(Tap footnote to read it. Old Testament quotations are underlined. "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love". However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior. It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings. (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".) Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé". Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing. It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )
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1 Timothy Chapter 1
Greeting and Warning about False Teaching
- Paul, an apostle of Jesus the Anointed according to the command of God our savior and Jesus the Anointed, our hope;
- To Timothy, my true1“true” This Greek word more precisely means “legitimate” or “genuine”, sometimes with the sense of being dear because of this. It was used of a child born inside of wedlock, who was thus a “legitimate” child. child in the faith; grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Jesus the Anointed, our Lord.
- Just as I urged you to remain in Ephesus before traveling into Macedonia, so you should solemnly charge some men not to teach other doctrines,
- nor to pay attention to fables and endless genealogies, which brings meaningless controversies rather than the stewardship of God, the stewardship by faith.
- And the goal of this instruction is ^love from a pure heart, and a good conscience, and sincere faith.
- From which some – having missed the mark – have turned away to worthless discussion;
- wanting to be teachers of the law but not understanding; neither what they say nor about what they confidently assert.
- We *know that the law is good if someone uses it lawfully,
- *knowing this: that the law isn’t laid down for the righteous, but the lawless and rebellious, the ungodly and sinful, the unholy and profane, the patricidal and matricidal, manslayers,
- fornicators, men who sleep with other men,2“men who sleep with other men” is one word in Greek. It literally means “a man in bed with another man“, but is more properly “a man engaging in sexual activity with another man“. Male homosexuality is also mentioned in 1 Corinthians 6:9 (using the same word in a similar list), in Romans 1:27 by description, and in Leviticus 18:22, and Leviticus 20:13. Male homosexuality is always considered wicked in the Bible. In the Law, it was one of only three sexual sins which warranted the death penalty, the other two being adultery (a man having sex with another man’s wife) and bestiality. slavers and kidnappers,3“slavers and kidnappers” is one word in Greek. It properly refers to those who kidnap people and sell them into slavery. perjurers, and any other thing which opposes sound teaching,
- according to the gospel of the glory of the blessed God, with which I was entrusted.
- I have gratitude for the One who strengthened me – the Anointed Lord Jesus – that He considered me faithful, having appointed me to service,
- though formerly being a blasphemer and a persecutor and violently insolent. But I was shown mercy because – being ignorant – I did it in unbelief.
- But the grace of our Lord greatly abounded in faith and ^love, which are in Jesus the Anointed.
- The saying is trustworthy and worthy of all acceptance: that Jesus the Anointed came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.
- But I was shown mercy because of this, so that in me (the chief sinner) Jesus the Anointed might prove His perfect patience as an example to the men who are about to believe in Him for the life of ages.4“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t. The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”.
- Now to the King of the Ages, immortal, invisible, the only God; be the honor and glory to the ages of the ages.5“to the ages of the ages” is literal, often translated “forever and ever”. However, the traditional interpretation lacks the past element of a more literal translation. Further, the Greek word often translated “forever” here (αἰών, “aion”) literally means “age”, meaning a time span with a beginning and an end. It’s also used in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the culmination (end) of the age?” Amen.
- I entrust this charge to you my child Timothy – according to the preceding prophecies concerning you – that by them you might wage the good war,
- holding to faith and a good conscience which some – having cast it away – have caused shipwreck concerning the faith.
- Among whom are Hymenaeus and Alexander, who I handed over to Satan so they might be taught through punishment6“they might be taught through punishment” is one word in Greek. It specifically refers to the training of children by “chastisement”; i.e. punishments/discipline to train them to behave correctly. not to blaspheme.
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1 Timothy Chapter 2
Pray for all
- First of all therefore, I urge intercessions, prayers, petitions, and thanksgivings to be made on behalf of all men;
- for kings and all the men who are in authority, so we might lead a tranquil and peaceful life in all godliness and dignity.
- This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our savior,
- who wants all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.
- For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men; the man Jesus the Anointed,
- the One who gave Himself as a full repurchase price1“full repurchase price” is one word in Greek, typically translated ransom. The root refers to the price paid to free a slave. for all; the testimony given at its own proper time.
- To which I was appointed a herald and apostle – I speak the truth; I don’t lie – a teacher of gentiles in faith and truth.
- Therefore, I long for the men in every place to pray; raising holy hands without anger and dissension.
- Likewise also, women are to adorn themselves in respectable apparel with reserve2“reserve” is literally “shamefacedness” in the sense of turning from what is unbecoming because it’s shameful. and self-control; not in braided hair, or gold, or pearls, or expensive clothing;
- but in what is proper for women professing fear of God through good works.
