(Tap footnote to read it. Old Testament quotations are underlined. "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love". However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior. It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings. (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".) Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé". Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing. It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )
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Romans Chapter 1
- Paul, a slave of Jesus the Anointed, called to be an apostle and *set apart for God’s gospel
- which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy scriptures,
- concerning His Son, the One who was born from the seed of David according to the flesh,
- the One who was declared God’s Son in power according to the Spirit of holiness by His resurrection from the dead; Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
- through whom we received grace and apostleship for the obedience of faith in all the gentiles for His name’s sake,
- including in you, who are also called to be of Jesus the Anointed.
- To all the men in Rome who are beloved by God and called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
Paul and the Gospel
- First, I indeed thank my God through Jesus the Anointed for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed in the whole world.
- For God – who I serve in my spirit by the gospel of His Son – is my witness of how unceasingly I make mention of you,
- always imploring in my prayers that somehow now at last by the will of God, I will successfully travel to come to you
- For I long to see you so I might impart some spiritual gift to you, for you to be strengthened.
- And that is, I wish to be encouraged together among you through each other’s faith, both your faith and mine.
- And brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant that I frequently purposed to come to you (and was hindered until now), so I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the gentiles.
- I’m indebted to both Greeks and barbarians; to both wise and foolish.
- Thus for me, I’m also ready to preach the gospel to you, the men in Rome.
- For I’m not ashamed of the gospel, for it’s the power of God for salvation to every man who believes, both to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
- For God’s righteousness is revealed in it from faith to faith, just as it is *written: “And the righteous shall live by faith.”1quotation/allusion to Habakkuk 2:4
God’s wrath upon unrighteousness
- For God’s wrath is revealed from heaven upon all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, the men who suppress the truth by unrighteousness.
- because what’s known of God is obvious among them, for God revealed it to them.
- For since the creation of the world, His invisible attributes – both His eternal power and divine nature – are clearly seen, being understood by the created things for them to be without excuse,
- because while having known God, they didn’t glorify Him as God or thank Him, but they became futile in their reasoning and their foolish heart was darkened.
- Though professing to be wise, they became fools.
- And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into a likeness of the image of corruptible man, and birds, and four-legged animals, and creeping things.2“creeping things” is one word in Greek, which can refer to reptiles, especially snakes.
- Therefore, God handed them over to the cravings of their hearts; to impurity, to disgrace their bodies among them,
- who changed the truth of God into a lie, and reverently feared and served the creation instead of the One who created it, who is blessed through the ages. Amen.
- Because of this, God handed their men3“their men” is more literally “them” in the masculine form. However, since gender matters to this verse, “their men” was chosen to avoid readers misinterpreting “them” as applying to both genders. It should be noted that the word “their” in the later phrase “their females” is also masculine. over to disgraceful, depraved passions; for both they and4“both they and” is a single word in Greek which properly means “both and”. It’s a less common conjugation, though is used seven times in Romans 1, every time with the meaning of “both and”. The antecedent for the “both” part is clearly the men in the first clause, thus “they” was added for clarity. their females exchanged the natural use of intercourse5“use of intercourse” is one word in Greek. It should be noted that the Greek word χρῆσις (chrésis) refers specifically to intercourse, which requires penetration by the male. While this verse is typically translated and interpreted to apply to female homosexuality, that is impossible because χρῆσις requires a male’s involvement. Without a male, it isn’t χρῆσις. There is no instance in all of Greek literature where χρῆσις is applied to female homosexuality. The early church fathers applied this verse not to female homosexuality, but to sodomy, which requires a male penetrating another person (male or female). Thus the “natural use of intercourse” (vaginal intercourse) is contrasted with sodomy, which is “close beside but contrary to nature”. The “female homosexuality” interpretation of this verse arose primarily after the church began to use a Latin translation of the Bible instead of the original Greek, and thus the specificity of χρῆσις was lost in translation. for the one that’s close beside but contrary to6“close beside but contrary to” is one word in Greek. It’s the Greek word “παρά” (para) which is the root of our word parallel. The primary meaning is “close beside”, but when followed by a word in the Greek accusative case – which it is here – it also gains the nuance of being “contrary to”. nature.
- And doing the same thing, the males both rejected the natural use of the female and were inflamed in their lust for one another; males in7“in” is literal, almost certainly a reference to the sodomy that homosexual males engage in. males, bringing about their shame and receiving in themselves the recompense that was proper for their error.
- And as they didn’t see fit to have recognition of God, God handed them over to a perversely unfit mind, to do the things which aren’t proper;
- *filling themselves with all unrighteousness, depravity, covetousness, wickedness, full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malevolence, secret slanderers;
- slanderous, abhorring God, violent, arrogant, boasters, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,
- without understanding, covenant-breakers, without familial affection, and without mercy.
- Men who, while having known the righteous judgement and ordinance of God – that the men who practice such things are worthy of death – not only do them, but also join in approvingly with the men who practice them.
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Romans Chapter 2
God’s righteous, impartial judgement
- Therefore, you O man are inexcusable, every man of you who’s judging. For by what you judge the other man, you condemn yourself; for the man who’s judging practices the same things.
- Yet we *know that the judgement of God is based on truth upon the men who practice such things.
- And consider this O man; you man judging the men practicing such things (even while doing them yourself), do you think that you will escape the judgement of God?
- Or do you scorn the richness of His benevolence, and forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the benevolence of God leads you to repentance.
- And according to your hardness and your unrepentant heart, you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and the revelation of the righteous judgement of God,
- who will repay to each according to his deeds.1quotation/allusion to Psalm 62:12
- To the men who by endurance in good work are seeking glory, and honor, and incorruptibility: the life of ages2“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t. The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”
- But to the men of selfishly ambition and men who disobey the truth (also being persuaded of unrighteousness): anger and wrath.
- Tribulation and anguish will come upon every man’s soul who practices wickedness; both to the Jew first and then to the Greek.
- But glory, and honor, and peace to every man who practices good; both to the Jew first and also to the Greek,
- for there’s no partiality with God.
Obedience matters, not circumcision
- For as many as sinned without the law will also perish without the law. And as many as sinned with the law will be judged by the law.
