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Greetings from Paul and Timothy
- Paul, an apostle of Jesus the Anointed through the will of God, and Timothy our brother: to the church of God living in Corinth, together with all the saints who are in the whole of Achaia.(1)“Achaia” was a province of Rome which included most of Greece.
- Grace(2)“Grace” The Greek word here is “χάρις” (charis), most often translated “grace” or “gift”. It was a technical term in the 1st century, referring to the Patronage system in place. The Patron (from “pater” = “father”) would give gifts or do favors (both called a charis). A charis was always given/done freely to anyone who would be grateful for it, and this person then became a “client” of the patron. The clients were expected to reciprocate by telling everyone what the patron had done, and offering their services to the patron whenever the patron needed them. This reciprocal act was also called “charis”, and the ones who reciprocated were “being faithful”. Both were done out of gratitude, not legal obligation. A client who wasn’t faithful and grateful probably wouldn’t receive any more charis from his patron, or any other patrons. The patron was responsible for taking care of all his clients, and making sure their needs were met. Christian Grace and Faith is well picture by this system. The Heavenly Patron (God the Father) freely gave a gift (Jesus’ blood), and the clients who accept it (Christians) are expected to “be faithful” out of gratitude. and peace to you from God our Father and the Anointed Lord Jesus.
- Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord, Jesus the Anointed, the Father of compassion(4)literally “compassions” as the Greek word here is plural. It could also be translated “mercies” and God of all comfort.
- He’s the One who comforts us in all our tribulation, so we can comfort the men in every tribulation, through the comfort which we ourselves are comforted by God,
- Because just as the sufferings of the Anointed overflow into us, likewise our comfort also overflows through the Anointed.
- But if we’re afflicted, it’s for your comfort and salvation. If we’re comforted, it’s for your comfort, which works in the endurance of the same sufferings that we also suffer.
- And our hope for you is unshakeable, having known – and knowing – that as you’re partakers in the suffering, so also you’re partakers in the comfort.
- For brothers, we don’t want you to be ignorant of our affliction which happened in Asia; that we were burdened so excessively beyond our strength that we despaired even of life.
- But we did – and do – have the sentence of death in ourselves. So we weren’t – and aren’t – trusting in ourselves but in God; the One who raises the dead,
- who rescued us from so great a death, (and will rescue us) in whom we also did – and do – still hope that He will rescue us.
- And you join in, helping us by prayer so thanks may be given for us by many people,(3)“people” is literally “faces” for the grace given to us through many.
- For our boast is this: the testimony of our conscience that in God’s purity and simplicity – not in the wisdom of the flesh but with the grace of God – we acted in the world; and more abundantly towards you.
- For we don’t write other things to you except what you already read and understand. But I hope that you will understand until the end,
- just as you also understood us in part. So we’re boasting of you, just as you also will boast of us in the day of our Lord Jesus.
A Change of Travel Plans
- And with this confidence, I previously decided to come to you so you might have grace a second time,
- and then to pass into Macedonia through you. And again from Macedonia to come to you, and be sent by you into Judea.
- Therefore, did I make light in deciding this? Or do I decide what I decide according to the flesh, so with me there’s both “definitely yes”(5)“definitely yes” is literally “Yes! Yes!” It’s a repetition of an affirmative that can have emphatic sense. It was here translated “definitely yes” to more accurately convey the parallelism with the follow statement (see following note). and “definitely no”?(6)“definitely no”. In Greek, this is a double negative (no, no) to add emphasis. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the word “definitely” was added to keep the emphatic sense of the Greek.
- But God is faithful because our word to you wasn’t both “Yes” and “No”.
- For the Son of God, Jesus the Anointed, the One who was proclaimed among you through us – through me, and Silvanus, and Timothy – wasn’t both “Yes” and “No”. But in Him it did – and does – become “Yes.”
- For as many as God’s promises are, the “Yes” is in Him. Therefore, the “Amen” is also through Him for the glory of God through us.
- But the One who confirmed us with you in the Anointed (and anointed us) is God.
- He’s the One who set His seal on us and gave us the down payment(7)“down payment” is literal. The Greek word here is imported from Hebrew and refers to “earnest money” given as a surety that the rest of the payment will be given. of the Holy Spirit in our hearts.
- And I call upon my soul as a witness of God, that I haven’t come to Corinth yet to spare you.
- Not that we have authority over(8)“we have authority over” is one word in Greek. Often – and incorrectly – translated “lord it over”. It comes from “κύριος” (kurios), which is typically translated “Lord” (as in “the Lord Jesus”) and literally means “to be lord of” in the sense of “to have authority over”. There are Greek words which indicate oppressive authority which could be translated “lord it over”, but they aren’t used here. you in the faith, but we’re fellow workers for your joy. For you did – and do – stand firm in the faith.
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