(Tap footnote to read it. Old Testament quotations are underlined. "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love". However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior. It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings. (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".) Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé". Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing. It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )
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Hebrews Chapter 1
Superiority of the Son over Angels
- God, having previously spoken to the patriarchs1“patriarchs” is literally “fathers”. Patriarchs was chosen to preserve the alliteration present in Greek. See note at the end of this verse. in plentiful parts and in plentiful ways by the prophets, 2Heb 1:1 Verse note: This verse contains alliteration in Greek, which has been preserved here. A slightly more literal translation without the alliteration would read: “God, having spoken to the fathers long ago in many parts and many ways by the prophets,
- spoke to us in these last days by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom He also made the ages;
- who being the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His substance; both upholding all things by the spoken word of power, and having accomplished the cleansing of sins through Himself, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.
- Having become so much greater than the angels, He has inherited a name that’s so much more excellent than theirs.
- For to which of the angels did He ever say: “You are My Son; today I have fathered you.”?3quotation/allusion to Psalm 2:7 And again: “I will be a Father to Him, and He will be a Son to Me.”?4quotation/allusion to 2 Samuel 7:14
- And again, when He brought the firstborn into the inhabited world He says: “And let all God’s angels worship Him.”5quotation/allusion to Psalm 97:7
- And indeed, He says of the angels: “The One making His angels winds, and His ministers a flame of fire.”6quotation/allusion to Psalm 104:4
- But He says of the Son: “Your throne O God, lasts to the age of the age, and the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom.
- “You ^loved righteousness and hated lawlessness.7“lawlessness” this Greek word is more literally “ignoring God’s law”. It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who – either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law. Because of this, God – your God – anointed you above your companions with the oil of ecstatic delight.”8quotation/allusion to Psalm 45:6-7
- And “Lord, in the beginning you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of your hands.
- “They will perish but you remain; and all will grow old like a robe.
- “And you will roll them up like a cloak and they will be changed like a robe, but you are the same and your years won’t cease.”9quotation/allusion to Psalm 102:25-27
- But to which of the angels has He ever said: “Sit at My right hand until I put your enemies under your feet as a footstool.”10quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:1
- Aren’t they all ministering spirits, being sent out for service for the sake of the men about to inherit salvation?
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Hebrews Chapter 2
Pay attention, lest we drift away
- Because of this, it’s abundantly necessary for us to pay attention to the things we heard, lest we drift away at some time.
- For if the word which was spoken through angels was dependable, and every deliberate sin and disobedience received a just recompense,
- how will we escape after having carelessly disregarded so great a salvation? (Which first began to be declared by the Lord) And having received it, it was confirmed for us by the men who heard.
- God is testifying together with them in both signs and wonders, and various miracles, and distributions of the Holy Spirit according to His will.
- For it wasn’t to angels that He subjected the world about to come, about which we speak.
- But someone solemnly testified somewhere, saying: “What is man that you remember him; or a son of man that you care for him?“
- “You made him lower than the angels for a short time, you crowned him with glory and honor [and you appointed him over the works of your hands.]“
- “You made all things subject under his feet.”1quotation/allusion to Psalm 8:4-6 For to subject all things to him, He left nothing not subject to him. But at present, we don’t yet see that all things have been subjected to him.
- But having been *made lower than the angels for a little while, we see that Jesus has been crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that He might taste death for everyone by God’s grace.
Jesus made like His brothers
- For it was fitting for Him – because of whom are all things, and through whom are all things – to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings, having brought many sons to glory.
- For both the One making them holy and the men being made holy are all from One Father. For that reason He isn’t ashamed to call them brothers,
- saying: “I will declare your name to my brothers, I will sing hymns of praise to you in the midst of the assembly2“assembly” this Greek word is usually translated “church”, but can be translated either way depending on the context.”3quotation/allusion to Psalm 22:22
- And again: “I will be *trusting in Him.”4quotation/allusion to Isaiah 8:17 And again: “Behold, I and the children whom God gave to Me.”5quotation/allusion to Isaiah 8:17
- Therefore, since the children have shared blood and flesh, He also similarly took part in the same, so through His death He might nullify the one holding the power of death (that is, the Accuser)
- and might release those who were being bound in slavery through fear of death throughout their whole time to live.
- For surely He doesn’t help angels, but He helps Abraham’s seed.
- Therefore, He was obligated to be made like His brothers in all things, so He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the things pertaining to God, in order to make propitiation for the sins of the people.
- For in that He Himself has suffered when He was tempted, He is able to come to the aid of the men being tempted.