- For the hearers of the law aren’t righteous with God, but the doers of the law will be proved righteous –
- (For when the gentiles who don’t have the law do the things of the law by nature, these men who don’t have the law are a law to themselves,
- who clearly demonstrate the work of the law written in their hearts, witnessing together with their conscience, and between one another, their thoughts are accusing or even defending them.
- – on that day when God judges the hidden things of men through Jesus the Anointed according to my gospel.
- But if you bear the name of ‘Jew’, and rely on the law, and boast in God,
- and you know His will, and you examine the things to prove what is excellent, being taught from the law,
- and you are *confident in yourself to be both a guide to blind men and a light to the men in darkness;
- a strict schoolmaster of foolish men, a teacher of immature men, having the embodiment of knowledge and of the truth in the law;
- therefore, you man who teaches another, don’t you teach yourself? You man who preaches not to steal, do you steal?
- You man who says not to have sex with another man’s wife,3“have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication. do you have sex with another man’s wife? You man who detests idols, do you rob temples?
- You who boast in the law, do you dishonor God through a deliberate violation of the law?
- For: “the name of God is blasphemed among the gentiles because of you“4quotation/allusion to Ezekiel 36:20 just as it is *written.
- For circumcision indeed benefits you if you practice the law. But if you are a deliberate violator of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision.
- Therefore, if the uncircumcised man keeps the ordinances of the law, won’t his uncircumcision be considered as circumcision?
- And the uncircumcised man by birth who is fulfilling the law will judge you to be a deliberate violator of the law through the letter of the law and circumcision.
- For the one with the appearance of a Jew isn’t, nor the one with the appearance of circumcision in the flesh,
- but the man who’s a Jew internally is a Jew; who also has circumcision of the heart in spirit, not in the letter, whose approval isn’t from men, but from God.
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Romans Chapter 3
God is righteous
- Then what is the advantage of the Jew? Or what is the benefit of the circumcision?
- Much in every way. For indeed, it’s primarily that they were entrusted with the oracles of God.
- For what if some disbelieved? Their unbelief won’t nullify the faithfulness of God will it?
- May it never be! But let God be true though every man is a liar; just as it is *written: “that you might be made righteous in your words, and will prevail when you’re to be judged.”1quotation/allusion to Psalm 51:4
- But if our unrighteousness proves God’s righteousness, what will we say: is God – the One who inflicts wrath – unrighteous? (I speak as a man might.)
- May it never be! Otherwise, how will God judge the world?
- But if the truth of God overflowed for His glory by my lie, why am I also still judged as a sinner?
- And why not say: “let us do evil so good might come”? Just as we’re blasphemously charged with saying and as some report us to say; their condemnation is just.
No man is righteous
- What then, are we better? Not at all! For we previously brought an accusation against both Jews and Greeks that all are under sin.
- Just as it is *written: “There is none righteous, not even one.
- “There is no man who understands, there is no man who seeks God.
- “All turned away; together they became like worthless spoiled milk.2” they have become like worthless spoiled milk” is one word in Greek, originally referring to milk that had spoiled, and thus was worthless and good for nothing. Thus, this word also has the connotation of being corrupt/spoiled/ruined. There is no man who does good; there isn’t even one.”3quotation/allusion to Psalm 14:1-3
- “Their throat is a *open grave, their tongues were continually deceiving.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 5:9 “The venom of asps5an “asp” is a highly poisonous snake who’s venom is very often fatal when left untreated. Further, the venom works quickly, making it even more dangerous. is under their lips;”6quotation/allusion to Psalm 140:3
- “whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.”7quotation/allusion to Psalm 10:7
- “Their feet are swift to spill blood,
- “complete ruin and misery are in their ways,
- “and they didn’t know the way of peace.”8quotation/allusion to Isaiah 59:7-8
- “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”9quotation/allusion to Psalm 36:1
- Yet we have known that whatever the law says, it speaks to the men under the law so that every mouth might be stopped, and all the world might be brought to trial, being guilty10“might be brought to trial, being guilty” is one word in Greek. It refers to bringing someone who is guilty to trial to answer for their crimes. It can also refer to the sentence of the condemned. before God.
- Therefore, no flesh will be made righteous in His sight by the works of the law, for through the law comes knowledge of sin.
Righteousness from God through Jesus
- But now, the righteousness of God has been made known apart from the law, being testified of by the law and the prophets;
- even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus the Anointed for all the men who believe. For there’s no distinction,
- for all sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
- being made righteous by His freely given grace through the repurchase payment11“repurchase payment” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”. It properly refers to the price paid to “buy back” something that had been lost. in Jesus the Anointed,
- who God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood for a demonstration of His righteousness, by the forbearance of God through the overlooking of sins which we have previously committed,
- for the demonstration of His righteousness in the present season, for Him to be righteous and also making righteous the man whose faith is in Jesus.
- Where then is the boasting? It was excluded. Because of what Law? Of works? By no means, but through the law of faith.
- For we consider a man to be made righteous by faith apart from the works of the law.
- Or is God only God of the Jews? Isn’t He also God of the gentiles? Yes! Of the gentiles too,
- since there’s indeed one God who will make the circumcision righteous by faith and the uncircumcision righteous through the same faith.
- Then, do we nullify the law through faith? May it never be! Instead, we establish the law.
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Romans Chapter 4
Righteousness from works vs faith
- Therefore, what will we say that Abraham has discovered? (Who is our father according to the flesh.)
- For if Abraham was made righteous by works, he has a reason to boast (but not to God).
- For what does scripture say: “And Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness.”1quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
- Now, to the man who works, his wage isn’t credited as grace, but as what’s owed.
- But to the man who doesn’t work but believes on the One who makes the ungodly righteous, his faith is credited as righteousness,
- Just as David also speaks of how blessed is the man for whom God credits righteousness apart from works:
- “Blessed are the men whose lawless deeds were forgiven, and whose sins were covered;
- “blessed is the man to whom the Lord definitely won’t credit his sin.”2quotation/allusion to Psalm 32:1
- Then, is this blessing only on the circumcision, or also on the uncircumcision? (For we say faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.)3quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
- Then how was it credited? While being in circumcision or in uncircumcision? Not while in circumcision, but while in uncircumcision.
- And he received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness of the faith he had while in uncircumcision, for him to be the father of all the men who believe while in uncircumcision, for it to be credited to them as righteousness also.
