John Chapter 19

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

Jesus is mocked and sentenced
  1. So, then Pilate took Jesus and flogged Him.
  2. And having woven a crown of thorns, the soldiers put it on His head and clothed Him in a purple robe.
  3. And they were going to Him and were saying: “Hail, the King of the Jews!” and were giving Him slaps.
  4. And Pilate went out to the Jews again and tells them: “Behold, I bring Him out to you so you might know that I find nothing guilty in Him.”
  5. So Jesus went out wearing the thorny crown and the purple robe, and he tells them: “Behold the man.”
  6. So when they saw Him, the chief priests and the officers cried out saying: “Crucify! Crucify!”  Pilate tells them: “Take Him and crucify Him yourselves, for I find no guilt in Him.”
  7. The Jews answered him: “We have a law, and according to the law He ought to die because He made Himself out to be God’s Son.
  8. So when Pilate heard this statement, he feared even more.
  9. And he went into the Praetorium again and says to Jesus: “Where are you from?”  But Jesus didn’t give him an answer.
  10. So Pilate says to Him: “You don’t speak to me?  Don’t you *know that I have authority to release you, and I have authority to crucify you?”
  11. Jesus answered him: “You wouldn’t have any authority over Me unless it has been given to you from above.  Because of this, the man who delivered Me to you has a greater sin.”
  12. From this, Pilate was seeking to release Him, but the Jews cried out saying: “If you release this man, you aren’t a friend of Caesar.  Every man making himself out to be a king contradicts Caesar.”
  13. So having heard these words, Pilate brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgement seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Hebrew: Gabbatha.
  14. Now, it was the Day of Preparation for the Passover, and it was about the sixth hour.  And he tells the Jews: “Behold your king!”
  15. So they cried out: “Away!  Away with Him!  Crucify Him!”  Pilate says to them: “Should I crucify your king?”  The chief priests answered: “We have no king except Caesar.”
Jesus is crucified
  1. So then he handed Him over to them so He might be crucified.  So they took Jesus,
  2. and carrying His own cross, He went out to the area called “Place of a Skull”, which in Hebrew is called ‘Golgotha’,
  3. where they crucified Him and two others with Him, one on one side and one on the other side, and Jesus in between.
  4. And Pilate also wrote a placard and put it on the cross, and it was *written: “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.”
  5. So many of the Jews read this placard because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it was *written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek.
  6. So the chief priests of the Jews were saying to Pilate: “Don’t write ‘the King of the Jews’, but instead write that: ‘this man said: I’m King of the Jews’.”
  7. Pilate answered: “I have written what I have written.”
  8. So when the soldiers crucified Jesus, they took His garments and His tunic and made four portions, one portion for each soldier.  But the tunic was seamless from the top down, woven entirely throughout.
  9. So they said to one another: “We shouldn’t tear it, but we should cast lots for it to decide whose it will be.”  This happened so the scripture might be fulfilled, the one saying: “They divided My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for My clothing.”1quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:18  So the soldiers indeed did these things.
  10. Now, His mother had been standing by Jesus’ cross, and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.
  11. So having seen His mother and the disciple whom He ^loved *standing there, Jesus says to His mother: “Woman, behold your son.”
  12. Next He says to the disciple: “Behold your mother.”  And from that hour on, the disciple took her into his own household.
Jesus’ death and burial
  1. After this, *knowing that all things were already *accomplished so the scripture might be fulfilled, Jesus says: “I thirst.”
  2. A vessel full of sour wine was lying nearby, so having put a sponge filled with sour wine on a hyssop stalk, they brought it to His mouth.
  3. So when Jesus took the sour wine, He said: “It has been finished!”  And having bowed His head, He handed over His spirit.
  4. So since it was a Sabbath Preparation Day, and so that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a great holy day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and they might be taken away.
  5. So the soldiers came and indeed broke the legs of the first man, and the other man who was crucified with Him.
  6. But having come to Jesus, they didn’t break His legs when they saw that He already *died.
  7. But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.
  8. And the man who has seen this has testified, and his testimony is true.  And that man *knows that he is speaking the truth, so you also might believe,
  9. for these things took place so the scripture might be fulfilled: “Not a bone of His will be broken.”2quotation/allusion to Psalm 34:20, and also tangentially to Exodus 12:46 and Numbers 9:12
  10. And again another scripture says: “They will see Him whom they pierced.”3quotation/allusion to Zechariah 12:10
  11. And after these things, Joseph from Arimathea – being a disciple of Jesus, but *concealing this because of the fear of the Jews – asked Pilate so he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate allowed it.  So he came and took away His body.
  12. And Nicodemus – the man who first came to Him at night – also came bearing a mixture of myrrh and aloe, about 100 litras.4“litras” is the plural of litra, which was a Roman pound.  It’s approximately equivalent to twelve ounces, or 327.5 grams.
  13. So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices, as is the custom for the Jews to prepare a body for burial.
  14. Now, at the place where He was crucified was a garden, and in the garden was a new tomb in which no one has ever been laid.
  15. So they laid Jesus there because of the Preparation Day of the Jews, because the tomb was near.


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