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Hebrews Chapter 3
Carefully consider Jesus
- Therefore holy brothers – partakers of the heavenly calling – carefully consider the apostle and high priest of our confession: Jesus.
- who’s being faithful to the One who appointed Him, just as Moses also was in His whole house.
- For He has been deemed worthy of greater glory than Moses, for the One who built the house has much greater honor than the house itself.
- For every house is built by someone, but the One who built all things is God.
- And Moses was indeed faithful as a willing servant in His whole house for a testimony of the things which would be spoken.
- But the Anointed is faithful as a Son over His house – whose house we are if we hold fast to our confidence and the boast of our hope, [firm until the end].
- Therefore, just as the Holy Spirit says: “If you hear His voice today,
- “you shouldn’t harden your hearts as in provocation, as in the day of testing in the wilderness,
- “where your fathers tested Me in a test, even though they saw My works for forty years.
- “Therefore, I was grievously angry with that generation and I said: “They always go astray in their heart, and they didn’t know My ways”.
- “So I swore in My wrath: “They will not enter into My rest”.”1quotation/allusion to Psalm 95:7-11
The danger of unbelief
- Watch out brothers, lest at some time there will be an evil heart of unbelief in any of you to depart from the living God.
- But encourage one another, each and every day, as long as that day is called today, so any of you won’t be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.
- For we have become partakers in the Anointed, if we hold fast from the beginning of our assurance, firm until the end.
- As it’s said: “If you hear His voice today, you shouldn’t harden your hearts as in provocation.”2quotation/allusion to Psalm 95:7-8
- For who provoked God after hearing? But wasn’t it all the men who came out of Egypt through Moses?
- And with whom was He grievously angry for forty years if not the men who sinned, whose corpses fell in the wilderness?
- And to whom did He swear that they will not enter into His rest if not the men who disobeyed?
- And we see that they weren’t able to enter because of unbelief.
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Hebrews Chapter 4
- Therefore we should fear, lest at some time some of you might seem to have fallen short while the promise to enter into His rest remains.
- For we are *hearing the gospel being proclaimed just as they also did, but they didn’t profit in hearing the message, it not being *united with faith in the men who heard.
- For we (the men who believed) enter into the rest, just as He has said: “So I swore in My wrath: “They will not enter into My rest”.“1quotation/allusion to Psalm 95:11 although His works were finished from the foundation of the world.
- For He has spoken this way somewhere about the seventh day: “And God rested on the seventh day from all His works.”2quotation/allusion to Genesis 2:2
- And again in this passage, “They will not enter into My rest.”3quotation/allusion to Psalm 95:11
- Therefore, since it remains for some to enter into it, and the men to whom the good news was formerly proclaimed didn’t enter in because of disobedience,
- He again appoints a day “today” (saying it through David after so long a time) just as it has been previously said: “If you hear His voice today, you shouldn’t harden your hearts.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 95:7-8
- For if Joshua had given them rest, He wouldn’t be speaking about another day after that day.
- Therefore, a Sabbath rest remains for the people of God.
- For the man who entered into His rest, he also rested himself from his works, just as God did from His own.
- Therefore, we should be diligently zealous to enter into that rest so someone won’t fall into disobedient unbelief by the same example.
- For the Word of God is living and effective, and He is sharper than every double-edged sword, even penetrating as far as the division of soul and spirit, and also of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intents of the heart.
- And no creature is hidden from His sight, but all things are naked and *laid bare to His eyes, to whom we must give an account.
- Therefore, having a great high priest who has passed through the heavens (Jesus, the Son of God) we should hold fast to our confession.
- For we don’t have a high priest not able to sympathize with our weaknesses, but One having been *tempted in all things the same way as we are, yet without sin.
- Therefore, we should approach the throne of grace with boldness so we might receive mercy and might find grace for help in our time of need.
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Hebrews Chapter 5
Jesus our high priest
- For every high priest taken from among men is appointed on behalf of men in things pertaining to God, so he might offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins,
- while being able to gently and compassionately forbear1“gently and compassionately forbear” is one word in Greek. It indicates moderated empathy which isn’t too strong or too weak. with the men being ignorant and wandering astray, since he himself is also bound by weakness.
- And because of this, just as he’s obligated to offer sacrifices for sins for the people, so he must also offer them for himself.
- And no one takes the honor on himself, but he’s called by God, just as Aaron also was.