- A woman must learn in tranquil silence,3“tranquil silence” is one word in Greek. It denotes an inner calm and reserve which is expressed by outward action. It’s used four times in the Bible: this verse, the following verse, in Acts 22:2 (denoting “silence”), and in 2 Thessalonians 3:12 referring to leading a “tranquil life”. in all submission.
- But I don’t permit a woman to teach nor to usurp authority over a man by acting without submission,4“usurp authority… …by acting without submission” is one word in Greek. It comes from “autos” (self) and “entrea” (arms/armor). It literally means to “take up arms yourself” and in earlier usage meant to kill. 1st century usage was more figurative and referred to “taking up arms” in the sense of rebellion against authority. i.e. acting without submission in rebellion to a legitimate authority in favor of rebellious “self-authority” in the form of improper independence. but to be in tranquil silence.5“tranquil silence” see note on previous verse
- For Adam was formed first, and then Eve.
- And Adam wasn’t deceived; but having been thoroughly deceived, the woman has come into transgression.
- Yet she will be saved through childbearing,6“she will be saved through childbearing” This almost certainly does not indicate that women somehow attain salvation through giving birth to children. It is likely Paul dealing with Gnosticism, which was a huge problem as early as Paul’s day. The Gnostics believed in an physical vs spiritual dualism, elevating the spiritual and deriding the physical. As a consequence, some Gnostics forbade marriage (as in 1 Timothy 4:3). They also had some strange ideas about the creation, with some believing that Eve was created first or that Adam, not Eve, was deceived (which Paul corrected in verses 13 and 14 respectively). Some of the more extreme Gnostics believed that since the earthly/fleshly was wicked, having children was wicked/sinful, some even to the point of saying it endangered salvation. It’s likely Paul was correcting this error, saying that women will be saved “through childbearing”, in the sense of “you can be saved while bearing children” because it’s not a sin, not that childbearing itself would save them. if they7“they” the switch here from singular (“she”) in the first half of the verse to plural (“they”) is accurate to the Greek. remain in faith, and love, and holiness with self-control.
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1 Timothy Chapter 3
Qualifications for Overseers
- This saying is trustworthy: if any man aspires to an overseer’s office,1“overseer’s office” is one word in Greek which comes from a Greek word meaning “to stare intently”. While our English word “overseer” focuses on authority, the Greek word focuses on “keeping an eye on” those allotted to your charge, in the sense of caring for them. he longs for a good work.
- Therefore, it’s required for an overseer to be above reproach, a married man who isn’t promiscuous,2“a married man who isn’t promiscuous” is more literally “a one woman man”. Because the Greek word for “man” can also mean “husband”, and since “woman” can also mean “wife”, many take this to mean “husband of one wife”. However, that’s impossible because of 1 Timothy 5:9, which (using the same words) speaks of widows “*being a one man woman”. See note on that verse. A widow by definition can’t be the “wife of one husband” because her husband is dead. Others have suggested this is a prohibition on second marriages, but Paul explicitly allows remarriage in 1 Corinthians 7. Still others have suggested this is a prohibition on polygamy, but this is extremely unlikely because polygamy was already a serious criminal offense in the Roman Empire (our word “romantic” originally meant “to be like the Romans”; i.e. monogamous.) Despite the Roman aversion to more than one wife, they embraced the practice of extra-marital lovers for both men and women. Thus the phrase “one woman man” was an idiom, probably borrowed from the Latin “univera” (“one man”, which was used on Roman gravestones to indicate a woman who’d never had sex outside of marriage) and applied to men. Further: this list would contain no prohibition on sexual sins if “one woman man” isn’t an idiom. The idiom implies the man is married, but doesn’t guarantee it; again, see footnote on 1 Timothy 5:9. temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, willing and able to teach,
- not given to wine, not pugnacious, but gentle and just3“gentle and just” is one word in Greek. It refers to a sense of justice that isn’t strict in the sense of the letter of the law, but it conforms to the spirit of the law instead. Thus, it’s “gentle” in its application., peaceable, without the love of money,
- managing his own house well, having his children in submission with all dignity,
- (but if a man doesn’t *know how to manage his own household, how will he take care of a church of God?)
- and not a new convert, so he doesn’t become puffed up and fall into judgement like the Accuser.
- And it’s also required for him to have a good reputation from men outside the church, so he won’t fall to slander and a snare of the Accuser.
Qualifications for Deacons
- Likewise, deacons must be dignified, not double-tongued, not turning to much wine, not fond of dishonest gain,
- but holding to the mystery of the faith with a pure conscience.
- And let these men be tested first, then let them serve after being found blameless.
