The Book of 1 Peter

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

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1 Peter Chapter 1

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Greeting from Peter
  1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus the Anointed to the elect sojourners of the Dispersion1“the Dispersion” refers to the Jews who were spread across – i.e. dispersed – throughout the Roman Empire. in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
  2. according to the foreknowledge of God the Father by the Spirit making you holy, for obedience and purification by the sprinkled2“purification by the sprinkled” is one word In Greek.  It refers to blood which was sprinkled on someone or something for ceremonial purification. blood of Jesus the Anointed; may grace and peace be multiplied to you.
  3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus the Anointed , the One who – according to His great mercy – rebirthed us into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus the Anointed from the dead,
  4. into an inheritance that’s imperishable, and undefiled, and unfading; *reserved for you in the heavens.
  5. Men who are being guarded by God’s power through faith for the salvation that’s ready to be revealed in the last season,
  6. in which you jump for joy, though if necessary you are grieved by various trials now for a short time
  7. so that the tested authenticity of your faith – which is more precious than perishing gold though refined through fire – might be found; leading into praise, and glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus the Anointed.
  8. He whom you ^love though not having seen Him.  For whom you greatly rejoice with inexpressible joy and *full of glory; though not seeing Him, yet now believing in Him,
  9. and receiving back the outcome of your faith, the salvation of your being.3“being” The Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché), typically translated “soul”. However, It does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit.  In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.)  Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”.  It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live.  It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity, and by extension their entire being.
  10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought out and diligently searched; the men who prophesied concerning the grace to you,
  11. diligently searching into what (or what sort of) season the Spirit of the Anointed in them was revealing, and predicting the Anointed’s sufferings and the glories after them.
  12. Prophets to whom it was revealed that they weren’t serving themselves, but you, in the matters which now were reported to you through the men who proclaimed the good news to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven; matters into which the angels yearn to look.
Be holy, for He is Holy
  1. Therefore, having girded the loins4“having girded the loins”.  This is a cultural reference, referring to the process of tying a belt or rope around the waist to gather their long robes and prevent them from getting in the way of work.  It figuratively came to mean getting ready for action or work. of your mind and being sober, set your hope completely on the grace being brought to you by the revelation of Jesus the Anointed.
  2. As obedient children, don’t be conforming yourselves to the former cravings you had in your ignorance,
  3. but as the One who called you is holy, you yourselves must also become holy in all your conduct,
  4. because it is *written: “You shall be holy because I am holy.”5quotation/allusion to Leviticus 11:44
  5. And if you call upon the Father – the One impartially judging according to the work of each man – sojourn in reverent fear during the time of your sojourn,
  6. *knowing that you weren’t purchased back from your futile way of life handed down by your fathers with perishable silver or gold,
  7. but with the precious blood of the Anointed, like an unblemished and unstained lamb.
  8. Indeed, He was *known beforehand – before the foundation of the world – but He was revealed in the last times for your sake.
  9. You who through Him believe in God; the One who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, in order for your faith and hope to be in God.
  10. And having *purified your souls by obedience to the truth leading into unfeigned brotherly love, fervently ^love one another from [a pure] heart,
  11. having been *born again not from perishable seed, but from imperishable seed through the living and abiding word of God,
  12. because “all flesh is like grass, and all its glory is like a grassy flower.  The grass withered and the flower faded away,
  13. but the word of the Lord remains through the age.”6quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:6-8  And this is the word that was proclaimed to you.

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1 Peter Chapter 2

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Living Stones
  1. Therefore, having set aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisy, and envies, and all slanders,
  2. like newborn babies, yearn for rational and pure milk, so that by it you might grow up in your salvation,
  3. if you tasted that the Lord is benevolent.
  4. To whom we’re approaching; a living stone that has indeed been rejected by men, but chosen and precious in God’s sight.
  5. And as living stones, you yourselves are being built as a spiritual house into a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus the Anointed.
  6. Therefore, it’s contained in scripture: “Behold, I establish a stone in Zion; a chosen, precious cornerstone and the man believing on Him definitely won’t be put to shame.1quotation/allusion to Isaiah 28:16
  7. Therefore the honor is to you, the men believing.  But to disbelieving men, “The stone that the men building rejected, this became2“became” is literally “became into” the head corner stone,”3quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22
  8. and “A stumbling stone, and a rock of offense.”4quotation/allusion to Isaiah 8:14  Men who stumble by disbelieving the word, and they were appointed to that stumbling.
  9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for His possession,5quotation/allusion to Exodus 19:5-6, though in a different order so you might publicly proclaim the moral excellence of the One who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light.
  10. You who once weren’t a people, but now are the people of God; men who hadn’t received mercy, but now have received mercy.6quotation/allusion to Hosea 2:23
  11. Beloved, I urge you as strangers and sojourners to trade away the fleshly cravings which wage war against the soul,
  12. keeping your conduct among the gentiles noble, so that in whatever they slander you as evildoers, from observing your noble deeds they might glorify God in the day of the visitation of judgement.7“visitation of judgement” is one word in Greek. It can refer to most any kind of visitation, but can especially refer to a visitation of judgement.  However, while the idea of judgement is implied, it’s only implied.  Therefore “of judgement” was italicized to indicate a translator clarification.
Submission to Authorities
  1. Be submitted to every human institution for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme,
  2. or to governors as sent by him for just vengeance against evildoers, but praise of men doing good,
  3. because this is the will of God; to silence the ignorance of foolish men through doing good
  4. as free men, and not using freedom as a covering for evil, but as slaves of God.
  5. Honor all, ^love the brotherhood, reverently fear God, and honor the king.
  6. Household servants, be submitting to your masters in all reverent fear; not only to the good and reasonable, but also to the perverse.
  7. For this bestows favor, if someone suffering unjustly endures grief for the sake of conscience towards God.
  8. For what credit is there if you’ll endure even being punched because of sinning?  But if you’ll even endure suffering because of doing good, this bestows favor in the sight of God.
  9. For you were called into this because the Anointed also suffered for your sake, leaving behind an example for you so you might closely follow His footsteps.
  10. He who didn’t commit sin, nor was deceit found in His mouth.”8quotation allusion to Isaiah 53:9
  11. Who while being reviled wasn’t reviling in return; while suffering he wasn’t uttering threats, but was handing Himself over to the One judging justly.
  12. He who bore our sins in His body on the cross9“cross” the Greek word here literally means “wood”, but can also refer to anything made of wood., so that after having become dead to sins, we might live to righteousness; by whose wounds you were healed.
  13. For you were like sheep wandering astray, but now you were returned to the shepherd and overseer of your souls.