- So also, the Anointed didn’t glorify Himself by becoming a high priest, but He was glorified by the One who said to Him: “You are My Son, today I have fathered you.”2quotation/allusion to Psalm 2:7
- Just as He also says in another place: “You are a priest unto the age, according to the order of Melchizedek.”3 quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:4
- Who in the days of His flesh offered both prayers and petitions with strong crying and tears to the One able to save Him from death, and was heard because of His reverent fear of God.4“reverent fear of God” is one word in Greek, and different from the Greek words typically translated “(reverent) fear of God”. It could also be translated “pious fear of God” and focuses on a sense of holy reverence and veneration towards God that’s not contained in the phrase which is usually translated “(reverent) fear of God”. This word is used only twice, the other place being Hebrews 12:28
- Though being a Son, He learned obedience from what He suffered.
- And having been perfected, He became the author of the salvation of ages to all the men obeying Him,
- having been designated by God a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek.
- About this, there’s many a word for us to say and it’s hard to explain since you have become lazy in hearing.
- For you also ought to be teachers by this time, but again you have need of someone to teach you the elementary principles of the oracles of God from the beginning. And you have become like men having need of milk and not of solid food.
- For every man partaking only of milk fails because of inexperience5“fails because of inexperience” is one word in Greek. It refers to someone who fails when tested because they don’t have adequate knowledge, skills, and/or experience. with the word of righteousness, for he’s an infant.
- But solid food is for mature men; the men having their perception strenuously *trained6“strenuously *train” is one word in Greek. It literally means to train naked or in a loincloth, and was used of athletes who trained themselves for the Olympic games, which were conducted clad thus. Figuratively – as it’s used here – it means to constantly train with rigorous effort and practice. through habitual practice for the discernment of both good and evil.
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Hebrews Chapter 6
Press on to perfect maturity
- Therefore, having left the elementary teaching of the Anointed, we should press on to perfect maturity, not again laying a foundation of repentance from dead works and faith in God,
- of instruction on baptisms, and the laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead, and the judgement of ages.
- And we will do this if God allows.
- For it’s impossible for the men who were once enlightened – who tasted both the heavenly gift and became partakers of the Holy Spirit,
- and tasted both God’s good word and the powers of the coming age
- and then fell away – it’s impossible to restore them to repentance again since they’re again crucifying the Son of God for themselves and publicly shaming Him.
- For the land which drank the rain often coming upon it and producing forage useful for the benefit of those men for whom it’s also tilled partakes of a blessing from God.
- But the land bearing thorns and thistles is worthless and near a curse, the end of which leads into burning.
- But beloved, we are *convinced of better things concerning you, and of you having salvation, even though we speak like this.
- For God isn’t unjust, so as to overlook your work and the ^love that you showed toward His name, having served the saints and still serving them.
- Now we yearn for each of you to show the same diligent zeal toward the full assurance of the hope until the end,
- so you might not become dull, but imitators of the men inheriting the promises through faith and patience.
God promises are sure
- For having made the promise to Abraham – since God had no one greater to swear by – He swore by Himself,
- saying: “I will surely bless you exceedingly1“exceedingly” is literally “blessing”, using Hebraic repetition for emphasis and magnitude and I will multiply you exceedingly2“exceedingly” is literally “multiplying”, using Hebraic repetition for emphasis and magnitude.”3quotation/allusion to Genesis 22:17
- And having patiently endured in this way, he obtained the promise.
- For men swear an oath by one who’s greater, and confirmation of the oath brings every dispute of theirs to an end.
- In this way – being abundantly determined to prove the unchangeableness of His plan to the heirs of the promise – God guaranteed it with an oath,
- so that through two unchangeable matters in which it’s impossible for God to lie, we – the men who fled to Him for refuge – might have strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us,
- which we have like an anchor of the soul; both firm and steadfast, even entering into the inner veil,4“veil” this Greek word is used in other places to refer to the veil in the temple which separated the Holy place from the Most Holy Place.
- where our forerunner – Jesus – entered for our sake, having become a high priest into the age according to the order of Melchizedek.
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Hebrews Chapter 7
A priest like Melchizedek
- For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, the man who met Abraham as he was returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,
- to whom Abraham also distributed a tenth of all. Indeed, when translated his name first means: “king of righteousness”, and then also “king of Salem”, that is “king of peace”.
- Without father, without mother, without genealogy; having neither beginning of days nor end of life. But having been made like the Son of God, he remains a priest continuously.
- And see how great this man was, to whom even Abraham the patriarch gave a tenth from the best spoils of war.
- And indeed, men from the sons of Levi – after receiving the office of priest – have a command to take a tenth from the people according to the law, (that is, from their brothers) though both have come from Abraham’s loin.
- But the man not tracing his ancestry from them has collected a tenth from Abraham and has blessed the man having the promises.