- (Likewise, women must be dignified, temperate, not slanderous, and faithful in all things.)
- Deacons must be a married man who isn’t promiscuous,4“a married man who isn’t promiscuous” see note on verse 2. managing their children and own households well.
- For the men who served well acquire good standing for themselves and much confidence in the faith; the faith in Jesus the Anointed.
Why Paul wrote
- I write these things to you, hoping to come to you in haste.
- But I wrote so if I delay, you might *known how it’s required to conduct yourself in the household of God, which is the church of the living God; a pillar and support of the truth.
- And as all agree: great is the mystery of godliness; He who was revealed in flesh, declared righteous in the Spirit, was seen by angels, was proclaimed among the nations, was believed in the world, and was taken up in glory.
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1 Timothy Chapter 4
Apostasy in later times
- But the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will depart from the faith, paying attention to misleading spirits and doctrines of demons,
- through the hypocrisy of liars; *searing their own conscience so they can’t feel it.1“*searing… …so they can’t feel it” is one word in Greek. It means to sear something with branding iron, which results in the flesh being rendered unfeeling/insensate.
- They’re forbidding to marry and commanding to abstain from foods which God created for reception with thanksgiving by the faithful men who also have known the truth.
- For every creature of God is good, and nothing being received with thanksgiving is worthy of being rejected,
- for it’s made holy through the word of God and prayer.
- In laying these things before the brothers, you will be a good servant of Jesus the Anointed, being nourished by the words of the faith, and the good teaching that you have closely followed.
- But avoid profane fables and old wives’ myths,2“old wives’ myths” is two words in Greek. The first is an adjective meaning “of, or relating to old women” and the second means a tale, myth, or fable.” but rather strenuously train3“strenuously train” is one word in Greek. It literally means to train naked or in a loincloth, and was used of athletes who trained themselves for the Olympic games, which were conducted clad thus. Figuratively – as it’s used here – it means to constantly train with rigorous effort and practice. yourself in godliness.
- For the exercise of bodily denial for spiritual growth4“exercise of… …denial for spiritual growth” Is one word in Greek. It properly refers to denying the body for the purpose of attaining “enlightenment” or spiritual growth. This was a core tenant of Asceticism, which grew out of Gnosticism. From this letter, both seemed to be a problem in the early church. is of little benefit, but godliness is beneficial for everything; holding a promise of life in the present, and in the time which is about to come.
- The saying is trustworthy and worthy of all acceptance.
- For we toil and strive for this, because we *hope in the living God, who is the savior of all men, especially of believers.
- Command and teach these things.
- Let no one disdain your youth,5“youth” This Greek word could be used of men up until they were forty years old. 1 Timothy was written 14 years after Timothy started traveling with Paul in Acts 16:1. Even if Timothy was only 16 in Acts 16:1, he would’ve been 30 when this letter was written. If Timothy was a bit older – which is likely – he would’ve been in his mid or late 30s when this letter was written. but become a pattern for the believers in speech, in conduct, in ^love, in faith, and in purity.
- Until I come, pay attention to the public reading of scripture, to exhortation, and to teaching.
- Don’t neglect the gift in you, which was given to you through prophecy with the laying on of hands by the body of elders.
- Diligently ponder these things; be absorbed in them so your progress might be apparent to all.
- Pay attention to yourself and to the teaching; remain in them. For in doing this, you will save both yourself and the men who hear you.
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1 Timothy Chapter 5
Godly Behavior (Continued)
- Don’t rebuke an older man, but encouragingly reprove him as a father, and younger men as brothers,
- older women as mothers, and younger women as sisters in all purity.
- Honor widows who are truly widows.
- But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them first learn to be pious to their own household and to give back recompense to their widowed ancestors; for this is acceptable in the sight of God.
- Now, the woman who’s truly a widow and has been left alone *hopes in God and continues with petitions and prayers night and day.
- But the woman who lives extravagantly has died while living.
- And command these things so they might be above reproach.
- But if any man doesn’t provide for his own, and especially for his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.
- Let a widow be enrolled who’s not less than sixty years old; *being a woman who isn’t promiscuous,1“*being a woman who isn’t promiscuous” is more literally “having been – and being – a one man woman”, typically translated “having been the wife of one husband.” However, the Greek verb typically translated “having been” (translated “*being” in the BOS Bible) is in the perfect tense, which is (sort of) a combination of our past and present tenses. It indicates action which is completed in the past and results in an ongoing state in the present. By definition, a widow cannot remain in the state of being the “wife of one husband” in the present because – by definition – a widow isn’t married and thus doesn’t have a husband. The phrase “one man woman” was an idiom referring to a woman who wasn’t promiscuous. It almost certainly comes from the Latin phrase “univera” (“one man”) which was used on Roman gravestones to indicate a woman who’d never had sex outside of marriage. See also the note on 1 Timothy 3:2.