- And the father of circumcision isn’t only father to the men of circumcision, but also to the men who walk in the footsteps of the faith of our father Abraham while in uncircumcision.
Through faith, not law
- For the promise – for him to be an heir to the world – wasn’t given to Abraham or his seed through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.
- For if the men of the law are heirs, faith has been made void and the promise has been nullified.
- For the law brings about wrath; but where there’s no law, there’s no deliberate sin either.
- Therefore, it’s from faith so that it’s by grace, for all the seed to be certain of the promise; not only to the seed of the law, but also to the seed of Abraham’s faith, who is the father of us all.
- Just as it is *written: “I have established you as a father of many nations.”4quotation/allusion to Genesis 17:5 He believed before God, the One who gives life to the dead and calls the things which don’t exist into being.
- With hope against hope, Abraham believed the promise for him to become the father of many nations, according to what has been spoken: “So will your seed be.”5quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:5
- And not having been weak in faith, he considered his own body as [already] *dying (being about one hundred years old) and the deadness of Sarah’s womb.
- But he didn’t doubt the promise of God in unbelief, but was strengthened in faith; having given glory to God
- and having been fully convinced that what God has promised, He is also able to do.
- And therefore: “It was credited to him as righteousness.”6quotation/allusion to Genesis 15:6
- Yet it wasn’t written that “it was credited to him” because of him alone,
- but also because of us (to whom it’s about to be credited); to the men who believe on the One who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,
- who was handed over because of our missteps7“missteps”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional., and was raised for the sake of us being made righteous.
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Romans Chapter 5
Peace with God
- Therefore, having been made righteous by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord, Jesus the Anointed.
- Through whom we also *have access by faith into this grace in which we *stand, and we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.
- And not only that, but we also rejoice in tribulations; *knowing that tribulation produces endurance,
- and endurance produces proven character, and proven character produces hope.
- And hope doesn’t make us ashamed because the ^love of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit; the One who was given to us.
- For with us still being weak, the Anointed died for the sake of the ungodly at the opportune time.
- For rarely will someone die for the sake of a righteous man, though for the sake of a good man perhaps someone might even dare to die.
- But God is proving His own ^love for us, because with us still being sinners, the Anointed died for our sake.
- Therefore, having now been made righteous by His blood, how much more will we be saved from wrath through Him!
- For if we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son while being enemies, then having been reconciled, how much more will we be saved by His life!
- And not only this, but we’re also rejoicing in God through our Lord, Jesus the Anointed, through whom we now received our reconciliation.
Death through Adam’s sin, life through Jesus’ righteousness
- Because of this, just as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin, so also death spread to all men, because all sinned.
- For sin was in the world until the law, but sin isn’t charged to an account when there’s no law.
- But regardless, death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over the men who didn’t sin in the likeness of the deliberate sin of Adam, who is a type of the One who is about to come.
- But the gift of grace isn’t like the misstep.1“misstep”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. For if the many died by one man’s misstep, so also the grace of God and the gift by the grace of one man – Jesus the Anointed – overflowed much more to the many.
- And the gift isn’t like what came through the one who sinned. For indeed, the judgement from one resulted in a sentence of punishment, but the gift of grace from many missteps resulted in our being made righteous.
- For if death reigned through the one misstep of the one, how much more will the men receiving the abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus the Anointed!
- So therefore, just as a sentence of punishment came to all men through one misstep, so also being made righteous in life came to all men through one righteous deed.
- For just as the many were made sinners through the disobedience of one man, so also the many will be made righteous through the obedience of One man.
- And the law entered so the missteps might abound. But where sin abounded, grace super-abounded,
- so just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to the life of ages2“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t. The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?” through Jesus the Anointed our Lord.
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Romans Chapter 6
Dead to sin, Alive to the Anointed
- Therefore, what will we say? Might we continue in sin so grace might abound?
- May it never be! How will we who died to sin still live in it?
- Or do you not know that as many as were baptized into Jesus the Anointed were baptized into His death?
- Therefore, we were buried with Him through baptism into death, so just as the Anointed was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we might also walk in newness of life.
- For if we have become united with the likeness of His death, we will also be the same in the likeness of His resurrection,
- knowing this: that our old man was crucified with Him, so the body of sin might be nullified, to enslave us to sin no longer.
- For the man who died has been absolved from sin.
- And if we died with the Anointed, we believe that we will also live with Him,
- *knowing that the Anointed (having been raised from the dead) no longer dies; death no longer has authority over Him.
- For the death that He died, He died to sin once for all; but the life that He lives, He lives to God.
- And you likewise must consider yourselves to be indeed dead to sin, but alive to God in Jesus the Anointed.
- Therefore, don’t let sin reign in your mortal body in order to obey its cravings,
- nor present your parts as tools of unrighteousness in sin, but present yourselves to God as alive from the dead, and your parts as tools of righteousness to God.
- For sin won’t have authority over you, for you aren’t under the law, but under grace.
Sin into death, obedience into righteousness
- What then, might we sin because we aren’t under the law but under grace? May it never be!
- Don’t you *know that whoever you present yourselves to as slaves for obedience, you are slaves to him who you obey? (Whether of sin into death or of obedience into righteousness.)
- But grace be to God because while you were formerly slaves of sin, yet you became obedient from the heart to the pattern of teaching to which you were delivered,
- and having been freed from sin, you were enslaved to righteousness.
- I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you presented your parts as slaves to impurity and lawlessness resulting in more lawlessness, so now present your parts as slaves to righteousness leading into becoming holy.
- For when you were slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness.
- Therefore, what fruit did you have then on account of the things about which you’re now ashamed? For the end of those things is death.
- But presently – having been freed from sin and having been made slaves to God – you have your fruit for becoming holy, and the end is the life of ages.1“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t. The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”
- For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of grace in God is the life of ages2“life of ages” see previous note. in Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
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Romans Chapter 7
The law, sin, and death
- Or don’t you know brothers – for I speak to men knowing the law – that the law has authority over a man for as long as the time he lives?
- For the married woman is *bound by law to her husband while he’s living. But if the husband dies, she is *severed from the law concerning the husband.
- So then, if she became joined to another man while her husband is living, she will publicly be called an adulteress. But she is free from the law if the husband dies, so she’s not an adulteress though having become joined to another man.