- And beyond all contention, the lesser is blessed by the greater.
- And indeed, dying men receive tithes here; but there it’s being testified that he lives.
- And, so to speak1“so to speak” is literally “so to a word to speak”, even Levi (the man receiving tithes) has paid tithes through Abraham,
- for he was still in the loin of his father when Melchizedek met him.
- Therefore, if perfection was indeed through the Levitical priesthood – for the people have received it under the law – why was there still need for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not to be called according to the order of Aaron?
- For in the priesthood being changed; a change of law also happens by necessity.
- For the One about whom these things are spoken *belongs to another tribe, from which no one has attended the altar.
- For it’s obvious that our Lord has arisen from Judah, a tribe about which Moses said nothing concerning priests.
- And it’s still more abundantly evident if another priest arises according to the likeness of Melchizedek,
- who hasn’t become a priest according to a fleshly commandment in the law, but according to the power of an indestructible life.
- For scripture testifies that: “You are a priest into the age, according to the order of Melchizedek.”2quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:4
- For indeed, a nullification of the preceding commandment happens because it’s weak and useless,
- for the law perfected nothing, but it’s an introduction to a better hope, through which we draw near to God.
- And accordingly it wasn’t without an oath; for indeed, other men *became and are priests without an oath.
- But He swore with an oath by the One saying to Him: “The Lord swore with an oath and won’t change His mind; you are a priest into the age.”3quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:4
- Accordingly, Jesus also has become the guarantee of a much better covenant.
- And indeed, the men who have become priests are many because they are prevented from continuing by death.
- But because He remains into the age, He has a permanent priesthood.
- For which reason, He is also able to save the men approaching God through Him to the utmost, always living to intercede on their behalf.
- For such a high priest indeed was fitting for us; holy, innocent, and undefiled; *separated from sinners and having become higher than the heavens,
- who doesn’t have a need to offer sacrifices every day as the high priests do – first for his own sins and then for the sins of the people – for He did this once for all in having offered Himself.
- For the law appoints high priests for men having weakness; but the word of the oath that’s after the law appoints a Son who has been perfected into the age.
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Hebrews Chapter 8
The priesthood of the Anointed
- Now, the sum of the things being said is this: we have such a high priest who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens;
- an official minister in the holy places and in the true tabernacle which the Lord pitched, not man.
- For every high priest is appointed in order to offer both gifts and sacrifices, so it’s necessary for this One to also have something that He might offer.
- Therefore if He was on earth, He indeed wouldn’t even be a priest since there are men offering the gifts according to the law,
- who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, just as Moses – being about to complete the tabernacle – has been divinely admonished; for He says: “Behold, you shall make all things according to the pattern which was shown to you on the mountain.”1quotation/allusion to Exodus 25:40
- But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, insomuch as He’s also the mediator of a better covenant, which has been enacted as law2“enacted as law” is one word in Greek. It properly means to legislate in the sense of enacting a law. upon better promises.
The Old and New Covenants
- For if that first covenant had been faultless, a place for a second wouldn’t have been sought.
- For finding fault with them, He says: “Behold, the days are coming says the Lord, and I will bring a new covenant to fulfillment3“I will bring… …to fulfillment” is one word in Greek with that exact meaning. It focuses on an end which isn’t merely “termination”, but rather culmination or fulfillment. with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah;
- “Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took their hand in Mine to lead them out of the land of Egypt, because they didn’t remain in My covenant and I disregarded them says, the Lord.”
- “Because this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord; putting My laws into their mind and I will write them on their hearts. And I will be God to them, and they will be a people for Me.
- “And each man definitely won’t teach his neighbor or each man teach his brother saying: ‘Know the Lord’, because all will know Me; from the least of them to the greatest,
- “because I will be merciful to their unrighteousness and I definitely won’t remember their sins anymore.”4quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:31-34
- By saying “a new covenant“, He has declared the first obsolete; and the covenant growing old and aging is near disappearing.
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Hebrews Chapter 9
The earthly temple
- So indeed, even the first covenant had both regulations for sacred service and an earthly Holy Place.
- For a tabernacle was constructed, in which the first room had both the lampstand and the table, and also the consecrated bread; that room is called the ‘Holy Place‘
- Then behind the second veil was a tabernacle room, being called the ‘Holy of Holies’,
- having the golden altar of incense and the Ark of the Covenant *covered with gold on all sides, in which was the golden jar holding the manna, and the staff of Aaron which budded, and the tablets of the covenant.
- And above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat, about which now isn’t the time to speak in detail.
- And with these things *constructed this way, the priests indeed enter into the first tabernacle room all through the year when performing the sacred services.
