and he placed a fence around it, and dug a wine-vat,1a “wine-vat” is where the juice collects after being pressed out in a wine press. and built a tower,2quotation/allusion to Isaiah 5:2 and rented it out to vinegrowers, and went to another country.
  2. “And he sent a slave to the vinegrowers at the proper season so he might receive the fruit of the vineyard from the vinegrowers.
  3. “But having seized him, they beat him and sent him away empty-handed.
  4. “And again he sent another slave to them, and they struck that man on the head and shamefully mistreated him.
  5. “And he sent another and they killed him.  And he sent many others, indeed they are beating some but killing others.
  6. “Even more, he had one beloved son, he sent him to them last, saying: “They will be turned in shame and revere3“will be turned in shame and revere” is one word in Greek.  It means “to turn about”, often in shame or away from shame and to revere something else. my son.”
  7. “Yet those vinegrowers said to themselves: “This is the heir.  Come, we should kill him and the inheritance will be ours.”
  8. “And having seized him, they killed him and threw him outside the vineyard.
  9. “Therefore, what will the owner of the vineyard do?  He will come and will destroy the vinegrowers and will give the vineyard to others.
  10. “Did you not even read this scripture: “The stone which the men building rejected, this became the head corner stone.
  11. This happened from the Lord, and is marvelous in our eyes.4quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22-23
  12. And they were seeking to seize Him, and were frightened of the crowd for they knew that He spoke the parable against them.  And having left Him, they departed.
Paying Caesar’s Tax
  1. And they send some of the Pharisees and Herod’s supporters to Him so they might entrap Him in a statement.
  2. And having come, they say to Him: “Teacher, we *know that you are true and you don’t worry about anyone, for you don’t look at the appearance of men, but you teach the way of God in truth.  Is it lawful to pay the poll tax5A “poll tax” (also called a “head tax or “capitation”) is a tax on every liable individual in a nation.  This specific tax was paid yearly, and could only be paid in Roman money, not Jewish money. to Caesar or not?  Should we pay or should we not pay?
  3. But *knowing their hypocrisy, He said to them: “Why are you testing Me?  Bring Me a denarius so I might see it.”
  4. And they brought one, and He says to them: “Whose image is this, and whose inscription?”  And they told Him: “Caesar’s”
  5. And Jesus told them: “Repay the things of Caesar to Caesar, and the things of God to God.”  And they were marveling on account of Him.
Marriage and the resurrection
  1. And some Sadducees (who say there is no resurrection) come to Him and were questioning Him, saying:
  2. “Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if anyone’s brother dies and leaves a wife behind, and doesn’t leave a child, that his brother should take the wife and raise up seed for his brother.6quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:5-6
  3. There were seven brothers, and the first took a wife and before dying he didn’t leave seed.”
  4. “And the second took her and died, not having left behind seed; and the third did likewise.
  5. “And the seven brothers didn’t leave seed.  Last of all, the woman also died.
  6. “In the resurrection when they rise, of them whose wife will she be?  For all seven had her as a wife.”
  7. Jesus was telling them: “Don’t you mislead yourselves because of this: that you haven’t understood the scriptures nor the power of God?”
  8. “For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in the heavens.
  9. “But concerning the dead, that they rise, didn’t you read in the book of Moses how God spoke to him at the bush, saying: “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.”7quotation/allusion to Exodus 3:6
  10. “He isn’t the God of the dead, but of the living.  You greatly mislead yourselves.”
The greatest commandment
  1. And having approached, one of the scribes heard them discussing together.  Having seen that He answered them well, he questioned Him: “Which commandment is foremost of all?”
  2. Jesus answered: “The foremost commandment is: Listen O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.
  3. And you shall ^love the Lord your God with your whole heart, and with your whole soul, and with your whole mind, and with your whole strength.8quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:4
  4. The second is this: you shall ^love your neighbor as yourself.9quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18  There isn’t another commandment greater than these.”
  5. And the scribe told Him: “Teacher, you spoke nobly on this truth, that He is One and there isn’t another except Him,
  6. “And to ^love Him with your whole heart, and with your whole intellect, and with your whole strength, and to ^love your neighbor as yourself is abundantly better than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
  7. And having seen him – that he answered prudently – Jesus told him: “You aren’t far from the kingdom of God.”  And no one was daring to question Him any longer.
Is the Anointed David’s son?
  1. And answering in teaching, Jesus was saying in the temple: “How are the scribes saying that the Anointed is David’s son?
  2. “David himself said in the Holy Spirit: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, sit at My right hand until I put your enemies underneath your feet.10quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:1
  3. David himself calls Him Lord, and so how is He his son?”  And the numerous crowd was gladly listening to Him.
Of Scribes and widows
  1. And He was saying in His teaching: “Watch out for the scribes, the men wanting to walk about in expensive robes,11“expensive robes” this Greek word refers to a stolé, which was primarily worn by the upper classes. and want greetings in the marketplaces,
  2. and chief seats in the synagogues, and chief places at suppers;
  3. the men devouring the houses of widows and praying long prayers as a pretense.  These men will receive abundantly more judgement.”
  4. And having sat down opposite the treasury, He was observing how the crowd throws money into the treasury.  And many rich men were throwing in much money.
  5. And having come, one poor widow threw in two lepta, which is equal to a penny.
  6. And having summoned His disciples, He told them: “Amen I tell you that this poor widow threw in more than all the men throwing money into the treasury.
  7. For all others threw in money from their overflow, but she gave from her poverty.  She threw in all of whatever she had; her whole livelihood.


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