- So then my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of the Anointed for you to become1“become” this word can also be mean to be born. joined to another, the One who was raised from the dead so we might bear fruit to God.
- For when we were in the flesh, sinful passions were working in our limbs through the law to bear the fruit of death.
- But now, we were severed from the law, having died to what we were bound by in order for us to serve in the newness of the Spirit and not in the oldness of the letter.
- Then what will we say? Is the law sin? May it never be! But I didn’t recognize sin except through the law, for I hadn’t even been aware of covetousness except the law was saying: “You shall not covet.”2quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21
- But having taken an opportunity through the commandment, sin produced all sorts of covetousness in me; for apart from the law, sin is dead.
- Yet I once was alive apart from the law; but having come, the commandment revived the sin and I died.
- And the commandment that was to result in life for me was found to result in death.
- For having taken an opportunity through the commandment, sin thoroughly deceived me and through it put me to death.
- So then the law is indeed holy; and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good.
Desiring to do good but not doing it
- Therefore, did something good become death to me? May it never be! But it was sin – so it might be revealed as sin – working out death in me through what’s good so sin might become sinful beyond excess through the commandment.
- For we *known that the law is spiritual but I’m fleshly, having been *sold under sin’s authority.
- For I don’t understand what I do. For what I desire, this I don’t do. But what I hate, this I do.
- But if what I don’t desire, this I do; I agree with the law that the law is good.
- And now I no longer do it, but the sin which dwells in me.
- For I *know that good doesn’t dwell in me (that is, in my flesh). For the desire to do good is present in me, but the doing of good isn’t.
- For I don’t do the good that I desire, but the evil that I don’t desire, this I practice.
- And if what I don’t desire, this I do; it’s no longer I who do it, but the sin which dwells in me.
- Therefore, through the law I find the principle that evil is present in me, me the man who desires to do good,
- for I delight in the law of God according to the inward man.
- But I see another law in my limbs, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner to the law of sin which is present in my limbs.
- What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death?
- But grace be to God through Jesus the Anointed our Lord! So then, I myself indeed serve God’s law with my mind, but sin’s law with my flesh.
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Romans Chapter 8
Walking in Flesh vs Spirit
- Therefore, there is now no sentence of punishment to the men in Jesus the Anointed [who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.]1This textual variant is disputed, with the majority of manuscripts supporting its inclusion, but the earliest manuscripts supporting its omission. The exact same words occur in verse 4. It possible that scribes copied this down from there to “soften” the verse, or that Paul repeated it for emphasis. The debate is ongoing.
- For the law of the Spirit of life in Jesus the Anointed set you free from the law of sin and death.
- For the law was powerless in that it was weak through the flesh. But God sent His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh; and concerning sin, He condemned sin in the flesh,
- so the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, the men who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.
- For the men who are walking according to the flesh mind the things of the flesh, but the men walking according to the Spirit, mind the things of the Spirit.
- For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace;
- because the mind of the flesh has hostility for God because it’s not subject to the law of God, nor can it be.
- And the men who are in the flesh aren’t able to please God.
- But you aren’t in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed God’s Spirit dwells in you. But if someone doesn’t have the Spirit of the Anointed, this man isn’t of Him.
- But if the Anointed is in you, your body is indeed dead because of sin. But the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
- But if the Spirit of the One who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the One who raised Jesus the Anointed [from the dead] will also resurrect your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.
- So then brothers, we aren’t debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.
- For if you live according to the flesh, you’re about to die. But if you put the deeds of the body to death by the Spirit, you will live.
Adoption as Sons
- For as many as are led by God’s Spirit, these are sons of God.
- For you didn’t receive a spirit of slavery to fear again, but you received the Spirit of adoption as sons by whom we cry “Abba,2“Abba” is a Greek form of the Hebrew word for father. It is a term of greater closeness and familiarity than “father”, though the degree of closeness is widely debated. Some think “Papa” or “Daddy” is appropriate, while others say that’s is too familiar and prefer “Dad” or perhaps “Pa”. Some of the latter group prefer to render as an adjective and would translate it “dear father”. Father.”
- The same Spirit testifies together with our spirit that we are children of God.
- And if children, also heirs; indeed, we’re heirs of God and co-heirs with the Anointed, if indeed we suffer with Him so we might also be glorified together with Him.
- For I conclude that the sufferings of the present season aren’t worthy of comparison to the glory which is about to be revealed to us.
- For the creation eagerly awaits in earnest expectation for the revelation of the sons of God.
- For the creation was subjected to futility; not voluntarily, but because of the One who subjected it in the confidence
- that the creation itself will also be freed from the slavery of corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
- For we have known that all creation groans together and suffers birthing pains until now.
- And not only that, but even we ourselves – though having the firstfruit of the Spirit – even we ourselves groan in ourselves eagerly awaiting the adoption as sons; the ransoming back3“ransoming back” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”. It properly refers to a released secured by paying a ransom. of our body.
- For we were saved in this hope. But hope that’s seen isn’t hope, for does someone hope for what he sees?
- but if we hope for what we don’t see, we eagerly await through patient endurance.
- And likewise also, the Spirit helps our weakness, for we don’t *know what we should pray for as is proper, but the Spirit Himself intercedes with groanings that can’t be expressed in words.
- And the One who searches hearts *knows what’s in the mind of the Spirit, because He intercedes on behalf of the saints before God.
- And we have known that all things work together for good to the men who ^love God; to the men who are called according to His purpose,
- because who He knew beforehand, He also appointed beforehand to be conformed to the image of His Son, for Him to be the firstborn among many brothers.
- And who He appointed beforehand, these He also called. And who He called, these He also made righteous. And who He made righteous, these He also glorified.
Nothing can separate us from God
- What then will we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?
- Indeed, He who didn’t spare His own Son but handed Him over for all our sake, how could He not also freely give all things to us with Him?
- Who will bring a charge against God’s elect? God is the One who makes righteous.
- Who is the man who condemns? For Jesus the Anointed – the One who died and was raised [from the dead] and who is at the right hand of God – who also intercedes on our behalf.
- Who will separate us from the ^love of the Anointed? Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword?
