(Tap footnote to read it. Old Testament quotations are underlined. "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love". However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior. It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings. (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".) Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé". Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing. It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )
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Mark Chapter 1
John the Baptizer
- The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus the Anointed, God’s Son.
- Just as it is *written in [Isaiah the prophet]:1“Isaiah the prophet” many manuscripts have “the prophets” instead “Behold, I am sending My messenger before your face; he who will fully prepare your way.”2quotation/allusion to Malachi 3:1, which Mark appears to be using as a ‘preface’ of sorts to the following verse, which is a quote from Isaiah. Also, see previous note.
- “The voice of one crying in the wilderness: prepare the way of the Lord; make His paths straight.”3quotation/allusion to Isaiah 40:3
- John appeared; the man who baptizes in the wilderness and proclaims a baptism of repentance4“repentance” this Greek word it doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. for forgiveness of sins.
- And the whole region of Judea was going out to him, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and all were being baptized by him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins.
- And John was *clothing himself in camel’s hair clothes, and had a leather belt around his waist,5quotation/allusion to 2 Kings 1:8, which describes the prophet Elijah as “a hairy man with a leather belt around his waist”. and eating locusts and wild honey.
- And he was proclaiming, saying: “He who is coming after me is mightier than I; He who I’m not worthy of stooping down to untie the strap of His sandals.
- “I baptized you in water; but He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit.”
Jesus is baptized, tempted, and calls disciples
- And it happened in those days that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
- And immediately coming up from the water, He saw the heavens being torn open and the Spirit coming down on Him like a dove.
- And a voice came from the heavens: “You are My beloved Son, in you I’m well pleased.”
- And immediately the Spirit drives Him out into the wilderness.
- And He was in the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by Satan. And He was with the wild animals, and the angels were serving Him.
- And after John was handed over to prison, Jesus came into Galilee proclaiming the gospel of God,
- and saying that: “The time has been fulfilled and the Kingdom of God has drawn near. Repent!6“Repent” this Greek word doesn’t speak of remorse or guilt for wrong actions. Rather, it literally means to “think differently after” or to “reconsider”, with an assumed change in behavior. To both the Hebrews and 1st century Greeks/Romans, a change in mind was synonymous with a change in behavior; you couldn’t have the first without the second. and believe in the gospel.
- And passing along the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew (Simon’s brother) casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
- And Jesus told them: “Come, follow Me and I will make you become fishers of men.”
- And having immediately left the nets, they followed Him.
- And having gone a little further, He saw James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, and they were in the boat mending the nets,
- and He called them immediately. And having left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired servants, they went away after Him.
Jesus heals many
- And they enter into Capernaum; and having entered immediately into the synagogue on the Sabbaths, He was teaching.
- And they were being stunned on account of His teaching, for He was teaching them like a man having authority7“authority” It’s possible that the “authority” that stunned the crowd was a technical term. Properly called “semikhah”, the Jewish word literally means “laying on of hands”. Its origins (as a technical term of authority) go back to Moses. Moses was given authority by God, and God commanded him to pass some of that “authority” to Joshua by “laying hands on him” in the sight of the people. (Num27:15-23, Deut 34:9) The Jews believed this authority was then passed down through “laying on of hands” to Jesus’ day. Rabbis with semikhah had the authority to make decisions in the meaning of the Law and other spiritual matters. In Jesus case, that meant a new interpretation of the Law. However, ordinary scribes (Torah teachers) could only teach what those with semikhah had established. and not like the scribes.
- And immediately there was a man with an unclean spirit in their synagogue, and he cried out
- saying: “What’s between you and us, Jesus of Nazareth? Did you come to ruin us? I *know who you are, the Holy One of God.”
- And Jesus rebuked him saying: “Be silent and come out of him.”
- And having made him convulse and cry out in a loud voice, the unclean spirit came out of him.
- And all of them were amazed, so as to discuss to themselves, saying: “What is this new teaching with authority? He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey Him.
- And the report about Him immediately went out everywhere into the whole neighboring region of Galilee.
- And having come out of the synagogue, they immediately went into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.
- Now, Simon’s mother-in-law was lying sick with a fever, and immediately they speak to Him about her.
- And having approached and grasped her hand, he raised her up, and the fever left her, and she was serving them.
- Now, it having become evening after the sun set, they were bringing to Him all the men being sick and the demon-possessed men.
- And the whole city was *gathering together at the door.
- And He healed many sick with various diseases and cast out many demons; and He wasn’t permitting the demons to speak because they had known Him [to be the Anointed].
Jesus leaves and heals a leper
- And having risen very early in the morning with much night remaining, He went out and departed into a desolate place, and He was praying there.
- And Simon and the men with him went after Him.
- And having found Him, they also tell Him that: “Everyone is seeking you.”
- And He tells them: “We should depart into the neighboring towns by another way so I might proclaim there also, for I came for this.
- And He went, proclaiming in their synagogues and in the whole of Galilee, and casting out demons.
- And a leper comes to Him, imploring Him, and falling on his knees, and saying to Him: “If you want to, you are able to cleanse me.”
- And having been moved with compassion and extended His hand, He touched him and tells him: “I want to; be cleansed.”
- And immediately the leprosy departed from him and he was cleansed.
- And having sternly warned him, He immediately sent him away.
- And He tells him: “See that you say nothing to anyone, but go show yourself to the priest and offer what Moses commanded for your cleansing,8quotation/allusion to Leviticus 14:2-32 for a testimony for them.”
- And having gone out, he began to proclaim it often and to widely report the matter, so that He was no longer able to openly enter into a city, but He was out at solitary places, and they were going to Him from all sides.
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Mark Chapter 2
The paralyzed man and forgiving sins
- And having entered into Capernaum again after some days, it was heard that He’s in a house.
- And many were assembled, so it was no longer possible to make space, not even at the door, and He was speaking the word to them.
- And they come, bringing a paralyzed man to Him carried by four men.
- And not being able to bring him near Him because of the crowd, they removed the roof over where He was. And having dug through it, they lower the bed-mat on which the paralyzed man was lying.
- And having seen their faith, Jesus tells the paralyzed man: “Child, your sins are forgiven.”
- Now, some of the scribes are sitting there and reasoning in their hearts:
- “Why does this man speak this way? He is blaspheming. Who is able to forgive sins except God alone?”
- And having immediately known in His Spirit that they are reasoning in themselves this way, He says to them: “Why are you reasoning these things in your hearts?
- “Which is easier to say to the paralyzed man: ‘your sins are forgiven’, or to say: ‘Rise, pick up your bed mat and walk’?
- “But so you might *know that the Son of Man has authority on the earth to forgive sins…” He tells the paralyzed man:
- “I tell you: rise, pick up your bed mat and go to your house.”
- And he was raised immediately. And having picked up the bed mat, he went out in front of all, for all to be astonished and to glorify God, saying: “We never saw anything like this!”
Calling Levi (Matthew)
- And He went out again along the sea, and all the crowd was coming to Him and He was teaching them.
- And while passing by, He saw Levi (the son of Alphaeus) sitting at the tax collector’s booth. And He tells him: “Follow Me.” And having risen, he followed Him.
- And it happens that He went to recline at the table1“recline” is literal. In ancient times, they laid down on a low table to eat. Thus, “reclining” in those days is similar to “sitting down” today to share a meal. in his house. And many tax collectors and sinners were reclining at the table with Jesus and His disciples, for they were many and were following Him.
- And having seen Him eating with sinners and tax collectors, the scribes of the Pharisees were saying to His disciples: “Why is He eating with tax collectors and sinners?”
- And having heard this, Jesus tells them: “The men who are healthy have no need of a physician, but the men who are sick do. I didn’t come to call righteous men, but sinners.”
Fasting and wineskins
- And the disciples of John and the Pharisees were fasting. And they come and say to Him: “Why do the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don’t fast?”
- And Jesus told them: “The groomsmen2“groomsmen” is literally “sons of the bridal chamber”. In that age, this referred to the men who helped the groom prepare whatever was needed for the wedding, especially the “bridal chamber” (honeymoon suite). The closest modern equivalent is groomsmen. aren’t able to fast while the bridegroom is with them, are they? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they aren’t able to fast.
- “But the days will come when the bridegroom was taken away from them, and then they will fast in that day.
- “No one sews an unshrunk cloth patch on an old cloak; if the patch pulls away from it, (the new from the old) an even worse tear happens.
- “And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; if they do, the wine will break the wineskins and the wine and the wineskins are ruined. But new wine is put into new wineskins.
Lord of the Sabbath
- And it happened that He used to pass through the grain fields on the Sabbaths. And His disciples began to make their way, plucking the heads of grain.
- And the Pharisees were saying to Him: “Behold, why are they doing what’s not lawful to do on the Sabbaths?”
- And He tells them: “Did you never read what David did when he had a need and hungered, he and the men with him?”
- “How he entered into the house of God in the time of Abiathar the high priest and ate the bread of presentation, which isn’t lawful for anyone to eat except priests; and he even gave it to the men who are with him.”
- And He was telling them: “The Sabbath came into being because of man, and not man because of the Sabbath.”
- “So then, the Son of Man is Lord even over the Sabbath.”
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Mark Chapter 3
Healing on the Sabbath and casting out demons
- And He entered into the synagogue again, and a man having a *withered hand was there.
- And they were watching Him closely to see if He will heal him on the Sabbaths so they might accuse Him.
- And He tells the man having the withered hand: “Rise, stand in our midst.”
- And He says to them: “Is it lawful to do good or evil on the Sabbaths? To save a life or to kill?” But they were keeping silent.
- And having looked around at them with anger, grieved at the hardness of their heart, He tells the man: “Extend your hand.” And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored.
- And having gone out, the Pharisees immediately were offering counsel against Him with the Herodians, on how they might destroy Him.
- And Jesus withdrew to the sea with His disciples, and a great crowd followed from Galilee, and from Judea,
- and from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, and beyond the Jordan, and around Tyre and Sidon; hearing how much He was doing, a great crowd came to Him.
- And He instructed His disciples so a boat might wait on Him because of the crowd, so they don’t constrict Him.
- For He healed many, so others tried to press upon Him so that whoever had diseases might touch Him.
