1 Timothy Chapter 5

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

Godly Behavior (Continued)
  1. Don’t rebuke an older man, but encouragingly reprove him as a father, and younger men as brothers,
  2. older women as mothers, and younger women as sisters in all purity.
Concerning Widows
  1. Honor widows who are truly widows.
  2. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them first learn to be pious to their own household and to give back recompense to their widowed ancestors; for this is acceptable in the sight of God.
  3. Now, the woman who’s truly a widow and has been left alone *hopes in God and continues with petitions and prayers night and day.
  4. But the woman living extravagantly has died while living.
  5. And command these things so they might be above reproach.
  6. But if any man doesn’t provide for his own, and especially for his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.
  7. Let a widow be enrolled who’s not less than sixty years old; *being a woman who isn’t promiscuous,1“*being a woman who isn’t promiscuous” is more literally “having been – and being – a one man woman”, typically translated “having been the wife of one husband.” However, the Greek verb typically translated “having been” (translated “*being” in the BOS Bible) is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses.  It indicates action which is completed in the past and results in an ongoing state in the present.  By definition, a widow cannot remain in the state of being the “wife of one husband” in the present because – by definition – a widow isn’t married and thus doesn’t have a husband.  The phrase “one man woman” was an idiom referring to a woman who wasn’t promiscuous.  It almost certainly comes from the Latin phrase “univera” (“one man”) which was used on Roman gravestones to indicate a woman who’d never had sex outside of marriage.  See also the note on 1 Timothy 3:2.
  8. who’s bearing witness in good works, if she brought up children, if she was hospitable to strangers, if she washed the saints’ feet, if she gave aid to those being oppressed, if she pursued every good work.
  9. But refuse to enroll younger widows.  For when their sensual desires grow contrary to the Anointed, they want to marry,
  10. incurring judgement because they cast aside their first faith.
  11. And at the same time, they also learn to be lazy; going about to various houses.  And they’re not only lazy, but also foolish babblers and meddling busybodies saying improper things.
  12. Therefore, I’m resolved that younger women are to marry, to bear children, to manage their household, and to give the one opposing us no opportunity for slander on their account.
  13. For some of these women already turned away after Satan.
  14. If any believing woman has dependent widows, let her give aid to them and don’t let the church be burdened, so the church might give aid to those who are truly widows.
Concerning Elders and Various Instructions
  1. Let the elders who *lead well be deemed worthy of double honor, especially the men laboriously toiling in the word and in teaching.
  2. For the scripture says: “You shall not muzzle an ox while it’s treading out grain.”2quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:4 And: “The workman is worthy of his wages.”3“The workman is worthy of his wages.” Isn’t a quotation/allusion of any specific verse in the Old Testament, but it’s direct quote of Luke 10:7.  This could be Paul saying (indirectly) that Luke’s gospel was inspired by God, and thus is scripture.
  3. Don’t accept an accusation against an elder except by two or three witnesses.
  4. But rebuke the men sinning in the sight of all, so the rest might also have fear of sin.
  5. I solemnly charge you in the sight of God, and Jesus the Anointed, and the chosen angels, that you might keep these things without prejudice, doing nothing from partiality.
  6. Lay hands on no one hastily, nor share in the sins of others.  Keep yourself pure.
  7. No longer drink only water, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent ailments.
  8. The sins of some men are obvious now, going before them into judgement.  But also, some men’s sins appear later.
  9. Likewise also, good works are obvious; and men having works that are otherwise aren’t able to be concealed.


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