- Just as it is *written: “We are put to death all day long for your sake; we were considered like sheep of slaughter.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 44:22
- But in all these things, we are more than conquerors through the One who ^loved us.
- For I am *convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things which have been present, nor things to come, nor powers,
- nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing will be able to separate us from the ^love of God in Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
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Romans Chapter 9
Concern for Jews
- I speak the truth in the Anointed. I don’t lie; my conscience is testifying with me in the Holy Spirit
- that my grief is great, and the deep sorrow in my heart is unceasing.
- For I was wishing myself to be anathema1“anathema” likely because of the Bible, this Greek word has entered the English vocabulary. In Greek it literally means to curse someone, or more specifically to offer a curse to them to devote them to God’ destruction. It can also have the connotation of being abominable and/or detestable. – separated from the Anointed – for the sake of my brothers; my kinsmen according to the flesh,
- who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory, and the covenants, and the Mosaic legislation, and the sacred service, and the promises;
- to whom belong the forefathers, and from whom came the Anointed according to the flesh; the One who is God over all and blessed through the ages, Amen.
- But it’s not that the word of God has failed, for not all the men of Israel are these men of Israel.
- Nor are all children because they’re Abraham’s seed, but “In Isaac your seed will be called.”2quotation/allusion to Genesis 21:12
- That is, it’s not these children of the flesh who are children of God; but the children of the promise are considered to be seed.
- For the word of promise was this: “At this time, I will come and there will be a son through Sarah.”3quotation/allusion to Genesis 18:10
- And not only that, but also Rebecca having her conception by one man, Isaac our father.
- For while not yet having been born nor having done anything good or evil – so the purpose of God in regard to His elect might remain not from works, but from the One who calls –
- it was said to her: “The older will serve the younger.”4quotation/allusion to Genesis 25:23
- Just as it is *written: “Jacob I ^loved, but Esau I hated.”5quotation/allusion to Malachi 1:2
The Potter and the Clay
- Then what will we say? There isn’t injustice with God is there? May it never be!
- For He says to Moses: “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”6quotation/allusion to Exodus 33:15
- So then it’s not up to the man desiring nor the man running, but to God having mercy.
- For the scripture says of Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this: so that I might demonstrate My power in you, and so that My name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”7quotation/allusion to Exodus 9:16
- So then He has mercy on whom He desires and He hardens whom He desires.
- Therefore you will say to me: “Then why does He still find fault? For who has resisted His will?”
- On the contrary O man, who are you? The man who contradicts God? The thing that’s molded won’t say to the One who molded it: “Why did you make me this way?”, will it?
- Or doesn’t the potter have the authority over the clay, to make from the same lump one vessel for honor and another for dishonor?
- And what if God – desiring to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known – bore in much patience the vessels of wrath *fit for destruction?
- And so He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory,
- who He also called us, not only from the Jews, but also from the gentiles.
- Just as He also says in Hosea: “I will call the man who isn’t My people, My people; and the woman who hasn’t been ^loved, the woman who has been ^loved.”8quotation/allusion to Hosea 2:23
- And: “it will be in the place where it was said to them, “you aren’t My people”, there they will be called sons of the living God.” 9quotation/allusion to Hosea 1:10
- Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel might be as the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved.
- “For the Lord will do His word; fulfilling and swiftly executing it upon the land.”10quotation/allusion to Isaiah 10:22
- And as Isaiah has foretold: “Unless the Lord of hosts had left us seed, we would’ve become like Sodom and we would’ve been made like Gomorrah.” 11quotation/allusion to Isaiah 1:9
- Then what will we say? That the gentiles not pursuing righteousness attained righteousness? (And that righteousness is from faith)
- But Israel pursuing a law of righteousness didn’t attain to that law?
- Why? Because it wasn’t from faith, but as from works, they stumbled at the stone of stumbling,
- just as it is *written: “Behold, I place a stone of stumbling in Zion, and a rock of offense. And the man who believes on Him won’t be put to shame.” 12quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16
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Romans Chapter 10
Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved
- Brothers, the delight of my heart and earnest prayer to God on their behalf is indeed for their salvation.
- For I testify about them (that they have zeal for God) but it’s not according to accurate knowledge.
- For not knowing God’s righteousness and seeking to establish their own [righteousness], they weren’t submitted to the righteousness of God.
- For the end of the law is the Anointed, for righteousness to every man who believes.
- For Moses writes of the righteousness from the law: “The man who does them, he will live by them.”1quotation/allusion to Leviticus 18:5
- But the righteousness from faith speaks this way: “You shouldn’t say in your heart “who will ascend into heaven?”2quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:12 (that is, to bring the Anointed down.)
- or “Who will descend into the abyss?”3quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:13; the Greek word for “abyss” here can refer to anything for which the bottom is not known. In the Septuagint, it was used for the deep sea in several places. (That is, to bring the Anointed up from the dead)
- But what does it say? “The spoken word is near you; in your mouth and in your heart.”4quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 30:14 That’s the spoken word of faith which we proclaim.
- That if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.
- For someone believes with the heart resulting in righteousness, and someone confesses with the mouth resulting in salvation.
- For the scripture says: “Every man who believes on Him won’t be put to shame.”5quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16
- For there’s no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all the men who call on Him.
- For “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”6quotation/allusion to Joel 2:32
- Therefore, how could they call on Him whom they didn’t believe? And how could they believe on Him whom they didn’t hear? And how could they hear without someone proclaiming?
- And how could they proclaim if they weren’t sent? Just as it is *written: “How beautiful are the feet [of the men who proclaim the good news of peace;] of the men who proclaim the good news of good things.”7quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:7
Not all Listened
- But not all listened to the good news. For Isaiah says: “Lord, who believed our report?”8quotation/allusion to Isaiah 53:1
- So faith is from hearing, and hearing through a spoken word about the Anointed.
- But I say: “Didn’t they definitely hear?” Indeed; “Their voice went out into all the earth and their words to the ends of the world.”9quotation/allusion to Psalm 19:4
- But I say: “Didn’t Israel definitely know?” First, Moses says: “I will make you jealous by those who aren’t a nation; I will anger you by a nation without understanding.”10quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:21
- Then Isaiah is very bold and says: “I was found by the men not seeking Me; I became manifest to the men not inquiring after Me.”11quotation/allusion to Isaiah 65:1
- But to Israel he says: “I extended My hands the whole day to a people who disobey and contradict Me.”12quotation/allusion to Isaiah 65:2
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Romans Chapter 11
- Therefore I say: “Didn’t God reject His people?” May it never be! For I’m also an Israelite of Abraham’s seed, of Benjamin’s tribe.
