(Tap footnote to read it. Old Testament quotations are underlined. "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love". However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior. It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings. (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".) Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé". Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing. It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )
- And it having become morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people held a council against Jesus so they could put Him to death.
- And having bound Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate the governor.
Judas Hangs Himself
- Then having seen that He was condemned and regretting it, Judas – the man who betrays Him – returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,
- saying: “I sinned by betraying innocent blood.” And they said: “What’s that to us? You will see to it.”
- And having thrown the pieces of silver into the temple, he departed. And having left, he hanged himself.
- But having picked up the pieces of silver, the chief priests said: “It’s not lawful to put them into the temple treasury,1“temple treasury” is one word in Greek. The word is “κορβᾶν” (corban) and is also used in Mark 7:11. It specifically refers to gifts that were devoted/consecrated to God, and hence could also mean the place where such gifts were stored. since it’s the price of blood.”
- Then having taken counsel, they bought the potter’s field with them, to be a burial place for foreigners.
- For this reason, that field is called “field of blood” to this day.
- Then it was fulfilled, what was spoken through the prophet [Jeremiah],2There is a textual variant here. Some manuscripts don’t give the prophet’s name, some identify it as Jeremiah, and some as Zechariah. The quote is from Zechariah, but sometimes a scroll was identified by the first book in that scroll, and Zechariah could’ve been part of a scroll that started with Jeremiah. saying: “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the One who has been priced, on whom the sons of Israel set a price,
- and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord directed me.3Quotation/allusion to Zechariah 11:12-13
Jesus Before Pilate
- Then Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor questioned4“questioned” the Greek word here could also be translated “interrogated”. Him, saying: “Are you king of the Jews?” And Jesus was declaring: “You say it.”
- And He is accused by the chief priests and elders, but He answered no one.
- Then Pilate says to Him: “Don’t you hear how many things they testify against you?”
- And He didn’t answer him, not even one word: so the governor began to marvel greatly.
- Now at the festival, the governor had been accustomed to release one prisoner who the crowd was wanting.
- And at that time, they were holding a notorious prisoner called [Jesus] Barabbas.
- Therefore, while they’re *assembled, Pilate said to them: “Who do you wish I would release to you: [Jesus] Barabbas, or Jesus who’s called the Anointed?”
- For he had known that they betrayed Him because of malicious envy.5“malicious envy” is one word in Greek. It refers to envy/jealousness that doesn’t seek to take what another has, but rather to tear down the object of the envy.
- And while sitting on the judgement seat, his wife sent word to him, saying: “Let nothing happen between you and that righteous man, for today I suffered greatly in a dream because of Him.”
- But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds so they might ask for Barabbas, but kill Jesus.
- And answering, the governor said to them: “Which of the two do you wish I would release for you?” And they said: “Barabbas.”
- And Pilate says to them: “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Anointed?” They all say: “Let Him be crucified.”
- But he was saying: “For what evil that He’s done?” But they were vehemently crying out, saying: “Let Him be crucified!”
- And having seen that nothing helped – but rather it was becoming a riot – Pilate took water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying: “I’m innocent of this man’s blood. You will see to it.”
- And answering, all the people said: “His blood is on us and on our children.”
- Then Pilate released Barabbas for them. And having flogged Jesus, he handed Him over to be crucified.
Jesus is Mocked and Crucified
- Then having taken Jesus with them into the Praetorium,6“Praetorium” could refer to either the governor’s residence, or the camp of the Roman military. In this case, context tells use the latter is intended. the governor’s soldiers gathered the whole cohort7“cohort”. The cohort was a basic unit of the Roman military, which consisted of 480 soldiers, plus 120 servants. A standard cohort was comprised of 6 “centuries”, which consisted of 80 men, plus 20 servants. However, the first cohort in every Roman Legion was composed of five double strength centuries, or 800 soldiers plus 200 servants. against Him.
- And having stripped off His clothes, they clothed Him in a scarlet ruler’s robe.8“ruler’s robe” is one word in Greek (chlamys). It refers to a short robe or cloak often worn by various rulers, such as kings, governors, or even emperors. It was also worn by soldiers and military officers.
- And having woven a crown of thorns, they put it on His head and put a reed in his right hand. And having fallen on their knees before Him, they mocked Him, saying: “Hail king of the Jews!”
- And having spit on Him, they took the reed and were hitting Him on the head.
- And when they finished mocking Him, they stripped the ruler’s robe off of Him, and clothed Him in His clothes, and led Him away to crucify Him.
- And going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon. They forced that man to carry His cross.
- And having come to a place called Golgotha (which is called: “place of a skull”),
- they gave Him wine which has been mixed with gall9gall is a bitter herb. to drink. And having tasted it, He didn’t want to drink it.