- who’s bearing witness in good works, if she has brought up children, if she was hospitable to strangers, if she washed the saint’s feet, if she gave aid to those being oppressed, if she pursued every good work.
- But refuse to enroll younger widows. For when their sensual desires grow contrary to the Anointed, they want to marry,
- incurring judgement because they cast aside their first faith.
- And at the same time, they also learn to be lazy; going about to various houses. And they’re not only lazy, but also foolish babblers and meddling busybodies, saying things which aren’t proper.
- Therefore, I firmly desire younger women to marry, to bear children, to manage their household, and to give the one who opposes us no opportunity for slander on their account.
- For some of these women already turned away after Satan.
- If any believing woman has dependent widows, let her give aid to them and don’t let the church be burdened, so the church might give aid to those who are truly widows.
Concerning Elders and Various Instructions
- Let the men who have lead well as elders be deemed of double honor, especially the men who laboriously toil in the word and in teaching.
- For scripture says: “You shall not muzzle an ox while it’s treading out grain.”2quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 25:4 And: “The workman is worthy of his wages.”3“The workman is worthy of his wages.” Isn’t a quotation/allusion of any specific verse in the Old Testament, but it’s direct quote of Luke 7:10. This could be Paul saying (indirectly) that Luke’s gospel was inspired by God, and thus is scripture.
- Don’t accept an accusation against an elder except by two or three witnesses.
- But rebuke the men who sin in the sight of all, so the rest might also have fear of sin.
- I solemnly charge you in the sight of God, and Jesus the Anointed, and the chosen angels, that you might keep these things without prejudice, doing nothing from partiality.
- Lay hands on no one hastily, nor share in the sins of others. Keep yourself pure.
- No longer drink only water, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and frequent ailments.
- The sins of some men are obvious now, going before them into judgement. But also, some appear later.
- Likewise also, good works are obvious; and those which are otherwise can’t be concealed.
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1 Timothy Chapter 6
Various instructions (Continued)
- However many are under a yoke as slaves, let them consider their own masters worthy of all honor so the name of God and our teaching won’t be blasphemed.
- Now, let the men who have believing masters not despise them because they are brothers. But rather, let them serve because the men who are helped by their good service are believers and beloved. Teach and encourage these things.
- If someone teaches another doctrine and doesn’t agree with the sound words of our Anointed Lord Jesus and teaching conforming to godliness,
- he is *puffed up; understanding nothing but having an unhealthy interest concerning controversies and disputes about words, from which comes envy, strife, slander, evil suspicions,
- and perverse disputes; ruinously *corrupting men in mind and *defrauding them of the truth, supposing godliness to be a means of gain.
- But godliness with contentment is a means of great gain.
- For we brought nothing into the world, so nor can we carry anything out of it.
- But if we have food and clothes; we will be content with these.
- But the men who strongly desire to become rich fall into temptation, and a trap, and many foolish and harmful cravings which plunge men into ruin and destruction.
- For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, which in aspiring for it, some were led astray from the faith and pierced themselves with many sorrows.
- But you, O man of God, flee these things and pursue righteousness, godliness, faith, ^love, endurance, and gentle strength.
- Fight the good fight of the faith. Seize the life of ages1“life of ages” is literal, and captures the duration as well as the quality of the life, which the traditional interpretation of “eternal life” doesn’t. The word translated “ages” (αἰώνιον) is the adjective form of the Greek word “αἰών” (aion), which is used – for example – in Matthew 24:3 “what are the signs of your coming and the end of the age?”. into which you were called, and confessed the good confession in the sight of many witnesses.
- I charge you in the sight of God (the One who gives life to all things), and Jesus the Anointed (the One who testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate),
- to keep the commandment without blemish and above reproach until the appearance of our Anointed Lord Jesus,
- which He will display in His own time: the blessed and only ruler – the king of the men who are kings, and the Lord of the men who are lords.
- the One who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light; who no one among men has seen, nor is able to see; to whom be the honor and dominion of ages. Amen.
- To the rich in the present age; instruct them not to be arrogant nor to *trust in the uncertainty of riches but in God; the One who richly provided us with all things for enjoyment.
- They are to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous and ready to share,
- storing up for themselves a good foundation for what is about to come, so they might seize the life which is truly life.
- O Timothy, keep the deposit entrusted to you; turning away from profane, worthless babblings and contradictions falsely called knowledge,
- which in professing them, some have gone astray from the faith. Grace be with you. [Amen]
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