- God didn’t reject His people whom He knew beforehand. Or haven’t you known what the Scripture says in Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel:
- “Lord, they killed your prophets, they tore down your altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my life.”1quotation/allusion to 1 Kings 19:10
- But what does the divine response tell him? “I reserved seven thousand men for Myself who didn’t bow the knee to Baal.” 2quotation/allusion to 1 Kings 19:18
- Then in this way also, there *is a remnant in the present season according to the election of grace.
- And if its by grace, it’s no longer from works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. [And if its from works, it’s no longer grace; otherwise, the work is no longer work.]
- What then? What Israel is seeking, they didn’t obtain it; but the elect obtained it and the rest were hardened,
- just as it is *written: “God gave them a spirit of stupor; to not see with the eyes, and to not hear with the ears, until the present day.”3quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 29:4, and Isaiah 29:10
- And David says: “Let their table be for a snare, and for a trap, and for a stumbling block, and for a recompense to them.
- “Let their eyes be darkened to not see, and oppressively bend their back through all time.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 69:22-23
- Therefore I say: “Didn’t they stumble so they might fall?” May it never be! But by their misstep,5 “misstep”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) and carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. salvation came to the gentiles in order to make them jealous.
- But if their misstep brought riches to the world, and their loss brought riches to the gentiles, how much more will their fullness bring?
- But I speak to you, the gentiles. In as much as I’m indeed an apostle to the gentiles, I magnify my ministry
- if somehow I will make my kinsmen of flesh jealous and will save some of them.
- For if their rejection brought the world’s reconciliation, what could their acceptance bring, except life from the dead?
- And if the firstfruit is holy, the whole lump is also. And if the root is holy, the branches are also.
- But if some of the branches were broken off and you – though being a wild olive tree – were grafted in among them, and became a fellow partaker of the richness of the olive tree’s root,
- don’t boast over the branches. But if you exalt yourself over them, remember that you don’t sustain the root, but the root sustains you.
- Then you will say: “Branches were broken off so I might be grafted in.”
- Rightly so; they were broken off by unbelief; but you *stand by faith. Don’t be high-minded, but fear:
- for if God didn’t spare the natural branches, neither will He spare you.
- Therefore, behold the benevolence and severity of God. Indeed, severity upon the men who fell; but the benevolence of God to you if you remain in benevolence, otherwise you also will be cut off.
- And yet if they don’t continue in unbelief, they will be grafted in. For God is able to graft them in again.
- For if you were cut off from a wild olive tree by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree?
All Israel will be saved
- For brothers, I don’t want you to be ignorant of this mystery so you won’t be wise in your own estimation; that a partial hardening of Israel has happened until the fullness of the gentiles might come in.
- And all Israel will be saved in this way, just as it is *written: “He will come from Zion; the One who delivers by drawing to Himself.6“delivers by drawing to Himself” is one word in Greek. It properly means to rescue or deliver someone by pulling them out of danger toward yourself. He will remove ungodliness from Jacob.”7quotation/allusion to Isaiah 59:20
- And “This is My covenant with them, when I take away their sins.”8quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:33-34
- As it concerns the gospel, they are indeed enemies because of you. But as it concerns the election, they are beloved because of the forefathers.
- For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.
- For just as you were once disobedient to God, but now were shown mercy because of the disobedience of these men,
- in this way also, these men were now disobedient for your mercy, so now they also might be shown mercy.
- For God enclosed all in disobedience so He might show mercy to all.
- O, the depth of the riches, and wisdom, and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgements and unfathomable are His ways!
- For who knew the mind of the Lord, or who became His advisor?
- Or “Who gave to Him first and it will be repaid to him?”9quotation/allusion to Job 41:11
- Because all things are from Him, and through Him, and for Him. To Him be the glory through the ages! Amen.
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Romans Chapter 12
- Therefore brothers, because of the compassions of God, I urge you to present your bodies as a living sacrifice; holy and pleasing to God as your reasonable service in response.
- And don’t be conformed to this age, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, for you to prove by testing what is the good, and pleasing, and perfect will of God.
- For through the grace which was given to me, I tell every man among you not to be overly proud beyond what’s proper to think, but to think so as to be sober-minded as God distributed a measure of faith to each.
- For just as we have many parts in one body, but all the parts don’t have the same function,
- in this way, we the many parts are one body in the Anointed, and individually parts of one another,
- but having different gifts of grace according to the grace which was given to us. If prophecy, in proportion to faith;
- if service, in serving; or the man who teaches in teaching;
- or the man who exhorts in exhortation; the man who gives in generosity; the man who leads with diligent zeal; the man who shows mercy with cheerfulness.
- Let ^love be without hypocrisy; abhorring evil, adhering to good.
- Be tenderly devoted to one another in brotherly love, preferring one another in honor,
- not slothful in diligent zeal, being fervent in spirit, serving the Lord,
- rejoicing in hope, enduring in tribulation, constantly persevering in prayer,
- contributing to the needs of the saints, and pursuing hospitality.
- Bless the men who persecute you; bless and don’t curse.
- You are to rejoice with those who are rejoicing, to weep with those who are weeping;
- being of the same mind toward one another, not minding haughty things, but associating with humble men; don’t become wise in your own estimation;
- repaying evil for evil to no one, but respecting good in the sight of all men;
- If possible, from what depends on you, living in peace with all men;
- not avenging yourselves beloved, but give a place for God’s wrath. For it is *written: “Vengeance is Mine; I will repay.”1quotation/allusion to Proverbs 24:29 says the Lord.
- But “If your enemy hungers, feed him. If he thirsts, give him a drink. For in doing this, you will heap fiery coals on his head.”2quotation/allusion to Proverbs 25:21-22
- Don’t be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good.
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Romans Chapter 13
Submission to Authorities
- Let every soul be submitted to the higher authorities. For there’s no authority except under God, and the ones that exist are *appointed by God.
