The Book of Titus

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

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Titus Chapter 1

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  1. Paul, a slave of God and an apostle of Jesus the Anointed according to the faith of God’s elect and the knowledge of the truth; the truth according to godliness,
  2. in the hope of the life of ages1“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?” which God – who cannot lie – promised before the time2“time” literally: “times” of the ages,
  3. and revealed His word in His own seasons by the proclamation with which I was entrusted, according to the commandment of God our savior.
  4. To Titus, my true3“true” This Greek word more precisely means “legitimate” or “genuine”, sometimes with the sense of being dear because of this. It was used of a child born inside of wedlock who was thus a “legitimate” child. child in our common faith: grace and peace from God the Father and Jesus the Anointed, our savior.
Qualifications for Elders
  1. For this reason I left you in Crete, so you might set in order what is lacking, and might appoint elders in every town as I instructed you.
  2. If someone is blameless, a married man who isn’t promiscuous, 4“a married man who isn’t promiscuous” is more literally “a one woman man”.  Because the Greek word for “man” can also mean “husband”, and since “woman” can also mean “wife”, many take this to mean “husband of one wife”.  However, that’s impossible because of 1 Timothy 5:9, which (using the same words) speaks of widows “*being a one man woman”.  See note on that verse.  A widow by definition can’t be the “wife of one husband” because her husband is dead.  Others have suggested this is a prohibition on second marriages, but Paul explicitly allows remarriage in 1 Corinthians 7.  Still others have suggested this is a prohibition on polygamy, but this is extremely unlikely because polygamy was already a serious criminal offense in the Roman Empire (our word “romantic” originally meant “to be like the Romans”; i.e. monogamous.)  Despite the Roman aversion to more than one wife, they embraced the practice of extra-marital lovers for both men and women.  Thus the phrase “one woman man” was an idiom, probably borrowed from the Latin “univera” (“one man”, which was used on Roman gravestones to indicate a woman who’d never had sex outside of marriage) and applied to men.  Further: this list would contain no prohibition on sexual sins if “one woman man” isn’t an idiom.  The idiom implies the man is married, but doesn’t guarantee it; again, see footnote on 1 Timothy 5:9. having believing children, not under accusation of wasteful excess5“wasteful excess” this Greek word is comes from “ἀ”(a) as a negative prefix (like “amoral” meaning “not moral”) and the Greek word “σῴζω”(sozo) which means “to save”.  Thus it means “that which isn’t saved”, but not in a salvation sense.  Rather, it means things which are wasted (thrown out) because they aren’t saved for later use by the user.  It thus has the sense of “wasting” on useless things, and can refer to the consequences of such wasteful excess. or rebellious,
  3. for an overseer is required to be blameless as God’s steward; not arrogantly willful, not inclined to anger, not given to wine, not pugnacious, not fond of dishonest gain,
  4. but hospitable, a lover of good, of sound mind, righteous, holy, and self-controlled;
  5. holding firmly to the faithful teaching according to the message, so he might be able to both encourage by teaching what’s sound, and to refute with evidence6“refute with evidence” is one word in Greek.  It means to correct or expose something (typically bad/wrong), which includes the idea of supporting evidence for the correction or exposé.  Also used in Matthew 18:15 when referring to church discipline. the men contradicting it.
False teachers
  1. For there are many rebellious men; [both] empty talkers and deceivers, especially the men of the circumcision
  2. whom it’s necessary to silence; who subversively overthrow whole households, teaching what’s not proper for the sake of sordid gain.
  3. One of them – their own prophet – said: “Cretans are always liars, wicked beasts, and lazy gluttons.”
  4. This testimony is true; because of which you must severely rebuke them with evidence7“rebuke… …with evidence” is one word in Greek.  It means to correct or expose something (typically bad/wrong), which includes the idea of supporting evidence for the correction or exposition.  Also used in Matthew 18:15 when referring to church discipline. (There translated “rebuke… …with evidence”) so they might be sound in the faith,
  5. not turning to Jewish myths and commandments of men turning away from the truth.
  6. All things are pure to the pure.  But to the men who have defiled themselves and to the unbelievers, nothing is pure.  Rather, they have defiled both their mind and conscience.
  7. They openly profess to *know God but they deny Him in their works, being detestable and disobedient and worthless for any good work.