- And whenever the unclean spirits were seeing Him, they were falling down before Him and were crying out, saying: “You are the Son of God.”
- And He was rebuking them often, so they wouldn’t make Him known.
- And He ascends up to the mountain and summons who He Himself was wanting, and they went to Him.
- And He appointed twelve [who He also called apostles] so they might be with Him, and so He might send them to proclaim,
- and to have authority to cast out demons.
- And He appointed the twelve, and added the name Simon to Peter,
- and James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James (He also added to them the name Boanerges, which is translated: “Sons of Thunder”),
- and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot,
- and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him.
Divided against itself
- And He goes into a house and the crowd assembles again, so they aren’t even able to eat bread.
- And having heard this, the men from His family went out to grab Him, for they were saying: “He’s out of His mind.”
- And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem were saying: “He has Beelzebul.”1“Beelzebul” from the Hebrew phrase “Baal Zebub” that translates as “lord of the flies”. It’s likely a play on words for the pagan Canaanite god Baal. One of his names was “Ba’al Zevul”, which roughly translates as “Lord of the exalted house”. Since “Ba’al Zevul” sounds very similar to “Baal Zebub”, it was likely a derogatory Hebrew nickname for the Canaanite god. Apparently, the title was later applied to an actual demon. There is some debate on whether Beelzebub is a nickname for Satan, or for another high ranking demon. And: “He casts out demons by the ruler of demons.”
- And having summoned them, He was speaking to them in parables: “How is Satan able to cast out Satan?
- “And if a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom isn’t able to stand.
- “And if a house is divided against itself, that house won’t be able to stand.
- “And if Satan rose against himself and was divided, he isn’t able to stand, but is coming to an end.
- “But having entered into the house of the strong man, no one is able to plunder his goods unless he first ties up the strong man, and then he will plunder his house.
- “Amen I tell you that all things will be forgiven the sons of men; their sins and their blasphemies, whatever they blasphemed.
- But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit doesn’t have forgiveness through the age,2“through the age” this Greek phrase “εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα” is omitted from most modern translations, despite it being present in all three the source texts from which the vast majority of modern translations are translated. Including this phrase makes the verse harmonize perfectly with Matthew and Luke’s account. but is guilty of the sin of ages.”
- (He said this because they were saying: “He has an unclean spirit”.)
- And His mother and His brothers come; and standing outside, they sent word to Him, summoning Him.
- And a crowd was sitting around Him, and they tell Him: “Behold; your mother, and your brothers, and your sisters are outside seeking you.”
- And answering them, He says: “Who is My mother and My brothers?”
- And having looked around at the men who are sitting in a circle around Him, He says: “Behold, My mother and My brothers.
- “For whoever does the will of God; this is My brother, and sister, and mother.”
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Mark Chapter 4
The parable of the sower
- And again He began to teach along the sea. And the largest crowd assembles to Him, so He stepped into a boat to sit in the sea, and all the crowd was on the land facing toward the sea.
- And He was teaching them many things in parables, and He was telling them in His teaching:
- “Listen! Behold: the man who sows went out to sow.
- “And it happened as he sows that some seed fell beside the road, and the birds came and devoured it.
- “And other seed fell on a rocky place where it didn’t have much soil. And it immediately sprang up because it doesn’t have depth in the soil.
- “And it was scorched when the sun rose, and it withered because it doesn’t have a root.
- “And other seed fell into the thorns, and the thorns sprang up and choked it, and it gave no fruit.
- “And other seed fell into the good soil. And springing up and increasing, it was giving fruit; and one was bearing thirtyfold, and one sixtyfold, and one a hundredfold.”
- And He was saying: “He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”
The parable explained
- And when He was alone, the men around Him with the twelve were asking Him about the parables.
- And He was telling them: “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those outside, all teaching happens in parables,
- “so that: While seeing they might see and not discern; and while hearing they might hear and not understand; lest at some time they turn and it might be forgiven them.”1quotation/allusion to Isaiah 6:9-10
- And He tells them: “Haven’t you understood this parable? And how will you understand all the parables?
- “The man who sows, sows the word.
- Now, these are the ones where the word is sown beside the road; and when they heard, Satan immediately comes and removes the word which has been sown into them.
- And likewise, these are the ones which are sown on the rocky places; who when they heard the word, they immediately receive it with joy.
- And they don’t have root in themselves, but are temporary; only lasting for a season.2“temporary; only lasting for a season” is one word in the Greek. Its’ colloquial meaning is “temporary”, but the full technical meaning is “lasting (only) for a season”. Technically, including both is double translating a Greek word. However, the additional nuance of the full definition adds meaning to the verse, therefore it was included. Afterwards when tribulation or persecution happened because of the word, they immediately fall away.
- And others are the ones sown into the thorns. These are the men who heard the word,
- and the cares of the age, and the deception of riches, and the rest of their cravings entering in choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.
- And these are the men who were sown on good soil: whoever hears the word, and receives it, and bears fruit; one thirtyfold, and one sixtyfold, and one a hundredfold.”
- And He was telling them: “The lamp isn’t brought in so it might be put under a measuring basket or under the bed, is it? Isn’t it brought in so it might be put on the lampstand?
- “For nothing is hidden except so it might be revealed, nor did a secret thing happen, but that it might come to light.
- “If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.”
The Kingdom of God is like…
- And He was telling them: “Watch out what you listen to. You will be measured by whatever standard you measure, and more will be added to you.
- For to he who has, more will be given to him. And to he who doesn’t have, even what he has will be taken away from him.”
- And He was saying: “The kingdom of God is like this: like a man who threw the seed on the soil,
- “and he sleeps and rises night and day, and how the seed might sprout and grow, he hasn’t known.
- “Of its own accord the soil bears fruit; first a sprout, next a head, next full grown grain in the head.
- Yet when the fruit delivers itself, he immediately sends the sickle because the harvest has arrived.”
- And He was saying: “How might we compare the kingdom of God? Or by what parable might we establish it?
- “It’s like a mustard seed, which is smaller than all the common3The word “common” is not in the Greek, but was added to provide cultural context. The mustard seed was the smallest seed of all the plants that the Jews cultivated. seeds on the earth when it was sown on the earth.
- And when it was sown, it grows up and becomes greater than all the garden plants and makes great branches so the birds of the air are able to nest under its shade.”
- And in many such parables He was speaking the word to them, as they were able to hear.
- Yet He wasn’t speaking to them without a parable, but He was explaining all things in private to His own disciples.
Jesus calms the storm
- And it having become evening on that day, He tells them: “Let us pass to the other side of the sea.“
- And having sent away the crowd, they take Him with them since He was in the boat. And other boats were with Him.
- And a great storm of wind comes, and the waves were rushing into the boat, so the boat is already being filled.
- And He was in the stern of the ship, sleeping on a cushion. And they wake Him and say to Him: “Teacher, don’t you care that we are perishing?!”
- And having been awakened, He scolded the wind and told the sea: “Silence; be still.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 107:28-29 And the wind ceased raging, and it became a great calm.
- And He said to them: “Why are you fearful? Don’t you have faith yet?”
- And they were terrified with great fear, and were saying to one another: “Who then is this, that even the wind and sea obey Him?”
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Mark Chapter 5
Casting out Legion
- And they came to the other side of the sea, into the land of the Gerasenes.
- And Him having gone out of the boat, a man with an unclean spirit immediately went out of the tombs and met Him,
- a man who had his dwelling in the tombs. And no one was able to bind him any longer, not even with a chain,
- because he often was *bound with shackles and chains; and the chains have been broken by him, and the shackles have been shattered, and no one was strong enough to subdue him.
- And all through the night and day in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out and cutting himself with stones.
- And having seen Jesus from far away, he ran and bowed down before Him.
- And having cried out in a loud voice, he says: “What’s between you and me Jesus; Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God not to torment me.”
- For He was saying to him: “Unclean spirit, come out of the man.”
- And Jesus was asking him: “What’s your name?” And he says to Him: “My name is Legion, because we are many.”
- And he was begging Him many times so He might not send them out of the region.
- Now, a large herd of pigs was there, feeding near the mountain.
- And they begged Him saying: “Send us into the pigs so we might enter into them.”
- And He allowed them. And having come out, the unclean spirits entered into the pigs, and rushed the herd down the steep bank into the sea, and about 2000 were drowning in the sea.
- And the men who feed them fled and reported this in the city, and in the country, and they went out to see what’s *happened.
- And they come to Jesus and see the demon-possessed man sitting *clothed and sober-minded (the man who *had the Legion) and they were frightened.
- And the men who saw it described to them how it happened with the demon-possessed man, and about the pigs.
- And they began to beg Him to depart from their region.
- And with Him entering into the boat, the man who was demon-possessed was begging Him that he might be with Him.
- And He didn’t permit him, but tells him: “Go to your home, to your own people, and report to them how much the Lord has done for you, and how He had mercy on you.
- And the man departed and began to proclaim in the Decapolis how much Jesus did for him, and all were marveling.
Jairus’ Daughter, and healing a bloody flow
- And Jesus having crossed over to the other side of the sea in the boat again, a great crowd was gathered to Him, and He was beside the sea.
- And one of the synagogue rulers named Jairus comes to Him. And having seen Him, falls at His feet.
- And he begs Him repeatedly saying: “My little daughter is holding herself at the point of death. Having come, would you lay hands on her so she might be healed and live?”
- And He departed with him, and a numerous crowd was following Him and pressing in on Him.
- And there’s a woman living with a bloody flow1“bloody flow” is literal, almost certainly a reference to constant menstrual bleeding. This made her ceremonially unclean; see Leviticus 15:19-24. Additionally, what to do about menstrual bleeding that went on for an extended time was covered in Leviticus 15:25-30. for twelve years,
- and having suffered much under many physicians, and having spent all of her money, and yet she benefitted nothing; but rather it became worse.
- Having heard about Jesus, and having come up behind Him in the crowd, she touched His cloak.
- For she was saying, “If I only touch His clothes, I will be healed.”2quotation/allusion to Malachi 4:2, which says that “the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings.” The Hebrew word translated “wings” in that verse is “כָּנָף” (kanaph). It means any extremity, including wings and also the edge of a garment. It could be accurately translated “healing in the edge of His clothes”. This woman likely knew this verse, and that’s probably why she specifically touched the edge of His cloak in Matthew’s account. The Jews believed Malachi 4:2 was a prophecy about the Messiah, so by touching His cloak, she was almost certainly expressing her faith that Jesus was the Messiah. This is quite possibly why Jesus said her faith healed her.