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1 Peter Chapter 3

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Wives and Husbands
  1. In the same way, wives be submitting to your own husbands so that even if any disobey the word, they will be won over without a word through the conduct of the wives,
  2. having observed your pure conduct in reverent fear,1“reverent fear” is one word in Greek, and is the same word that’s used in the phrase “reverent fear of the lord”.  It’s possible that this reverent fear is directed towards God, but also possible it’s directed towards the husband since Ephesians 5:33 commands wives to “reverently fear” their husbands with this same word.  Either or both could’ve been intended.
  3. whose primary adornment must not be the external adornment of elaborate hair-braiding and wearing of gold, or even the wearing of clothes,
  4. but the hidden man of the heart; in the incorruptible adornment of gentle strength2“gentle strength” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness.  i.e. some who is strong but applies their strength gently. and a tranquil spirit which is very precious in the sight of God.
  5. For in this way also in the past, the holy women of old hoping in God were adorning themselves, submitting themselves to their own husbands.
  6. Just as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him ‘lord’;3“lord” could also be translated “master”, as the Greek word means both.  “Master” is possibly the intent because in Hebrew (the language Sarah spoke), the word for “husband” more accurately means “master” or “owner”. whose children you became if you’re doing good and not fearing anyone’s consternation.
  7. In the same way, husbands be dwelling with your wives with knowledge and understanding,4“knowledge and understanding” is one word in Greek, which primarily means “knowledge”, but very regularly has the sense of understanding as well. since the female is the weaker vessel; giving them due honor since they’re also joint-heirs of the grace of life, in order for your prayers not to be hindered.
Good and evil, blessing and suffering
  1. And finally, all are to be like-minded, sympathetic, loving as brothers, tenderhearted, and humble,
  2. not repaying evil in exchange for evil, or insult in exchange for insult; but on the contrary blessing, because you were called into this so you might inherit a blessing.
  3. For “the man desiring to ^love life and to see good days, let him restrain his tongue from evil, and his lips are not to speak deceit.
  4. Let him also turn away from evil and let him do good.  Let him seek peace and let him pursue it.
  5. Because the Lord’s eyes are on the righteous, and His ears towards their prayer.  But the Lord’s face is against men doing evil.”5quotation/allusion to Psalm 34:12-16
  6. And who is the man who will harm you if you become zealous for what’s good?
  7. But even if you suffer because of righteousness, you are blessed.  “And you shouldn’t fear what they fear, nor should you be shaken.”6quotation/allusion to Isaiah 8:12
  8. And sanctify the Anointed as Lord in your hearts, always prepared for a verbal defense to every man asking you for an account concerning the hope in you, but with gentle strength and reverent fear,
  9. having a good conscience so the men slandering your good conduct in the Anointed might be ashamed by what they say against you.
  10. For to suffer while doing good (if the will of God wills it) is better than doing evil,
  11. because the Anointed also suffered once concerning sins – the righteous for the sake of the unrighteous – so He might bring you to God.  Having indeed been put to death in the flesh but made alive in the Spirit,
  12. and having gone in that state, He proclaimed to the spirits in prison
  13. who formerly disobeyed when the forbearance of God was waiting in the days of Noah while the ark was being built; in which a few – that is, eight souls – were saved through the water.
  14. Which also is a picture of the baptism which now saves you; not a removal of filth from flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience through the resurrection of Jesus the Anointed.
  15. He who is at God’s right hand, having been brought into heaven, with angels and authorities and powers having been submitted to Him.