- Therefore, the man who sets himself against the authority has resisted the mandate of God; and the men who have resisted shall incur judgement on themselves.
- For the rulers aren’t a terror to a good deed, but to evil. And do you want to not fear the authority? Do good and you will have praise from the authority.
- For he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do evil, be frightened for he doesn’t bear the sword in vain. For he is a servant of God; an avenger for wrath to the man who practices evil.
- Therefore, it’s necessary to be submitted; not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience.
- For because of this, you also pay taxes; for they are servants of God, continually attending on this same thing.
- Repay to all what is owed; tax to whom tax is due; the toll to whom the toll is due, fear to whom fear is due, honor to whom honor is due.
- Owe nothing to anyone, except to ^love one another; for the man who ^loves another has fulfilled the law.
- For “You shall not have sex with another man’s wife.”1quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14 and Deuteronomy 5:18. “have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication. “You shall not murder“2quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13 and Deuteronomy 5:17 “You shall not steal“3quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:15 and Deuteronomy 5:19 [“You shall not testify falsely“4quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:16 and Deuteronomy 5:20] “You shall not covet“,5quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21 and if there’s any other commandment, it is summarized in this statement: “You shall ^love your neighbor as yourself.”6Quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
- ^Love doesn’t do evil to its neighbor. Therefore, ^love is the fulfillment of the law.
Clothe yourselves in the Anointed
- And do this *knowing the season; that it’s already the hour for you to awaken from sleep. For now, our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.
- The night progressed and the day has drawn near. Therefore, we should cast off the works of darkness and clothe ourselves with the war equipment7“war equipment” is one word in Greek. It refers to the various tools, implements, and weapons used to wage war. The Greek word is “ὅπλον” (hoplon), which was one name for the large wooden shield from which the “Hoplites” in the ancient Grecian military got their name. of light.
- We should walk properly as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in immoral sex and wanton debauchery, not in strife and jealousy.
- But clothe yourselves with the Anointed Lord Jesus, and don’t make provision for the cravings of the flesh.
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Romans Chapter 14
The weaker brother
- Now, welcome the man who is weak in faith, but not to pass judgement on his reasonings.
- Indeed, a man who believes is able to eat all things; but the man who is weak eats only vegetables.
- Let the man who eats not disdain the man who doesn’t eat; and let the man who doesn’t eat not judge the man who does eat, for God welcomed him.
- Who are you to judge the household servant of another? He stands or falls to his own master, but he will stand; for the Lord is able to make him stand.
- For indeed, one esteems a day above another day, but another esteems every day evenly. Let each man be fully convinced in his own mind.
- The man who observes the day, observes it to the Lord. [And the man who doesn’t observe the day, doesn’t observe it to the Lord.] The man who eats, eats to the Lord for he thanks God. And the man who doesn’t eat, doesn’t eat to the Lord and he thanks God.
- For none of us lives for himself and none dies for himself.
- For both if we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord. Therefore, both if we live and if we die, we are the Lord’s.
- For the Anointed died and lived again for this: so He might rule over both the dead and the living.
- But you, why do you judge your brother? Or also, why do you disdain your brother? For we will all stand before the judgement seat of God.
- For it is *written: “As I live, says the Lord, every knee will bow to Me, and every tongue will confess to God.”1quotation/allusion to Isaiah 45:23
- So then, each of us will give an account concerning himself to God.
- Therefore, we should no longer judge one another, but rather resolve this: not to put a stumbling block or bait that ensnares2“bait that ensnares” is a single word in the Greek. It specifically refers to a “bait stick”, meaning the trigger stick of a trap or snare to which the bait is attached. Think of the part of a mouse trap to which you affix the cheese. On reaching for the bait, the “bait stick” triggers the trap and ensnares the unsuspecting victim. It can also refer to offending someone or to someone stumbling. before your brother.
- I have known and have been convinced in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean because of itself, except to the man who considers something to be unclean; to that man, it’s unclean.
- For if your brother is grieved because of food, you no longer walk according to ^love. Don’t utterly ruin with your food that man for whose sake the Anointed died.
- Therefore, don’t let your good be slandered as evil.
- For the kingdom of God isn’t eating and drinking, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit.
- For the man who serves the Anointed in these things is pleasing to God and approved by men.
- So then, we should pursue the things of peace, and the things for building up into one another.
- Don’t demolish3“demolish” this Greek word is often translated “destroy” here. It can refer to the tearing down of a buildings, though it has many other nuances of meaning depending on the context. the work of God for the sake of food. All things are indeed clean, but they are evil to the man who eats because of bait that ensnares.4“bait that ensnares” see note on verse 13.
- It’s good neither to eat meat, nor to drink wine, nor anything by which your brother stumbles, or is ensnared, or is weak.
- The faith that you have, have it in yourself in the sight of God. Blessed is the man who doesn’t condemn himself in what he approves.
- But if the man who doubts eats, he has condemned himself because it’s not from faith, and everything that’s not from faith is sin.
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Romans Chapter 15
The weaker brother (continued)
- Now, we (the strong) ought to bear with the weaknesses of the weak and not to please ourselves.
- Let each of us please his neighbor for his good for building him up.
- For even the Anointed didn’t please Himself, but just as it is *written: “The slanders of the men slandering you fell on Me.”1quotation/allusion Psalm 69:9
- For whatever was previously written, it was [all] written for our instruction, so through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures, we might have hope.
- And may the God of endurance and encouragement grant you to be of the same mind with one another according to Jesus the Anointed,
- so that single-mindedly with one mouth you might glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus the Anointed.
- Therefore, accept one another just as the Anointed also accepted you, to the glory of God.
The work of the Anointed
- For I say that the Anointed has become a servant to the circumcision for the sake of the truth of God, in order to confirm the promises given to the fathers.
- and to the gentiles for the sake of mercy, to glorify God. Just as it is *written: “Because of this, I will confess praise to you among the gentiles, and I will sing to your name.”2quotation/allusion to 2 Samuel 22:50 and Psalm 18:49
- And again it says: “Rejoice with His people you gentiles.”3quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:43
- And again: “Praise the Lord all you gentiles; and exalt Him all peoples.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 117:1
- And again, Isaiah says: “There will be the root of Jesse; and the One who arises to rule over the gentiles; on Him the gentiles will hope.”5quotation/allusion to Isaiah 11:10
- And may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in you to believe, for you to overflow in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.