- And immediately the flow of her blood was dried up, and she realized that her body has been healed of the scourge.
- And immediately having known in Himself that power went out of Him, and having turned in the crowd, Jesus was saying: “Who touched My clothes?”
- And His disciples were saying to Him: “You see the crowd pressing in on you, and you say ‘Who touched Me’?”
- And He was looking around to see the woman who did this.
- Now, having been frightened and trembling, *knowing what has happened to her, the woman came and fell down before Him and told Him the whole truth.
- And He told her: “Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace and be healthy from your scourge.”
- While He’s still speaking, messengers come from the synagogue ruler’s house saying: “Your daughter died; why still trouble the teacher?”
- Now, having heard this word spoken, Jesus says to the synagogue ruler: “Don’t fear, only believe.”
- And He didn’t allow anyone to follow with Him except Peter, and James, and John (the brother of James).
- And they come to the synagogue ruler’s house, and He sees a commotion, and weeping, and much wailing.
- And having entered into the house, He says to them: “Why do you make a commotion and weep? The child didn’t die, but is sleeping.”
- And they were derisively laughing at Him. Now, having thrown everyone out, He takes the father and mother of the child with Him, and the men with Him, and enters into where the child was.
- And having taken the child’s hand, He tells her: “Talitha koum.” Which is translated: “Little girl, I tell you: rise.”
- And immediately the little girl rose and was walking (for she was twelve years old). And they were immediately overwhelmed with great amazement.
- And He instructed them often so no one might know this, and He commanded her to be given food to eat.
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Mark Chapter 6
Jesus in His hometown
- And He went out from there and comes into His hometown,1“hometown” is literally “fatherland”, as in the place his father lived/lives. This was another way of saying the place He came from, i.e. His hometown and His disciples are following Him.
- And it having become the Sabbath, He began to teach in the synagogue. And many of the men who listen were being stunned, saying: “From where did this man get these teachings, and what’s this wisdom that was given to Him? And such miracles happen through his hands.
- “Isn’t this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, and Joseph, and Judas, and Simon? And aren’t His sisters here with us?” And they were being offended by Him.
- And Jesus was telling them: “A prophet isn’t without honor except in his hometown, and among his kinsmen, and in his household.”
- And He wasn’t able to do even one miracle there, except having laid hands on a few sick, He healed them.
- And he was marveling because of their unbelief. And He was traveling around to villages teaching.
Sending out The Twelve
- And He summons the twelve, and began to send them out two-by-two, and He was giving them authority over the unclean spirits.
- And He instructed them that they should take nothing for the road, except a staff only; not bread, not a traveler’s bag, not money in the belt,
- but *putting sandals on their feet, and not to clothe themselves with two tunics.
- And He was telling them: “Wherever you enter into a house, remain there until you go out from that town.
- “And whatever place didn’t welcome you nor listen to you; departing from there, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them. [Amen I tell you: it will be more tolerable for Sodom or Gomorrah in the day of judgement than for that town.]”
- And having gone out, they proclaimed that all should repent.
- And they were casting out many demons, and were anointing many sick with oil and were healing them.
The death of John the Baptizer
- And King Herod heard, for His name became well known. And they were saying: “John the Baptizer has been raised from the dead and these miraculous powers are working in Him because of this.”
- But others were saying: “He’s Elijah.” Yet others were saying: “He’s like one of the prophets.”
- And having heard of it, Herod was saying: “John who I beheaded; that man was raised from the dead.”
- For having sent men, Herod himself seized John and bound him in prison because of Herodias, the wife of Philip his brother, because he married her.
- For John was saying to Herod: “It’s not lawful for you to have the wife of your brother.”
- Now, Herodias was holding a grudge against him and was wanting to kill him, and wasn’t able to
- for Herod was fearing John, *knowing him to be a righteous and holy man, and he was keeping him safe. And having heard him, he was perplexed and was often hearing him gladly.
- And an opportune day came when Herod made a dinner on his birthday for his nobles, and commanders, and the leading men of Galilee.
- And having come in and danced, the daughter of Herodias2“daughter of Herodias” History tells us that her name was Salome, who had become Herod’s stepdaughter at this point. A common estimate for her birth year is 14 AD, meaning she was in her mid-teens when she danced before Herod. One common theory is that Salome danced sensually to entice, but that seems unlikely given these two facts. pleased Herod and the men who recline at the table with him. And the king told the young girl: “Ask me for whatever you desire and I will give it to you.”
- And he swore an oath to her: “Ask me for whatever you desire and I will give it to you; up to half my kingdom.”
- And having gone out, she said to her mother: “What shall I ask for?” Now, she said: “The head of John the baptizer.”
- And having immediately entered with haste to see the king, she asked saying: “I desire that you give me the head of John the baptizer on a platter at once.”
- And having become deeply grieved because of his oaths and the men who recline at the table with him, the king didn’t want to refuse her.
- And having immediately sent an executioner, the king commanded him to bring his head. And having gone, he beheaded him in the prison.
- And he brought his head on a platter and gave it to the young girl, and the young girl gave it to her mother.
- And having heard this, his disciples came and picked up his body and put it in a tomb.
The apostles return from being sent out
- And the apostles assemble themselves to Jesus and reported to Him all things; whatever they did and whatever they taught.
- And He tells them: “You come here by yourselves to a secluded place on your own and rest a little.” For the men who come and the men who go were many, and they weren’t having an opportunity to eat.
- And they departed in the boat into a secluded place on their own.
- And many saw them traveling and recognized them. And they ran with them there on foot from all the cities and arrived before them.
- And having gone out, He saw a numerous crowd and was moved with compassion on them because they were like sheep not having a shepherd, and He began to teach them many things.
- And the hour was already late, so having approached Him, His disciples were saying: “This place is secluded and the hour is already late.
- “Send them away, so that having gone into the surrounding country and the villages, they might buy something to eat for themselves.”
- But answering, He told them: “You give them something to eat.” And they tell Him: “Having departed, should we buy two hundred denarii worth of bread and give it to them to eat?”
- But He says to them: “How many loaves do you have? Go see.” And having learned, they say: “Five, and two fish.”
- And He commanded them to make all the groups recline by groups on the green grass.
- And the groups reclined by groups of hundreds and of fifties.
- And having taken the five loaves and the two fish, and having looked up to heaven, He blessed and broke the loaves, and He was giving them to His disciples so they might set it before them. And He divided the two fish among all of them.
- And all ate and were satisfied.
- And they picked up twelve baskets full of bread pieces and of fish.
- And the men who ate the bread were five thousand men.
Jesus calms a storm
- And He immediately compelled His disciples to embark into the boat and to go before Him to the other side of the sea, to Bethsaida while He dismisses the crowd.
- And having withdrawn from them, He departed to the mountain to pray.
- And it having become evening, the boat was in the middle of the sea and He was alone on the land.
- And having seen them being buffeted while rowing (for the wind was hostile to them), He comes to them walking on the sea3quotation/allusions to Job 9:8 at about the fourth watch of the night,4The fourth watch of the night was from 3am until 6am. and He was intending to pass by them.
- But having seen Him walking on the sea, they thought that it’s a ghost and cried out,
- for all saw Him and were deeply shaken. And He immediately spoke with them and tells them: “Be courageous; I Am; don’t be frightened.”
- And He came up into the boat to them, and the wind ceased raging. And they were exceedingly abundantly marveling in themselves,
- for they didn’t understand from the bread, but their hearts were *hardened.
Jesus heals many
- And having crossed over to the land, they came to Gennesaret and were anchored,
- and having immediately recognized Him as they departed from the boat,
- some men ran around that whole region and began to carry the men who have afflictions on bed mats to wherever they were hearing that He is.
- And wherever He was entering – into villages, or into cities, or into countrysides – they were putting the men who are sick in the marketplaces, and were begging Him so they might just touch the fringe of His clothing; and as many as touched Him were being healed.5In Malachi 4:2, it says that “the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in his wings.” The Hebrew word translated “wings” in that verse is “כָּנָף” (kanaph). It means any extremity, including wings and also the edge of a garment. It could be accurately translated “healing in the edge of His clothes”. These people likely knew this verse, and that’s probably why they specifically wanted to touch the fringe of His cloak. The Jews believed Malachi 4:2 was a prophecy about the Messiah, so by touching His clothing, they were almost certainly expressing their faith that Jesus was the Messiah.
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Mark Chapter 7
What defiles a man
- And having come from Jerusalem, the Pharisees and some of the scribes assemble themselves to Him,
- and having seen that some of His disciples are eating bread with unclean hands (that is, unwashed;
- for holding fast to the tradition of the elders, the Pharisees and all the Jews don’t eat unless they wash their hands ceremonially with the fist.1“with the fist” is one word in Greek, with that exact literal meaning. However, there is some debate as to what that means. Some contend that it means vigorously, diligently, or ‘with strength’ as implied by the fist. Some contend that it means from the elbow down to the fist, and there are other interpretations. Regardless, most scholars agree that this goes beyond just washing the hands for cleanliness before you eat, and ventures into ceremonial tradition that had to be done a specific way to count.
- And after returning from the market, they don’t eat unless they wash. And there are many other traditions that they received to hold fast to; washings of cups, and pitchers, and utensils, and couches for eating.)
- And the Pharisees and the scribes interrogate Him: “Why don’t your disciples walk in the tradition of the elders, but eat the bread with unwashed hands?”
- But He told them: “Isaiah prophesied rightly about you hypocrites, as it is *written: ‘This people honors Me with their lips, yet their heart keeps far away from Me.
- ” ‘Yet they worship Me vainly, teaching the precepts of men as doctrines’.2quotation/allusion to Isaiah 29:13
- “Having disregarded the command of God, you are holding the tradition of men [washings of pitchers and cups, and the many other things such things you do].”
- And He was telling them: “You ‘nobly’3“nobly” this word is used here in the sense of “bitter irony” (Thayers), or sarcasm. do away with the commandment of God so you might keep your tradition.
