Romans Chapter 13

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Submission to Authorities
  1. Let every soul be submitted to the authorities over them.  For there’s no authority except under God, and those that exist were – and are – appointed by God.
  2. Therefore, the man who sets himself against the authority did – and does – resist the mandate of God; and the men who did – and do – resist shall incur judgement on themselves.
  3. For the rulers aren’t a terror to good works, but to evil.  And do you want to not fear the authority?  Do good and you will have praise from the authority.
  4. For he is a servant to you for good.  But if you do evil, be afraid; for he doesn’t bear the sword in vain.  For he is a servant of God; an avenger for wrath to the man who practices evil.
  5. Therefore, it’s necessary to be submitted; not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience.
  6. For because of this, you also pay taxes; for they are servants of God, continually attending on this same thing.
  7. Repay to all what is owed; tax to whom tax is due; the toll to whom the toll is due, fear to whom fear is due, honor to whom honor is due.
  8. Owe nothing to anyone, except to show preference(1)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s).  Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó does not center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to one another; for the man who shows preference to another did – and does – fulfill the law.
  9. For “You shall not have sex with another man’s wife.”(2)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:14 and Deuteronomy 5:18.  “have sex with another man’s wife” is one word in the Greek, typically translated “commit adultery”. However, the Greek word (and Hebrew too) is more limited in scope than our English word adultery. In English, “adultery” means illicit sex between a married person – man or woman – and someone who isn’t their spouse. In Greek (and Hebrew also), it meant “a man having sex with another man’s wife”. A married man having sex with an unmarried woman was called fornication.You shall not murder(3)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:13 and Deuteronomy 5:17You shall not steal(4)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:15 and Deuteronomy 5:19You shall not covet“,(5)quotation/allusion to Exodus 20:17 and Deuteronomy 5:21 and if there’s any other commandment, it is summarized in this statement: “You shall show preference(6)“show preference” is literal, though it’s often translated “love” here.  The Greek word here is “ἀγαπάω” (agapaó), the verb form of “ἀγάπη” (agapé).  When used with the Greek accusative case – as it is here – it literally means “to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of” (Thayer’s).  Unlike the English word “love”, agapaó does not center on feelings.  It’s the “love” based on will, choice, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) to your neighbor as yourself.”(7)Quotation/allusion to Leviticus 19:18
  10. Love(8)The Greek word here “ἀγάπη” (agape), typically translated “love”. However, unlike our English word “love” – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agape centers on preference.  In the verb form, it literally means “to prefer” or “show preference for”.  In the New Testament, that usually means “moral preference”, or “actively preferring what God prefers” in what we do, not just in what we feel.    It’s the “love” based on will, choice, decision, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word “φιλέω” (phileó), which properly means “brotherly love/affection”.) doesn’t do evil to its neighbor.  Therefore, love is the fulfillment of the law.
Clothe yourselves in the Anointed
  1. And do this, having known – and knowing – the season; that it’s already the hour for you to awaken from sleep.  For now, our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.
  2. The night has advanced and the day did – and does – drawn near.  Therefore, we should cast off the works of darkness and clothe ourselves in the war equipment(9)“war equipment” is one word in Greek.  It refers to the various tools, implements, and weapons used to wage war.  The Greek word is “ὅπλον” (hoplon), which was one name for the large wooden shield from which the “Hoplites” in the ancient Grecian military got their name. of light.
  3. We should walk properly as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in immoral sex and licentiousness, not in strife and jealousy.
  4. But clothe yourselves in the Anointed Lord Jesus, and don’t make provision for the cravings of the flesh.

 

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