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Titus Chapter 2

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Proper Christian conduct
  1. But you: speak things which are appropriate for sound doctrine.
  2. Old men are to be sober, dignified, self-controlled, being sound in faith, in ^love, and in perseverance.
  3. Likewise, aged women are to be reverent in their behavior, not slanderous, nor *enslaved to much wine, but being teachers of good,
  4. so they might admonish1“admonish” The Greek word here more precisely means to “bring back to (good) sense” or to “make sober-minded”, often with the sense of reminding via correction.  It meant to “correct,” “control,” or “moderate” in classical Greek.  Thus while the common rendering of “teach” isn’t wrong, it lacks the corrective force of the original Greek word. the young women to be loving to their husbands, loving to their children,
  5. self-controlled, pure, workers at home, and good; submitting themselves to their own husbands so the word of God won’t be blasphemed.
  6. Likewise, encourage the younger men to be of sound mind.
  7. in all things offering yourself as an example in good works; with incorruptible purity in instruction, in dignity,
  8. in sound speech that’s beyond reproach so the man opposing might be turned in shame, having nothing evil to say about us.
  9. Slaves are to be submitted to their own masters, to be fully pleasing in all things; not contradicting,
  10. not embezzling, but demonstrating all good faithfulness so they might adorn the teaching of God our savior in all things.
  11. For the grace of God appeared, bringing salvation to all men,
  12. teaching us through discipline2“teaching… …through discipline” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the strict rearing of children through discipline/chastisement so they reach maturity properly.  Also used in Hebrews 12:7 and Luke 23:16 in a similar context. so that – having denied ungodliness and worldly cravings – we might live prudently, and righteously, and devoutly in the present age;
  13. eagerly awaiting the blessed hope and appearance of the glory of our great God and savior Jesus the Anointed.
  14. Who gave Himself for our sake, so He might purchase3“purchase… …back” this Greek word properly means to buy back something that was originally yours us back from all lawlessness and might cleanse a people as a possession for Himself, who are zealous for good works.
  15. Speak these things, and admonish and rebuke with all instruction.4“instruction” could also be translated “authority”  Let no one despise you.

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Titus Chapter 3

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Christian Conduct
  1. Remind them to be submitted to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work,
  2. to slander no one, to be peaceable, equitable, demonstrating all gentle strength1“gentle strength” this Greek word is often translated “meek” or “gentle”.  However, it doesn’t mean the absence of power as “meek” would suggest. Instead, it specifically refers to strength or power that is gently exercised without undue harshness. i.e. some who is strong but applies their strength gently. towards all men.
  3. For we were also once foolish, disobedient, wandering astray, being slaves to various cravings and sensual pleasures; passing life in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.
  4. But when the benevolence and the love of mankind appeared in God our savior –
  5. not by works of righteousness that we did, but according to His mercy – He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal of the Holy Spirit,
  6. whom He poured out on us richly through Jesus the Anointed our savior,
  7. so that having been made righteous by that grace, we might become heirs according to the hope of the life of ages.2“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t.  The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”
  8. The saying is trustworthy.  And concerning these things, I strongly desire you to emphatically affirm them so the men who have believed in God might be careful to devote themselves to good works.  These things are noble and profitable for men.
  9. But shun foolish controversies, and genealogies, and strife, and quarrels about the law; for they are unprofitable and useless.
  10. Reject a divisive man after a first and second admonition,
  11. *knowing that such a man has been corrupted and is sinning, being self-condemned.
Personal instruction
  1. When I send Artemas or Tychicus to you, make haste to come to me in Nicopolis, for I have decided to spend the winter there.
  2. Diligently equip Zenas the lawyer and Apollos for the journey so they might lack nothing.
  3. And let our own men also learn to devote themselves to good works for the essential needs so they might not be unfruitful.
  4. All the men with me greet you.  Greet the men loving us in the faith.  Grace be with all of you.  [Amen]

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