- “For Moses said: ‘honor your father and your mother‘,4quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12, and Deuteronomy 5:16 and ‘The man who curses of father or mother must end in death‘.5quotation/allusion to Leviticus 20:9 and Exodus 21:17
- “But you say that if a man says to his father or his mother: ‘If you might be helped by something from me, it’s Corban6“Corban” is specifically a gift consecrated/devoted to God. The Pharisees believed that it was wrong to use something which was devoted/consecrated to God for “normal” use. Therefore, the Pharisees said if a man devoted (gave) everything he owned to God, he couldn’t use it for another purpose (such as helping family). However, there was no time requirement to deliver his goods, so he could keep them indefinitely while avoiding his obligations. This loophole was apparently invented by the Pharisees to allow men to shirk the Biblical and moral obligation of taking care of their own parents. (that is, a gift to God).
- “You no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother,
- annulling the word of God through your tradition which you handed down. And you do many similar things.”
- And having summoned the crowd again, He was telling them: “All of you listen to Me and understand.
- “There’s nothing from the outside of a man which is able to defile him after entering into him. But the things which come out of the man are the things which defile the man.
- “[If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.]”
- And when He went away from the crowd into the house, His disciples were asking Him about the parable.
- And He says to them: “So, are you also undiscerning? Don’t you comprehend that nothing which enters into a man from the outside is able to defile him?
- That’s because it doesn’t enter into his heart, but into the stomach and goes out into the sewage pit.” 7“sewage pit” the Greek word here literally means “a place of sitting apart”, referring to a drain or latrine for human waste. (Thus cleansing all foods.)8“cleansing all foods” There are two basic interpretations of this phrase. (1) Says the body cleanses the food by extracting the good and expelling the bad. (2) Says that this is Jesus abolishing the distinction between clean and unclean foods that was laid down in the Mosaic Law.
- And He was saying: “What comes out of a man; that defiles the man.
- “For from within the heart of men come out evil deliberations, fornications, thefts, murders, men having sex with other men’s wives,9“men having sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, usually translated “adultery” in this verse. However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife. The Hebrews divided sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman. A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery. A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication. Both are serious sins, but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words.
- “covetousness, wickedness, deceit, wanton debauchery, an evil eye of envy,10“of envy” This was added to indicate the “evil eye” had an idiomatic meaning of being envious or even greedy. blasphemy, arrogant pride, and foolishness.
- “All these evils come out from within, and they defile a man.”
The Syrophoenician Woman
- And having risen, He departed from there into the region of Tyre [and Sidon]. And having entered into a house, He wasn’t wanting anyone to know, and He wasn’t able to escape notice.
- But having heard about Him, a woman whose young daughter had an unclean spirit immediately came and fell at His feet.
- Now the woman was a gentile, Syrophoenician by ethnicity, and she was asking Him so He might cast the demon out of her young daughter.
- And He was answering: “First allow the children to eat until satisfied, for it’s not good to take the children’s bread and to throw it to the pet dogs.11“pet dogs” The Greek word here literally means a “little dog”, which has a diminutive connotation, and thus an affectionate sense. It could also mean a literal “little dog”, which could indicate a puppy. Translating it “pet puppies” is possible. Regardless there is an affectionate sense here, and Jesus didn’t use this in a derogatory way.
- But she answered and says to Him: “Yes Lord, and the pet dogs under the table eat from the children’s crumbs.”
- And He told her: “Because of this statement, go; the demon has come out of your daughter.”
- And having departed to her house, she found the child *lying on the bed and the demon *departed.
Jesus heals a deaf man
- And having gone out of the region of Tyre again, He came through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee in the midst of the region of the Decapolis.
- And they bring a man to Him who is deaf and has a speech impediment, and they implore Him so He might put a hand on him.
- And having taken him aside from the crowd on their own, He put His fingers into his ears; and having spit He touched his tongue.
- And having looked up to heaven, He sighed12“sighed” could also be translated “groaned” and tells him: “Ephphatha!” (That is, “Be opened!”)
- And immediately his ears were opened and the impediment of his tongue was undone, and he was speaking properly.
- And He instructed that they tell no one. But the more He was instructing them, the more abundantly they were proclaiming it.
- And they were stunned beyond measure, saying: “He has done all things nobly; He even makes the deaf to hear and the mute to speak.”
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Mark Chapter 8
Feeding four thousand
- In those days – with the crowd again being great and not having anything they could eat – He summoned the disciples and tells them:
- “I’m moved with compassion for the crowd because they already remain with Me three days and don’t have something they could eat.
- “And if I send them away to their homes without eating, they will grow weary on the way, and some of them have come from afar.”
- And His disciples answered Him: “From where will anyone here be able to satisfy these men with bread on account of this wilderness.
- And He was asking them: “How many loaves do you have?” And they said “Seven.”
- And He instructs the crowd to recline on the ground. And having taken the seven loaves and having given thanks, He broke them and was giving them to His disciples so they might set the food before the crowd, and they set it before the crowd.
- And they also had a few small fish. And having blessed them, He directed these fish to be set before them too.
- And they ate and were satisfied. And they picked up seven large baskets full of the leftover pieces.
- Now, there were about four thousand men, and He sent them away.
If a sign will be given
- And having immediately entered into the boat with His disciples, He came to the region of Dalmanutha.
- And the Pharisees came out and began to dispute with Him, testing Him by seeking a sign from heaven from Him.
- And having sighed deeply in His spirit, He says: “Why is this generation seeking a sign? Amen I tell you: may God do such to Me and more1“may God do such to Me and more” This phrase was added because the Greek literally reads ” Amen I tell you: if this generation will be given a sign”. This is in imitation of a Hebrew idiom often found in the Old Testament which is usually phrased “May God do ____ to me and more if I do ____”, which is an extremely strong negative statement in the Old Testament. if this generation will be given a sign.”
- And having left them, He again embarked into a boat and departed to the other side of the sea.
- And they forgot to take bread, and except one loaf they didn’t have any with themselves in the boat.
- And He was instructing them saying: “Watch out; beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod.”
- And they were reasoning to one another that He said this because they don’t have bread.
- And having known this, He tells them: “Why are you reasoning because you don’t have bread? Don’t you yet understand nor comprehend? Do you have *hardening in your heart?
- “Having eyes, do you not see? And having ears, do you not listen?2quotation/allusion to Ezekiel 12:2 and/or Jeremiah 5:21 And don’t you remember?
- “When I broke the five loaves for the five thousand, how many baskets full of pieces did you pick up?” They tell Him: “Twelve”
- He said: “And when I broke the seven loaves for the four thousand, how many large baskets full of pieces did you pick up?” And they say: “Seven”
- And He was saying to them: “Do you not yet understand?”
Healing a blind man
- And they come to Bethsaida. And they bring a blind man to Him and implore Him so He might touch him.
- And having taken the blind man’s hand, He brought him out of the village. And having spit on his eyes and having put His hands on him, He was asking him: “Do you see anything?”
- And having looked up, he was answering: “I see men that look like trees walking around.”
- Then He put his hands on his eyes again, and he looked and he was restored, and he was seeing each and every thing clearly.
- And He sent him to his home, saying: “Don’t even enter into the village, [nor tell anyone in the village].”
Who Jesus is
- And Jesus and His disciples went out into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. And on the way, He was questioning His disciples, saying to them: “Who do men declare Me to be?”
- And they answered Him, saying: “Some say John the Baptizer, others say Elijah, but others say one of the prophets.”
- And He was questioning them: “But who do you declare Me to be?” Answering, Peters tells Him: “You are the Anointed.”
- And He warned them so they might tell no one about Him.
- And He began to teach them that it’s necessary for the Son of Man to suffer many things; and to be rejected by the elders, and the chief priests, and the scribes; and to be killed; and after three days to rise from the dead,
- and He was stating this word plainly. And having taken Him aside, Peter began to rebuke Him.
- But having turned and looked at His disciples, He rebuked Peter and says: “Get behind me Satan, because you aren’t minding the things of God, but the things of men.
How to follow Jesus
- And having summoned the crowd along with His disciples, He told them: “If anyone wants to come follow after Me, he must utterly deny himself, and pick up his cross, and follow Me.
- “For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever will lose his life on account of Me and the good news; He will save it.
- “For what does it benefit a man to gain the whole world and to lose his life?3“life” the Greek word here is “ψυχή” (psuché), usually translated “soul” here. However, it’s the same world that’s universally translated “life” in the preceding verse. Further, it does not mean the part of us which survives death and goes to reward or punishment (Biblically that’s our spirit. In Revelation 8:9, animals are said to have “psuché”.) Psuché literally means “breath” and is usually translated “life”. It refers to the life; the vital force which – together with the body – enables a person to live. It can also refer to mind, will, emotions, and desires, which together make up a person’s identity.
- “For what might a man give as a price in exchange for his life?4“life” see previous note
- “For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”
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Mark Chapter 9
- And He was telling them: “Amen I tell you that some of the men who are *standing here definitely won’t taste death until they see that the kingdom of God has come in power.
- And after six days, Jesus takes Peter and James and John with Himself and leads them up to a high mountain on their own, and He was transfigured in front of them.
- And His clothes became an exceedingly radiant white, such as a launderer on the earth isn’t able to whiten.
- And Elijah with Moses appeared to them, and they were discussing with Jesus.
- And answering, Peter tells Jesus: “Rabbi, it’s good for us to be here, and should we make three tabernacles; one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah?”
- (For he hadn’t known how he should respond, for they were frightened.)
- And a cloud formed, overshadowing them and a voice came from the cloud: “This is My beloved Son; Listen to Him.”
- And having looked around, they suddenly no longer saw anyone with them but Jesus alone.
- And while descending from the mountain, He commanded that they describe what they saw to no one until the Son of Man rose from the dead.
- And they held onto that statement, discussing among themselves what is meant by ‘to rise from the dead’.
- And they were questioning Him, saying: “Why do the scribes say that it’s necessary for Elijah to come first?”
- And He was declaring to them: “Having come first, Elijah indeed restores all things. And yet how is it *written of the Son of Man, that He should suffer many things and be despised?
- “but I tell you that Elijah has come, and they did to him whatever they were wanting, just as it has been written of him.”