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1 Peter Chapter 4

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Suffering and sin
  1. Therefore, since the Anointed suffered in the flesh, you also arm yourselves with the same mind because the man who suffered in the flesh *stops seeking sin,
  2. for him to live the remaining time in the flesh no longer for men’s cravings, but for the will of God.
  3. For the time which has passed is sufficient for the gentiles to have accomplished their purpose: *traveling in wanton debaucheries, cravings, drunkenness, debauched festivals, drinking contests, and lawless idolatries.
  4. In which they’re shocked by you not running with them into the same overflow of wasteful excess, so they’re slandering you.
  5. Men who will give an account to the One who is ready to judge the living and the dead.
  6. For to this end, the gospel was proclaimed even to the dead, so they might indeed be judged according to men in the flesh, but might live according to God in the spirit.
  7. Now, the end of all things has drawn near.  Therefore, be of sound mind and be sober for prayers,
  8. above all things having fervent ^love among yourselves, because ^love covers a multitude of sins.
  9. Be hospitable to one another without grumbling.
  10. As each received a gift for serving one another, use them as good stewards of the manifold grace of God.
  11. If someone speaks, speak as oracles of God; if someone serves, serve as from the strength which God supplies, so that God might be glorified in all things through Jesus the Anointed, to whom is the glory and the power through the ages of the ages, Amen.
Don’t be shocked by trials
  1. Beloved, don’t be shocked by the fiery trial happening among you for your testing, as though some strange thing is happening to you.
  2. But rejoice as you share in the sufferings of the Anointed, exulting so you might also rejoice in the revelation of His glory.
  3. if you’re insulted in the name of the Anointed, you are blessed because the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you.  [Indeed, He’s blasphemed by them, but glorified by you.]
  4. For let none of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or an evildoer, or as a meddlesome troublemaker.
  5. But if someone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in this name1“in this name” likely refers to the name “Christian”, which was a pejorative term used by non-Christians at the time.
  6. because the season of judgement is to begin with the house of God. And if it begins with us first, what is the outcome for the men disobeying the gospel of God?
  7. And “if the righteous man is saved with difficulty, where will the ungodly and sinner appear?”2quotation/allusion to Proverbs 11:31
  8. And therefore, let the men suffering in accordance with the will of God entrust their souls to the faithful creator by doing what’s right.

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1 Peter Chapter 5

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Final instructions
  1. I urge the elders among you – as a fellow elder, and a witness of the sufferings of the Anointed, and a partaker in the glory about to be revealed –
  2. shepherd the flock of God among you, looking after1“looking after” is one word in Greek.  It focuses on care by “looking after” someone or something by paying close attention to it. them not because of compulsion, but voluntarily according to God; and not for dishonest gain, but eagerly;
  3. and not like you’re exercising authority over the men in your lot, but becoming examples to the flock.
  4. And when the Chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive back the unfading crown of glory.
  5. In the same way, younger men2“younger men” is one word in Greek.  In Roman society, boys would cease to be children between 14 and 16 at the yearly festival Liberalia.  At this point, the boy became a man in the sense of becoming legally responsible for his own actions.  However, he didn’t become a man with full rights in society until he turned 25, and had restrictions on what he could do until that age.  Hebrew culture had a similar arrangement, beginning at the bar-mitzvah and also ending at about 25.  These “younger men” were often considered irresponsible and prone to making bad decisions, which is a possible reason for Peter’s instruction here.  Modern science has shown that a male brain finishes development at about 25, giving this distinction between “men” and “young men” a biological component that the ancients apparently noticed via behavior. be submitted to the elders.  And all of you, gird yourselves3“gird yourselves” is one word in Greek, which can also carry the connotation of clothing yourself. “Girding” is a cultural reference, referring to the process of tying a belt or rope around the waist to gather their long robes and prevent them from getting in the way of work.  It figuratively came to mean getting ready for action or work. with humility towards one another because “God arrays Himself in battle against the proud, but gives grace to the humble.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 138:6
  6. Therefore, be humbled under the mighty hand of God so He might elevate you in a proper season,
  7. having cast all your anxiety upon Him because He cares about you.
  8. Be sober-minded.  Keep watch.  Your adversary the Accuser walks about like a roaring lion seeking whom to devour,
  9. whom you must resist, firm in the faith, *knowing that the same sufferings are to perfect5“to perfect” could also be translated “to be accomplished”.  The Greek word literally means to “bring to an end” (Thayers), which can have to connotation of accomplishing, completing, or perfecting, depending on context. your brotherhood in the world.
  10. And after having suffered a short time, the God of all grace – the One who called you into His glory of ages by Jesus the Anointed – He will prepare, establish, strengthen, and ground you.
  11. To Him be the dominion through the ages of the ages, Amen.
  1. I wrote to you through a few words through Silvanus, (As I consider him a faithful brother) admonishing and testifying this to be the true grace of God, in which you must stand.
  2. The fellow elect woman in Babylon greets you, and so does Mark my son.
  3. Greet one another with a kiss of ^love.  Peace to all of you who are in the Anointed.  [Amen]

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