- And my brothers, I myself am also *convinced concerning you, that you yourselves are full of goodness, *filled with all knowledge, and able to admonish one another.
- And I wrote to you more boldly, in part reminding you because of the grace which was given to me by God
- for me to be a minister of Jesus the Anointed to the gentiles, ministering as a priest of the gospel of God so the offering of the gentiles might become acceptable, having been *made holy by the Holy Spirit.
- Therefore in Jesus the Anointed, I have a reason for boasting of the things pertaining to God.
- For I won’t dare to speak of anything that the Anointed didn’t accomplish through me for the obedience of the gentiles in word and deed,
- by the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the Spirit [of God], for me to have fulfilled the proclamation of the gospel of the Anointed from Jerusalem and around as far as Illyricum.
- And so I’m earnestly desiring to proclaim the gospel where the Anointed wasn’t named, so I won’t build on another man’s foundation.
- But just as it is *written: “To whom it wasn’t reported concerning Him, they will see, And men who haven’t heard will understand.”6quotation/allusion to Isaiah 52:15
- And because of that, I was often being hindered from coming to you.
Paul’s travel plans
- But now, no longer having a place in these regions and having a yearning to come to you for many years,
- I hope to see you while passing through when I travel into Spain and to be equipped by you there if I might be satisfied in part by your company first.
- But now I travel to Jerusalem, ministering to the saints.
- For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a contribution to the poor saints in Jerusalem.
- For, they were pleased and they are debtors of them. For if the gentiles shared in their spiritual things, they ought to minister to them in earthly things also.
- Therefore, having accomplished this and having sealed this fruit to them, I will depart through you into Spain.
- And I have known that coming to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the Anointed.
- And brothers, I urge you now through our Lord Jesus the Anointed and through the ^love of the Spirit, to strive together with me in prayers to God for me,
- so I might be delivered from the men in Judea who refuse to believe, and so my service for Jerusalem might be acceptable to the saints,
- so that having come to you with joy through the will of God, I might be refreshed in spirit with you.
- And the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
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Romans Chapter 16
- Now, I commend our sister Phoebe to you, (who’s also a servant of the church in Cenchrea)
- so you might receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and so you might stand by her in that matter1“matter” the Greek word here is singular, apparently indicating that Phoebe was dealing with some matter affecting her personally. Given her status as a patroness, it’s possible she had some business which required attention, and the church of Rome was to “stand by” her in this matter. if she needs you, for she also became a patroness of many, even of me myself.
- Greet Prisca2“Prisca” is the proper form of “Priscilla”, the latter being more informal and familiar. and Aquila, my fellow workers in Jesus the Anointed –
- who risked their neck for my life; whom not only I thank, but also all the churches of the gentiles –
- and also greet the church at their house. Greet Epenetus, my beloved who is the firstfruit of Asia for the Anointed.
- Greet Mary, who often laboriously toiled for you.
- Greet Andronicus and Junia,3“Junia” there is some debate whether this name is feminine or masculine. The only way to tell is with the accents on the Greek letters, but manuscripts lacked accents until the late first millennium. Most of the early church fathers seemed to think she was female, while most of the (later) manuscripts with accents support the masculine reading. Both the feminine and masculine forms are rare in Greek, but the masculine form is almost unheard of. The evidence certainly tilts toward feminine, but masculine cannot be wholly ruled out. my kinsmen and fellow prisoners with me, who are well-known by4“who are well-known by”. There is a great debate as to how this phrase should be translated because one of the people being discussed is likely a woman (see note on “Junia”). Egalitarian Christians argue it should be translated: “who are notable among the apostles”, making Junia/Junias an apostle and – they argue – a woman in authority in the early church. Complementarian and Patriarchal Christians prefer “who are well-known by the apostles”, which excludes Junia/Junias from being an apostle. Dan Wallace, who literally wrote the book on advanced Greek grammar, argues that “well-known by” has the better syntactic evidence. Further, even if “among” is the proper understanding, it doesn’t necessarily make Junia/Junias and apostle, since the wording is still unclear. For example: Shakespeare is “notable among modern literary scholars”, but that doesn’t make him a modern literary scholar. Further, in 2 Cor 1:24, Paul – who always identifies as an apostle – makes it clear that he has no authority, even over churches that he planted. Thus, whether Junia/Junias was an apostle or not, he or she didn’t possess any authority. the apostles, and who *were in the Anointed earlier than me.
- Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord.
- Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in the Anointed, and my beloved Stachys.
- Greet Apelles, who’s proved as genuine in the Anointed. Greet the men of Aristobulus’ household.
- Greet Herodion my kinsman. Greet the men of Narcissus’ household who are in the Lord.
- Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, women who laboriously toil in the Lord. Greet the beloved Persis, who often laboriously toiled in the Lord.
- Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, also his mother and mine.
- Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers with them.
- Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the saints with them.
- Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of the Anointed greet you.
Beware divisive men
- Now brothers, I urge you to watch out for men causing divisions and snares contrary to the teaching that you learned and turn away from them.
- For such men don’t serve our Lord the Anointed, but their own appetite; and they thoroughly deceive the hearts of the naïve through smooth speech, flattery and blessings.5“flattery and blessings” is one word in Greek. It can mean either depending on the context, but since both seem applicable here, both were included.
- For word of your obedience went forth to all. Therefore, I rejoice over you. But I desire you to be wise in good yet innocent in evil.
- And the God of peace will soon crush the Adversary under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus the Anointed be with you. Amen.
Final greetings and closing
- My fellow worker Timothy greets you, also Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater my kinsmen.
- I, Tertius – the man who wrote down this letter – greet you in the Lord.
- Gaius my host greets you, and the whole church. The steward of the city Erastus greets you, and the brother Quartus.
- The grace of our Lord Jesus the Anointed be with you all. Amen.
- Now, to the One who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus the Anointed, according to the revelation of the mystery *kept secret during the time of ages,
- but now both having been revealed through prophetic scriptures according to the command of the God of ages, and having been made known to all the gentiles for the obedience of faith
- to the only wise God through Jesus the Anointed, to whom be the glory through the ages. Amen.
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