Casting out a mute demon
- And having come to the rest of the disciples, they saw a large crowd around them and some scribes disputing with them.
- And having seen Him, immediately all the crowd were stunned. And running to Him, they were welcoming Him.
- And He asked them: “What are you disputing with them?”
- And one man from the crowd answered Him: “Teacher, I brought my son to you because he has a mute spirit.
- “And wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and he is wasting away.1“wasting away” is literal, but this could also be understood as rigid, since dried/withered things often become rigid. And I spoke to your disciples so they might cast it out, and they weren’t strong enough.”
- And answering him, He says: “Oh unbelieving generation! How long will I be with you? How long will I put up with you? Bring him to Me.”
- And they brought him to Him. And having seen Him, the spirit immediately made him convulse violently. And having fallen on the ground, he was rolling and foaming at the mouth.
- And He questioned his father: “How long has it happened like this with him?” And he said “From childhood.
- “And it also often threw him into fire and into waters so it might destroy him. But if you’re able to do something, then having been moved with compassion on us, help us.”
- And Jesus said to him: “If you are able? All things are possible to the man who believes.”
- Having immediately cried out, the child’s father was saying: “I believe, help my unbelief.”
- And Jesus, having seen a crowd running to them, He rebuked the unclean spirit, telling it: “Mute and deaf spirit, I order you: come out of him and you should enter into him no more.”
- And having cried out and with much convulsing, it came out and he became like a dead man, enough for many to say that he died.
- And having taken hold of his hand, Jesus raised him up and he arose.
- And having entered into a house, His disciples were questioning Him on His own: “Why weren’t we able to cast it out?”
- And He told them: “This kind is able to go out by nothing, except by prayer.”
Jesus predicts His death again
- Having gone out from there, they were passing through Galilee and He wasn’t wanting anyone to know,
- for He was teaching His disciples and was telling them: “The Son of Man is handed over into the hands of men and they will kill Him. And having been killed, He will rise on the third day.”
- Yet they weren’t understanding His words, and they were fearing to question Him about it.
Who is the greatest?
- And they went to Capernaum. And having been in the house, He was questioning them: “What were you discussing on the way?”
- But they were keeping silent, for on the way they discussed with one another who was the greatest.
- And having sat down, He summoned the twelve and tells them: “If someone wants to be first, he will be last of all and a servant of all.”
- And having taken a young child, He stood him in their midst. And having embraced him, He told them:
- “Whoever welcomes one such child in My name welcomes Me. And whoever welcomes Me doesn’t welcome Me, but the One who sent Me.”
- John was reporting to Him: “Teacher, we saw someone [who doesn’t follow us] casting out demons in your name, and we were hindering him because he wasn’t following us.”
- But Jesus said. “Don’t hinder him, for there’s no one who will do a miracle in My name and then will be able to quickly speak evil of Me.
- “For whoever isn’t against us is for us.
- “For whoever gives you a cup of water to drink because you are the Anointed’s in name, amen I tell you that he definitely won’t lose his reward.
- “And whoever makes one of these little ones who believes in Me stumble, it would be better for him if a large millstone is put around his neck and He was *thrown into the sea.
- “And if your hand makes you stumble, cut it off; it’s better for you to enter into the life maimed than having two hands and to depart into the Valley of Hinnom,2“the Valley of Hinnom” Most translations render this “hell” but any lexicon will tell you it’s a proper noun referring to a specific valley – the Valley of Hinnom – just outside Jerusalem. Symbolically, it’s where the Jews believed the wicked were punished in the afterlife. It was also very significant in judgement in Israel’s history as well. Two kings of Israel sacrificed babies as burnt offerings to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch in the Valley of Hinnom. (2 Chronicles 28:1-3, 2 Chronicles 33:6, Jeremiah 7:30-31) As a result, God sentenced them to judgement through the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 19:1-11) Their sentence was carried out about 20 years later when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem. He burned almost everything and enslaved all Judah. (2 kings 25:1-12) This happened again a few centuries later when Rome destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. into the unquenchable fire.
- [“Where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire isn’t quenched.]3Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 66:24
- “And if your foot makes you stumble, cut it off; it’s better for you to enter into the life crippled than having two feet and to be cast into the Valley of Hinnom, [into the unquenchable fire].
- [“Where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire isn’t quenched.]4Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 66:24
- “And if your eye makes you stumble, cast it out; it’s better for you to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye than having two eyes and to be cast into the Valley of Hinnom,
- “Where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire isn’t quenched.5Quotation/allusion to Isaiah 66:24
- “For everyone will be salted with fire, [and every sacrifice will be salted with salt].
- “The salt is good, but if the salt becomes tasteless, by what will you season it? Have salt in yourselves and be peaceful with one another.”
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Mark Chapter 10
Marriage and Separation
- And having arisen from there, He goes into the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan. And the crowds assemble to Him again, and as He had been accustomed, He was teaching them again.
- And having approached intent on testing Him, the Pharisees were questioning Him about if it’s lawful for a husband to send away1“send away” is literal here. It’s typically translated “divorce” in this verse, though properly translated as “send away” in verse 4. The same word is used of Jesus “sending away” crowds and Pilate “sending away” (releasing) Barabbas. Paul uses a different Greek word when talking about divorce in 1 Corinthians. The Hebrew divorce procedure is found in Deut 24:1 and had three parts: (1) write a divorce certificate. (2) Give it to your wife. (3) Send her away from your house. However, if a man “sent her away” (kicked her out of his house) without a divorce certificate, in that culture she was destitute. She was still legally married because she didn’t have a divorce certificate, so she couldn’t marry anyone else without being an adulteress. Often, her only resort to feed herself was prostitution. There was a debate as to whether this was lawful according to the Mosaic Law. This was one of the two great 1st century Jewish debates centering on divorce. (See note on Matthew 19:3 for the other debate) a wife.
- And answering, He said to them: “What did Moses instruct you?”
- And they said: “Moses allowed us to write a scroll of divorce and to send her away.”2quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 24:1
- And Jesus told them: “He wrote this commandment for you because of your hardness of heart.”
- “But from the beginning of creation He made them male and female.3quotation/allusion to Genesis 1:27
- “For this reason, a man will leave his father and mother [and will be joined to his wife],
- “And the two will be4Most translations use the word “become” here, but the Greek word for “become” isn’t in this passage despite Mark using it with great latitude elsewhere. In this verse, it’s simply the Greek word that means is/are/am/be/being/etc. in one flesh.5quotation/allusion to Genesis 2:24 Jesus appears to be talking solely about a physical union here (not a spiritual one). Paul makes this clearer in 1 Corinthians 6:16, where Genesis 2:24 is also applied to sex with prostitutes. So then they are no longer two, but one flesh.
- “Therefore what God joined together, man must not separate.”
- And when in the house again, the disciples were asking Him about this.
- And He tells them: “Whoever sent away his wife and married another woman of the same kind,6“another woman of the same kind” is one word in Greek with that exact definition. The “of the same kind” part is often omitted in translation for readability, but is essential in this passage. The “of the same kind” part likely refers to a woman who is merely “sent away” and not properly divorced. See note on “send away” in verse 2. He is guilty of sex with another man’s wife7“is guilty of sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commits adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was still a serious sin, but the not the specific sin of adultery. on account of her.
- “And if a wife sent away her husband and marries another man, she commits adultery.8“commits adultery” the Greek word here specifies that she was still married to someone other than the new husband, presumably to the husband she “sent away”; see notes on previous verse and also verse 2.
Jesus and the little children
- And they were bringing little children to Him so He might touch them, but the disciples rebuked them.
- But having seen this, Jesus was indignant and told them: “Allow the little children to come to Me. Don’t hinder them, for the kingdom of God is of such a kind as this.
- “Amen I tell you: whoever doesn’t welcome the kingdom of God like a little child definitely won’t enter into it.”
- And having embraced them, He was blessing them, laying hands on them.
The rich young ruler
- And while traveling on His journey, one man ran up to Him, and having fallen on his knees was questioning Him: “Good teacher, what should I do so I might inherit the life of ages?”
- But Jesus told him: “Why call Me good? No one is good except God alone.
- “You *know the commandments: you should not murder, you should not have sex with another man’s wife,9quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14 “have of sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commits adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was still a serious sin, but the not the specific sin of adultery. you should not steal, you should not commit perjury, you should not defraud,10“you shall not defraud” this statement is unique to Mark’s gospel. It’s possible that this was an expansion of “you shall not commit perjury”, in the sense of swearing to do something and then not doing it, which would be fraud. you must honor your father and mother.11quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:12-16
- And he was telling Him: “Teacher, I kept all these commandments from my youth.”
- And having looked at him, Jesus ^loved him and told him: “You fall short in one thing. Go sell whatever you have, and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven, and come follow Me.”
- But his face having fallen at this word, he departed grieving, for he was a man having many properties.
- And having looked around, Jesus tells His disciples: “Oh, how the men who have riches will enter into the kingdom of God with difficulty!”
- And the disciples were dumbfounded at His words. But answering again, Jesus tells them: “Children, how difficult it is [for the men who have trusted in riches] to enter into the kingdom of God.
- “It’s easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.”
- And the men were exceedingly stunned, saying to themselves: “And who then is able to be saved?”
- Having looked at them, Jesus says: “It’s impossible with men, but not with God; for all things are possible with God.”
- Peter began to tell Him: “Behold, we left all things and have followed you.”
- Jesus was saying: “Amen I tell you, there’s no man who left house, or brothers, or sisters, or mother, or father, [or wife,] or children, or fields for My sake and the sake of the good news,
- “unless he receives a hundred times more now in this season – houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and fields, with persecutions – and in the age which is coming, the life of ages.
- “But many of the first will be last; and the last, first.”
Jesus predicts His death again
- And they were on the road going up to Jerusalem, and Jesus was going before them and they were dumbfounded, and the men following were frightened. And having taken the Twelve alongside again, He began to tell them the things that are about to happen to Him.
- “Behold, We are going up to Jerusalem and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and to the scribes, and they will sentence Him to death, and they will hand Him over to the gentiles.
- “And they will ridicule Him, and will spit on Him, and will flog Him, and will kill Him, and on the third day He will rise again.