- And having crucified Him, they distributed His clothes by casting lots [so it might be fulfilled, what was spoken by the prophet: “They split My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for My clothing“].10The second half of this verse is present in some Greek manuscripts, but not the majority. It is strongly attested by Old Latin evidence however. Further, this variant ends with the same Greek word as the first half of the verse (κλῆρον). This makes it very susceptible to accidental omission, because one of the more common errors is when two lines end with the same word, scribes were liable to accidentally skip everything in between. Further, it’s a quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:18, which Jesus quotes a few verses later in verse 46.
- And sitting down, they were guarding Him there.
- And they put the charges against Him above His head, *writing: “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.”
- At that time, two violent robbers11“violent robber” is one word in Greek. It refers to someone who steals through force, as opposed to a burglar or thief who steals through stealth. are crucified with Him: one on the right hand, one on the left.
- Now, the men who pass by were slandering12“slandering” this word is typically translated “blaspheme”, but also means slander. It’s quite possible this double meaning was intentional by Matthew. Him, shaking their heads
- and saying: “You man who destroys the temple and rebuilds it in three days; save yourself. And if you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”
- And likewise, the chief priests with the scribes and elders were mocking and were saying:
- “He saved others, but He isn’t able to save Himself. He’s the king of Israel? Let Him come down from the cross right now and we’ll believe in Him.”
- “He has trusted in God. Let Him rescue Him now if He desires to.13Quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:8 For He said: “I am God’s Son”.”
- And likewise even the robbers who were crucified with Him were insulting Him.
- Then darkness came over all the land from the sixth hour until the ninth hour.
- And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, saying: “Eli, Eli; lama sabachthani.” That is translated: “My God, My God; why did you abandon Me?“14Quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:1
- And having heard this, some of the men who have been standing there were saying: “This man calls for Elijah.”
- And having immediately run up, taken a sponge, filled it with sour wine, and put it on a reed, one of them was giving Him a drink.
- And the rest were saying: “Leave Him alone. We’ll see if Elijah comes and will save Him.” [mfn]Some manuscripts add: “But having taken a spear, another pierced His side and water and blood came out.” to the end of this verse. However, this is regarded as a later addition by nearly all New Testament scholars, probably in an attempt to harmonize with John 19:34. The vast, overwhelming majority of manuscripts don’t support this addition.[/mfn]
- And having cried out again in a loud voice, Jesus gave up His spirit.
- And behold; the veil in the temple was torn in two from top to bottom, and the land was shaken, and the rocks were split.
- And the tombs were opened and many of the saint’s bodies who have fallen asleep were raised.
- And having gone out of the tombs after His resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many.
- Then the centurion15“centurion” was a rank in the Roman military. A normal centurion was in charge of 80 soldiers, plus ~20 support staff. However, there were different levels of centurion. The highest ranking centurions could be in charge of up to 1000 men. and the men who keep watch over Jesus with him – having seen the earthquake and the things which happened – were awestruck and terrified,16“awestruck and terrified” is literally “extremely afraid/awestruck”, with “extremely” being a separate Greek word. The Greek verb “φοβέω” here can mean to “fear” or “awe” or “revere” depending on the context. Sometimes more than one meaning is intended, as is likely the case here. Technically, including both awe and fear is double translating (translating the same word twice two different ways). However, both meanings were included because both are relevant, equally likely, and it’s likely that Matthew intended both. saying: “Truly this man was God’s Son.”
- Now, there were many women watching from afar who had followed Jesus from Galilee while ministering to Him,
- among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.
Jesus is Buried
- And it having become evening, a rich man from Arimathea named Joseph (who was also discipled by Jesus) came forward.
- Having approached Pilate, this man asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded it to be delivered to him.
- And having taken the body, Joseph wrapped it in a clean linen cloth
- and put it in his new tomb, which he cut in the rock. And having rolled a great stone over the door of the tomb, he departed.
- Now, Mary Magdalene was there with the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb.
- Now, the next day (which is after the Sabbath preparation day) the chief priests and Pharisees were gathered before Pilate,
- saying: “Lord, we remembered that the deceiver said while living: “After three days, I rise again.”
- Therefore, order the tomb to be secured until the third day, lest His disciples ever come, steal Him, and tell the people: “He rose from the dead.” And the last deception will be worse than the first.”
- Pilate was declaring to them: “You have a guard. Go, secure it as you have seen fit.
- And having gone, they secured the tomb by setting a seal17“setting a seal” is one word in Greek. Commonly, this was done by melting wax and using a signet ring to make an impression before the wax had fully cooled. If the wax seal was broken, it was impossible to fix without using the signet ring again. This served as a form of signature in the ancient world. on the stone, along with a guard.
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