- And James and John (the two sons of Zebedee) approach Him, saying to Him: “Teacher, we want that whatever we ask of you, you would do it for us.”
- And He said to them: “What do you want Me to do for you?”
- And they told Him: “Grant that one of us would sit at your right hand and one at your left hand in your glory.”
- But Jesus told them: “You don’t *know what you’re asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized in the baptism which I am baptized in?”
- And they told Him: “We are able.” And Jesus told them: “You will drink the cup which I drink, and you will be baptized in the baptism which I am baptized in.
- “But to sit at My right hand or at My left hand isn’t Mine to give, but for whom it has been prepared.”
- And having heard this, the ten began to be indignant about James and John.
- And having summoned them, Jesus tells them: “Don’t you *know that the men who seem to rule the gentiles exercise authority over them, and their great men dominate them.
- “But it isn’t this way among you, but whoever wants to become great among you will be your servant.
- “And whoever wants to become first among you will be a slave of all.
- “For even the Son of Man12quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13 didn’t come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a purchase price13“purchase price” this Greek word often referred to the price required to buy a slave’s freedom. in exchange for many.”
Healing Bartimaeus the blind beggar
- And they come to Jericho. And while He and His disciples and a large crowd are departing from Jericho, Bartimaeus the son of Timaeus (a blind beggar) was sitting along the road.
- And having heard that it’s Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out and to say: “Son of David14“Son of David” was a title of the promised messiah in Jewish eyes. This stems from 2 Samuel 7:12-13, in which God promised that David would have a descendant who would sit on the throne forever. This could be construed as an act of faith by Bartimaeus., Jesus; have mercy on me.”
- And many were rebuking him so he might be silent, but he was crying out much more: “Son of David, have mercy on me.”
- And having stood, Jesus commanded: “Invite him to Me.” And they invite the blind man, telling him: “Have courage, get up; He is inviting you.”
- And having thrown off his cloak, he leapt up and went to Jesus.
- And answering him, Jesus said: “What do you want Me to do for you?” And the blind man told Him: “Rabbi, I ask that I might recover my sight.”
- And Jesus told him: “Go, your faith has healed you.” And immediately he recovered his sight, and he was following Him on the road.
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Mark Chapter 11
The Triumphal Entry
- And when they draw near to Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany near the Mount of Olives, He sends out two of His disciples
- and tells them: “Go into the village in front of you, and immediately after entering into it you will find a colt *tied, on which no one among men sat yet. Untie it and bring it here.
- “And if anyone says to you: ‘Why are you doing this?’ Reply: ‘Because the Lord has need of it, and He sends it back here soon.”
- And they departed and found the colt *tied by the door outside on the street, and they untie it.
- And some of the men *standing there were saying to them: “What are you doing, untying the colt?”
- And they spoke to them just as Jesus commanded, and they allowed them.
- And they bring the colt to Jesus, and they throw their cloaks on it and He sat on it.
- And many spread their cloaks on the road, and others spread branches cut from the fields.
- And the men preceding Him and the men following Him were crying out: “Hosanna!1“Hosanna” A Hebrew word transliterated into Greek. Originally a cry for help roughly translating to “save now!”, it eventually became a cry of adoration and/or exultation. *Blessed is the One who comes in the name of the Lord!”2quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:26
- “*Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David! Hosanna in the highest!”
- And he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple. And having looked at all things and the hour already being late, He went out into Bethany with the twelve.
The fig tree
- And all of them having gone out from Bethany the next day, He was hungry.
- And having seen a fig tree having leaves from afar, He went to it to see if perhaps He will find something on it. And having come to it, He found nothing except leaves, for it wasn’t the season of figs.
- And answering, He told it: “May no one eat fruit from you through the age!” And His disciples were listening.
Cleansing the temple
- And they go into Jerusalem. And having entered into the temple, He began to cast out the men who sell and the men who buy in the temple, and He overturned the tables of the moneychangers and the chairs of the men who sell doves.
- And He wasn’t allowing that anyone would carry a vessel through the temple.
- And He was teaching and was telling them: “Hasn’t it been written: My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations‘?3quotation/allusion to Isaiah 56:7 But you have made it a robber’s den.”4quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 7:11
- And the chief priests and the scribes heard this, and were seeking how they might kill Him; for they were fearing Him, for all in the crowd were being stunned on account of His teaching.
- And when it became evening, they were departing from the city.
Return to the fig tree and prayer
- And passing by in the morning, they saw the fig tree *withered from the roots up.
- And having remembered, Peter says to Him: “Rabbi, look; the fig tree that you cursed has withered.”
- And answering, Jesus tells them: “Have faith in God.
- “Amen I tell you that whoever says to this mountain: ‘Be removed and cast into the sea’ and didn’t doubt in his heart but believes that what he says happens, it will be so for him.
- “Because of this, I tell you that all things whatsoever you pray and ask for, believe that you received it and it will be so for you.
- “And when you stand firm in praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive them so your Father in the heavens might forgive you of your missteps.5“missteps” The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) which is also used in Ephesians 2:1 in the phrase: “dead in your ‘paraptóma’ and sins”. It carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional.
- [But if you don’t forgive, neither will your Father in the heavens forgive your missteps.]”
The Pharisees test Jesus again
- And they come again into Jerusalem. And while He’s walking in the temple, the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders come to Him.
- And they were saying to Him: “By what sort of authority are you doing these things? Or who gave you this authority so you might do these things?”
- But Jesus told them: “I will ask you one question and you answer Me, and then I will tell you by what authority I do these things.
- “The baptism of John; was it from heaven or from men? Answer Me.”
- And they were reasoning to themselves saying: “[What might we say?] If we say ‘from heaven’, He will say ‘So why didn’t you believe him?’.
- “But if we say ‘from men’…” they were fearing the people, for all were holding that John was truly a prophet.
- And answering Jesus, they say: “We don’t *know.” And Jesus tells them: “Then neither am I telling you by what authority I do these things.”
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Mark Chapter 12
The Wicked Vinegrowers
- And He began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard, and he placed a fence around it, and dug a wine vat,1“wine-vat” is where the juice collects after being pressed out in a wine press. and built a tower,2quotation/allusion to Isaiah 5:2 and rented it out to vinegrowers, and went to another country.
- “And he sent a slave to vinegrowers at the proper season so he might receive the fruit of the vineyard from the vinegrowers.
- “But having seized him, they beat him and sent him away emptyhanded.
- “And again he sent another slave to them, and they struck his head and shamefully mistreated him.
- “And he sent another and they killed him. And he sent many others, indeed they are beating some but killing others.
- “Even more, having one beloved son, he sent him to them last of all, saying: “They will be turned in shame and revere3“will be turned in shame and revere” is one word in Greek. It means “to turn about”, often in shame or away from shame and to revere something else. my son.”
- “Yet those vinegrowers said to themselves: “This is the heir. Come, we should kill him and the inheritance will be ours.”
- “And having seized him, they killed him and threw him outside the vineyard.
- “Therefore, what will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and will destroy the vinegrowers and will give the vineyard to others.
- “And didn’t you read this in the scripture: “The stone which the men who build rejected, this became the head corner stone.
- “This happened from the Lord, and is marvelous in our eyes.4quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:22-23
- And they were seeking to seize Him, and were frightened of the crowd for they knew that He spoke the parable against them. And having left Him, they departed.
Paying Caesar’s Tax
- And they send some of the Pharisees and Herod’s supporters to Him so they might entrap Him in a statement.
- And having come, they say to Him: “Teacher, we *know that you are true and you don’t worry about anyone, for you don’t look at the appearance of men, but you teach the way of God in truth. Is it lawful to pay the poll tax5A “poll tax” (also called a “head tax or “capitation”) is a tax on every liable individual in a nation. This specific tax was paid yearly, and could only be paid in Roman money, not Jewish money. to Caesar or not? Should we pay or should we not pay?
- But *knowing their hypocrisy, He said to them: “Why are you testing Me? Bring Me a denarius so I might see it.”
- And they brought one, and He says to them: “Whose image is this, and whose inscription?” And they told Him: “Caesar’s”
- And Jesus told them: “Repay the things of Caesar to Caesar, and the things of God to God.” And they were marveling on account of Him.
Marriage and the resurrection
- And some Sadducees (who say there isn’t to be a resurrection) come to Him and were questioning Him, saying:
- “Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if anyone’s brother dies and leaves a wife behind, and doesn’t leave children, that his brother should take the wife and raise up seed for his brother.“6quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:5-6
- “There were seven brothers, and the first took a wife and before dying he didn’t leave seed.”
- “And the second took her and died, not having left behind seed; and the third did likewise.
- “And the seven brothers didn’t leave seed. Finally, the woman also died.
- “In the resurrection when they rise, of them whose wife will she be? For all seven had her as a wife.”
- Jesus was telling them: “Don’t you mislead yourselves because of this: that you haven’t understood the scriptures nor the power of God?”
- “For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in the heavens.
- “But concerning the dead, that they rise, didn’t you read in the book of Moses how God spoke to him at the bush, saying: “I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.”7quotation/allusion to Exodus 3:6
- “He isn’t the God of the dead, but the living. You greatly mislead yourselves.”
The greatest commandment
- And having approached, one of the scribes heard them discussing together. Having seen that He answered them well, he questioned Him: “Which commandment is foremost of all?”
- Jesus answered: “The foremost commandment is: Listen O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.
- “And you shall ^love the Lord your God with your whole heart, and with your whole soul, and with your whole mind, and with your whole strength.8quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 6:4
- “The second is this: you shall ^love your neighbor as yourself.9quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18 There isn’t another commandment greater than these.”
- And the scribe told Him: “Teacher, you spoke nobly on this truth, that He is One and there isn’t another except Him,
- “And to ^love Him with the whole heart, and with the whole intellect, and with the whole strength, and to ^love our neighbor as yourself is abundantly superior to all burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
- And having seen that he answered prudently, Jesus told him: “You aren’t far from the kingdom of God.” And no one was daring to question Him any longer.
Is the Anointed David’s son?
- And answering in teaching, Jesus was saying in the temple: “How are the scribes saying that the Anointed is David’s son?
- “David himself said in the Holy Spirit: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, sit at My right hand until I put your enemies underneath your feet.10quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:1
- “David himself calls Him Lord, and so how is He his son?” And the numerous crowd was gladly listening to Him.
Of Scribes and widows
- And He was saying in His teaching: “Watch out for the scribes, the men who want to walk about in expensive robes,11“expensive robes” this Greek word refers to a stolé, which was primarily worn by the upper classes. and want greetings in the marketplaces,
- and chief seats in the synagogues, and chief places at suppers;
- the men who devour the houses of widows and pray long prayers as a pretense. These men will receive abundantly more judgement.”
- And having sat down opposite the treasury, He was observing how the crowd throws money into the treasury. And many rich men were throwing in much money.
- And having come, one poor widow threw in two lepta, which is equal to a penny.
- And having summoned His disciples, He told them: “Amen I tell you that this poor widow threw in more than all the men throwing money into the treasury.
- For all of them threw in money from their overflow, but she gave from her poverty. She threw in all of whatever she had; her whole livelihood.
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Mark Chapter 13
The temple’s destruction foretold
- And while He’s departing from the temple, one of His disciples tells Him: “Teacher, behold what kind of stones and what kind of buildings!”
- And Jesus told him: “You see these great buildings? There definitely won’t be one stone left upon another stone here which won’t be torn down.”
- And while He’s sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the Temple, Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew were questioning Him in private,
- “Tell us, when will these things be? And what’s the sign when all these things are about to be fulfilled?”
- And Jesus began to tell them: “Watch out, lest someone misleads you.”
- “Many will come in My name saying “I am the Anointed“, and they will mislead many.
- “And when you hear of wars and rumors of wars, don’t be shaken. It must happen, but it’s not yet the end.
- “For nation will rise up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places. There will be famines. These are the beginning of birth pains.
- “But watch out for yourselves; they will hand you over to the Sanhedrins and to synagogues, you will be flogged, and you will stand before rulers and kings for My sake, for a testimony to them.
- “And it’s necessary to proclaim the good news to all nations first.
- “And when they lead you away by handing you over, don’t be anxious beforehand about what you might say. But whatever is given to you in that hour, say that. For you aren’t the man who is speaking, but the Holy Spirit is.
- “And brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child, and children will rise up against their parents and will put them to death.
- “And you will be hated by all men because of My name. But the man who endured to the end, that man will be saved.
- “And when you see the Abomination of Desolation,1quotation/allusion to Daniel 9:27, Daniel 11:31, and Daniel 12:11 [the one which was spoken of by the prophet Daniel], *standing where it shouldn’t be – let the man who reads understand – then let the men in Judea flee into the mountains.
- “Yet the man on the roof must not come down, nor go in to take anything from his house.
- “and the man in the field must not turn back to take his cloak.
- “But woe to the women who have a child in their womb, and to the women who nurse in those days.
- “And pray that it won’t happen in winter,
- “for in those days there will be a tribulation of such a kind that something like it hasn’t happened from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and it definitely won’t happen again.
- “And if the Lord didn’t cut those days short, no flesh would be saved. But for the sake of the elect who He selected, He cut the days short.
- “And then if someone tells you: ‘Look, the Anointed is here’ or ‘Look He is there’, don’t believe him.
- “For false anointed ones and false prophets will arise, and they will give signs and wonders in order to greatly mislead the elect, if possible.
- “But you, watch out; I have forewarned you of all these things.”
- “But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened and the moon won’t give its light.2quotation/allusion to Isaiah 13:10
- “And the stars will be falling from heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken.3quotation/allusion to Isaiah 34:4
- “And then they will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with much power and glory.4quotation/allusion to Isaiah 7:13-14
- “And then He will send the angels, and He will gather His elect from the four winds;5quotation/allusion to Zechariah 2:6 and Deuteronomy 30:4 from earth’s end as far as heaven’s end.
- “And learn from the parable of the fig tree: When its branch already became tender and sprouts leaves, you know that summer is near.
- “In this way also, you know that He is near at the doors when you see these things happening.
- “Amen I tell you that this generation definitely won’t pass away until all these things happen.
- “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words [definitely] won’t pass away.
- “But concerning that day or hour, no one *knows except the Father, not even the angels in heaven nor the Son.
- “Watch out, be vigilant; for you don’t *know when the time is.
- “It’s like a man traveling to another country who left his house and gave his slaves authority for each to do his work, and he commanded the doorkeeper that he should keep watch.
- “So keep watch, for you don’t *know when the master of the house is coming: at evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or dawn,
- “lest having come unexpectedly, He might find you sleeping.
- “And what I tell you, I tell all men: keep watch.”
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Mark Chapter 14
The plot to kill Jesus
- Now, after two days it would be the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread. And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how they might kill Him after having taken Him by covert trickery.
- For they were saying: “Not at the feast, lest then a riot will happen among the people.”
The woman anoints Jesus
- And Him being in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper while reclining at the table, a woman having a very expensive alabaster bottle of scented oil of pure nard came to Him. Having broken the alabaster bottle, she poured it on His head.
- But some were indignant to one another, saying: “Why has this waste of scented oil happened?
- “For this scented oil was able to be sold for more than 300 denarii1300 denarii was approximately 1 years’ worth of wages for a laborer, a single denarius being the going wage for a day’s labor. and the money to be given to the poor.” And they were sternly admonishing her.
- But Jesus said: “Leave her alone. Why do you cause trouble for her? She did a noble thing to Me.”
- “For you always have the poor with you, and you are able to do good to them whenever you want, but you don’t always have Me.
- “She did what she was able. She did this beforehand to anoint My body for embalming.
- “And amen I tell you, wherever the good news might be proclaimed in the whole world, what this woman did will also be mentioned for a memorial to her.”
Judas plans to betray Jesus
- And Judas Iscariot (one of the Twelve) departed to the chief priests so he might betray Him to them.
- And having heard this, they rejoiced and promised to give him silver. And he was seeking how he might betray Him at an opportune moment.
- And on the first day of unleavened bread, at the time they were sacrificing the Passover lamb, His disciples say to Him: “Having departed, where do you intend that we should prepare so you might eat the Passover?”
- And He sends two of His disciples and tells them: “Go into the city and a man carrying a jug of water will meet you. Follow him.
- “And wherever he enters, tell the master of the house that the teacher says: ‘where is My guest room where I might eat the Passover with My disciples?’
- “And he will show you a large upper room that’s *furnished and prepared, and prepare for us there.”
- And the disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things just as He told them, and they prepared the Passover.
- And it having become evening, He comes with the Twelve.
The last supper
- And while reclining at the table and eating, Jesus said: “Amen I tell you that one of you will betray Me, the man who is eating with Me.”
- And they began to be grieved and to tell Him one-by-one: “Surely not I?”
- But He told them: “It’s one of the Twelve, the man who is dipping with Me into the bowl.
- “For the Son of Man is indeed departing, just as it’s *written about Him, but woe to that man through whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for him if that man wasn’t born.”
- And while they are eating, having taken bread and said a blessing, He broke it, and gave it to them, and said: “Take it, this is My body.”
- And having taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them and they all drank from it.
- And He told them: “This is My blood of the covenant, the blood which is poured out for the sake of many.
- “Amen I tell you that I definitely won’t drink of the fruit of the vine any longer, until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.”
- And having sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
The disciples will stumble
- And Jesus tells them: “You all will stumble [because of Me on this night], because it’s *written: “I will strike the shepherd and the sheep will be scattered.”2quotation/allusion to Zechariah 13:7
- “But after I’m raised, I will go before you into Galilee.”
- But Peter was declaring to Him: “But I won’t, even if all others will stumble.”
- And Jesus tells him: “Amen I tell you that today on this night, before a rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.
- But he was vehemently saying: “If it’s necessary for me to die with you, I definitely won’t deny you!” And they all were saying the same thing too.
The Garden of Gethsemane
- And they go into a place whose name is Gethsemane, and He tells His disciples: “Sit here while I pray.”
- And He takes Peter, and James, and John with Him, and He began to be greatly distressed and troubled.
- And He tells them: “My soul is deeply grieved, even to death. Stay here and keep watch.”
- And having gone onwards a little way, He was falling on the ground and was praying that if it’s possible, the hour might pass away from Him.
- And He was saying: “Abba,3“Abba” is a Greek form of the Hebrew word for father. It is a term of greater closeness and familiarity than “father”, though the degree of closeness is widely debated. Some think “Papa” or “Daddy” is appropriate, while others say that’s is too familiar and prefer “Dad” or perhaps “Pa”. Some of the latter group prefer to render as an adjective and would translate it “dear father”. Father, all things are possible for you. Remove this cup from Me, but not what I desire, but what you desire.”
- And He comes and finds them sleeping, and He says to Peter: “Simon, are you sleeping? Weren’t you strong enough to watch for one hour?”
- “Keep watch and pray so you won’t enter into temptation. The spirit is indeed willing, but the flesh is weak.”
- And having departed again He prayed, saying the same words.
- And having come again, He found them sleeping because their eyes were burdened. And they hadn’t known how they should answer Him.
- And He comes a third time and says to them: “You’re still sleeping and resting? That’s enough. The hour has come. Behold, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinful men.
- “Get up, we should go. Behold, the man who is betraying Me has drawn near.”
Jesus is arrested
- And immediately while He’s still speaking, Judas (one of the Twelve) approaches, and with him a crowd with swords and clubs from the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders.
- Now, the man betraying Him had given them a sign, saying: “Whoever I kiss, He is the one. Seize Him and take Him away securely.
- And having come, he immediately approached Him and says: “Rabbi.” And he kissed Him.
- And they laid hands on Him and seized Him.
- But having drawn his sword, one of the men *standing nearby struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear.
- And answering, Jesus said to them: “Why did you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me, as you would against a violent robber?4“violent robber” is one word in Greek. It refers to someone who steals through force, as opposed to a burglar or thief who steals through stealth.
- “I was with you in the temple every day teaching and you didn’t seize Me. But this is happening so the Scriptures might be fulfilled.”
- And having abandoned Him, all of them fled.
- And a young man was following Him *clothed only with a linen cloth on his naked body, and they seize him.
- But having abandoned the linen cloth, he fled naked.
Jesus before the Sanhedrin
- And they led Jesus away to where the high priest, and all the chief priests, and the elders, and the scribes assemble.
- And Peter followed Him from afar until he was within the courtyard of the high priest. And he was sitting with the synagogue attendants and warming himself at the fire.
- Now, the chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin5The Sanhedrin was the highest Jewish court of the day. were seeking testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, and they weren’t finding any.
- For many were testifying falsely against Him, and their testimonies weren’t identical.
- And having stood, some men were testifying falsely against Him, saying:
- “We heard Him saying: ‘I will destroy this temple made with hands, and in three days I will build another not made with hands’.”
- And not even their testimony on this was identical.
- And having stood in their midst, the high priest questioned Jesus saying: “You don’t answer anything to what these men testify against you?”
- But He was keeping silent and didn’t answer anything. Again the high priest was questioning Him and says to Him: “Are you the Anointed, the Son of the Blessed One?”
- And Jesus said: “I Am. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.”6quotation/allusion to Daniel 7:13
- And having torn his clothes, the high priest says: “Why would we still have need of witnesses?
- “You heard the blasphemy! How does it appear to you?” And all condemned Him to be worthy of death.
- And some began to spit on Him, and to blindfold His face, and to punch Him, and to tell Him: “Prophesy!” And the synagogue attendants received Him with slaps.
Peter denies Jesus
- And Peter being below in the courtyard, one of the high priest’s serving girls comes.
- And having seen Peter warming himself and having looked at him, she says: “You also were with Jesus the Nazarene.”
- But he denied it, saying: “I neither *know nor understand what you’re talking about.” And he went out to the vestibule, [and a rooster crowed].
- And having seen him, the serving girl began to say again to the men *standing nearby: “This man is one of them.”
- But he was denying it again. And after a little while, again the men *standing nearby were saying to Peter: “Truly you are one of them, for you’re even a Galilean, [and your speech resembles Galileans].”
- But he began to curse and to swear an oath: “I don’t *know this man of whom you’re speaking!”
- And immediately a rooster crowed a second time. And Peter remembered the word Jesus told him that: “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.” And having broken down, he was weeping.
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Mark Chapter 15
Jesus before Pilate
- And having immediately formed a council at dawn, the chief priests with the elders, and scribes and the whole Sanhedrin bound Jesus, carried Him away, and handed Him over to Pilate.
- And Pilate questioned Him: “Are you King of the Jews?” And answering him, He says: “You said1“You said” is literally “You say” or “You are saying”. However, “you said” conveys the idomatic sense better in English it.”
- And the chief priests were accusing Him of many things.
- And Pilate was questioning Him again, saying: “You don’t answer anything? Look at how many things they’re accusing you of.”
- But Jesus no longer answered anything, so then Pilate began to marvel.
- Now at the festival, he would usually release one prisoner to them who they were requesting.
- And there was one man named Barabbas who was *bound with his fellow rebels, who had committed murder in the rebellion.
- And having risen, the crowd began to ask him to do just as he usually did for them.
- But Pilate answered them saying: “Is your desire that I release the King of the Jews for you?”
- For he was recognizing that the chief priests had handed Him over because of envy.
- But the chief priests stirred up the crowd so he might release Barabbas to them instead.
- And answering again, Pilate was saying to them: “Then what should I do to Him who you call the King of the Jews?”
- And again they cried out: “Crucify Him!”
- But Pilate was saying to them: “Why? Did He do something evil?” But they cried out “Crucify Him!” abundantly more.
- And Pilate – resolving to do what was acceptable to the crowd – released Barabbas to them. And having flogged Jesus, he handed Him over so He would be crucified.
Jesus is mocked and crucified
- Now, the soldiers led Him away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium) and assemble the whole cohort.2“cohort”. The cohort was a basic unit of the Roman military, which consisted of 480 soldiers plus 120 servants. A standard cohort was comprised of 6 “centuries”, which consisted of 80 men plus 20 servants. However, the first cohort in every Roman Legion was composed of five double strength centuries, or 800 soldiers plus 200 servants.
- And they clothe Him in purple, and having braided a crown of thorns, they put it on Him.
- And they began to greet Him: “Hail King of the Jews!”
- And they were hitting His head with a reed and were spitting on Him; and bending the knees, they were bowing down to Him.
- And when they had mocked Him, they stripped the purple robe off of Him and clothed Him in His [own] clothes. And they lead Him out so they might crucify Him.
- And they compel a man coming from the country and passing by – Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus – so that he would carry His cross.
- And they bring Him to Golgotha, the place which is translated: “Place of a Skull.”
- And they were offering Him wine *mixed with myrrh, but He didn’t take it.
- And after crucifying Him they distribute His clothes, casting lots for them to see who should take what.
- Now it was the third hour3The third hour is approximately 9 in the morning. and they crucified Him.
- And there was a *written inscription of the charge against Him: “The King of the Jews”
- And they crucify two robbers with Him, one on His right hand and one on His left.
- [And the scripture was fulfilled, the one that says: “And He was counted with the lawless.”]4quotation to Isaiah 53:12
- And the men passing by were slandering Him, shaking their heads, and saying: “Aha! You’re the man who destroys the temple and rebuilds it in three days.
- Having descended from the cross, save yourself.”
- In a similar way, the chief priests with the scribes are mocking Him to one another and were saying: “He saved others; He isn’t able to save Himself.
- “The Anointed, the King of Israel! Let Him come down from the cross now so we might see and believe.” And the men who were *crucified with Him were insulting Him.
The death of Jesus
- And it having become the sixth hour,5The sixth hour is about noon darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour.6The ninth hour is approximately 3 in the afternoon
- And at the ninth hour, Jesus called out in a loud voice: “Eloi, eloi, lema sabachthani?”, which is translated: “My God, My God, why did you abandon Me?”7quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:1
- And having heard this, some of the men *standing nearby were saying: “Behold, He calls for Elijah.”
- And having run up, filled a sponge with vinegar, and wrapped it around a reed, one of them was giving Him a drink, saying: “Leave Him alone; we’ll see if Elijah comes to take Him down.”
- But having uttered a loud cry, He breathed His last.
- And the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.
- And having seen that He breathed His last this way, the centurion *standing opposite Him said: “Truly this man was God’s Son.”
- Now, there were also women watching from afar, among whom were also Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the Little and Joseph, and Salome.
- (Women who were following Him and were serving Him when He was in Galilee, and many other women came up with Him to Jerusalem.)
The burial of Jesus
- And it already having become evening, since it was the Preparation Day (that is, the day before the Sabbath),
- having come, Joseph of Arimathea – a prominent member of the Sanhedrin who himself was also awaiting the kingdom of God – boldly went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.
- But Pilate wondered if He already *died. And having summoned the centurion, he asked him if He already died.
- And having learned the answer from the centurion, he granted the body to Joseph.
- And having bought a fine linen cloth and taken Him down, he wrapped Him in the fine linen cloth and put Him in a tomb which was *cut out of a rock. And he rolled a stone onto the door of the tomb.
- Now, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joseph were watching where He was *laid.
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Mark Chapter 16
The empty tomb
- And the Sabbath having passed, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so they might go anoint Him.
- And they go to the tomb very early on the first day of the week, the sun having already risen.
- And they were saying among themselves: “Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?”
- And having looked up, they see that the stone has been rolled away (for it was exceedingly large).
- And having entered into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right *clothed in a white robe and they were alarmed.
- And he tells them: “Don’t be alarmed. You seek Jesus the Nazarene, the one who has been crucified. He was raised! He isn’t here! Behold, the place where they laid Him.
- “But go, tell His disciples and Peter that He is going before you into Galilee. You will see Him there, just as He told you.”
- And having gone out, they fled from the tomb, for trembling and amazement was gripping them. And they said nothing to anyone, for they were frightened.
The disputed “Longer ending” of Mark
Translator’s note1Modern scholarly consensus is that verses 9-20 were added to the Gospel of Mark at a very early date and weren’t original to Mark. To support this, they will point out that this passage isn’t present in the earliest copies of the New Testament, and that some early church fathers (such as Eusebius) explicitly reject it. Further, some manuscripts which include it suggest that it’s absent from even earlier manuscripts. The existence of the “intermediate ending” (see note on the following section) is also cited as evidence against it being original. The typical reason offered for the addition is because Mark ending at verse 8 seems unfinished and unsatisfying. On the other side, those who favor its inclusion will cite Irenaeus (circa ~180) who quotes it as scripture, and who is earlier that our earliest manuscripts. They will also point out that it’s present in the vast majority of manuscripts, including many early manuscripts.
- Now, having arisen early on the first day of the week, He appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons.
- Having gone, that woman reported it to the men who had been with Him, who were mourning and weeping.
- And having heard that He lives and was seen by her, those men didn’t believe her.
- And after these things, He appeared in another form to two of them while they’re walking, traveling into the country.
- And having gone, those men reported it to the rest, but those men didn’t believe it either.
- But later while they are reclining at the table, He appeared to the eleven and rebuked their unbelief and hardness of heart because they didn’t believe the men who saw Him *risen [from the dead].
- And He told them: “Having gone into the entire world, proclaim the good news to all creation.
- “The man who believed and was baptized will be saved, but the man who disbelieved will be condemned.
- “Now, these signs will follow the men who believed: They will cast out demons in My name, they will speak in new tongues,
- they will pick up snakes [with their hands], and if they drink anything deadly, it definitely won’t hurt them. They will lay hands on the sick and they will be well.”
- Therefore after speaking to them, the Lord Jesus was indeed taken up into heaven and He sat down at the right hand of God.
- And having gone out, those men proclaimed everywhere, the Lord working with them and confirming the word through the signs which follow them.
The highly disputed “intermediate ending” of Mark
Translator’s note2There is essentially no scholarly support for this “intermediate ending” being original to Mark, and the overwhelming vast majority of translations don’t include it. It has only been included here for completeness. This ending’s existence has been cited as evidence that Mark ended at verse 8. The reasoning is because if Mark ended at verse 20, then there would be no reason for this section to exist in the first place.
- [And they concisely proclaimed all these things which were *instructed to Peter and the men with Him. And through them from east to west, Jesus Himself sent out the sacred and imperishable proclamation of the salvation of ages. Amen.]
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