- But into the second, only the high priest enters once a year and not without bringing blood, which he offers for himself and the sins of the people committed in ignorance.
- By this, the Holy Spirit is revealing that the way into the Holy of Holies hasn’t yet been made known while the tabernacle’s first room still has standing,
- which is a parable for the *present season in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered, though not being able to perfect the conscience of the man ministering.
- It’s only in foods, and drinks, and various washings, and fleshly ordinances until the season of reformation being put into place.
- But the Anointed appeared as high priest of the good things which came through the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands. It’s not of this creation,
- nor through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood He entered once for all into the Holy of Holies, having obtained the repurchase price1“repurchase price” is one word in Greek, referring to paying the price needed to release someone from prison or debt, and especially the price paid to free a slave. of ages.
- For if sprinkling the blood of goats, and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer on the men who have been defiled makes them holy for the purification of the flesh,
- how much more will the blood of the Anointed – who through the Spirit of ages offered Himself to God unblemished – purify our conscience from dead works in order to serve the living God?
- And because of this, He is the mediator of a new covenant, so that by His death which happened for a repurchase payment2“repurchase payment” is one word in Greek, typically translated “redemption”. It properly refers to the price paid to “buy back” something that had been lost. from missteps3“missteps”. The Greek word used here doesn’t quite mean “sin”. It’s the word “παράπτωμα” (paraptóma) which is also used in Ephesians 2:1 in the phrase: “dead in your ‘paraptóma’ and sins”. It carries the connotation of a “slip-up” with the strong implication – but not certainty – that it was unintentional. under the first covenant, so the men who have been called might receive the promise of the inheritance of ages.
- For where there’s a covenant, it’s necessary to establish the death of the man who made it.
- For a covenant is upheld after death, since it isn’t ever in force while the man who made it lives.
- Therefore, not even the first covenant was *inaugurated without blood.
- For when every commandment according to the law was spoken by Moses to all the people, then having taken the blood of calves and goats with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, he sprinkled it on both the book itself and all the people,
- saying: “This is the blood of the covenant which God commanded for you.”4quotation/allusion to Exodus 24:8
- And he likewise sprinkled the tabernacle, and also all the vessels of ministry with blood.
- And almost everything is purified by blood according to the law, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.
- Therefore, it’s indeed necessary for the copies of the things in the heavens to be purified with these, but the heavenly things themselves were purified with better sacrifices than those.
- For the Anointed didn’t enter into the Holy Places made by hands (which are copies of the true ones) but into heaven itself; to appear now in the presence of God for our sake.
- And not so He might offer Himself frequently, just as the high priest enters into the Holy of Holies every year with the blood of another.
- Otherwise, it would be necessary for Him to suffer frequently from the foundation of the world. But now, once at the culmination of the ages, He has been revealed for the annulment of sin through His sacrifice.
- And insomuch as it’s appointed to men once to die and after this is judgement,
- so also the Anointed – having been offered once to bear the sins of many – will appear for a second time without sin to the men eagerly awaiting for salvation.
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Hebrews Chapter 10
The Anointed’s Sacrifice
- For the law – having a shadow of the good things coming but not the form of those same matters – is never able to perfect the men approaching every year with the same sacrifices that they offer continuously.
- Otherwise wouldn’t they have ceased being offered? Because then the men ministering wouldn’t still have sins on their conscience once they have been cleansed.
- But in them there’s a reminder of sins every year.
- For it’s impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.
- Therefore, entering into the world He says: “You didn’t desire sacrifice and offering, but you prepared a body for Me.
- “You weren’t pleased by burnt offerings and offerings concerning sin.
- “Then I said: “Behold I come–” in the scroll of the book it is *written about Me: “–to do your will O’ God.” 1quotation/allusion to Psalm 40:6-8
- Saying above “Sacrifices, and offerings, and burnt offerings, and offerings concerning sin you didn’t desire nor were pleased“2quotation/allusion to Psalm 40:6 which are offered according to the law.
- Then He *says: “Behold, I come to do your will.”3quotation/allusion to Psalm 40:7-8 He takes away the first so He might establish the second.
- By that will, we are *made holy once for all through the offering of the body of Jesus the Anointed.
- And indeed, every priest *stands ministering every day and frequently offering the same sacrifices which are never able to take away sins.
- But this One, having offered one sacrifice for sins into perpetuity, sat down at the right hand of God,
- from then on waiting until His enemies are placed as a footstool for His feet.4quotation/allusion to Psalm 110:1
- For by one offering, He has perfected into perpetuity the men being made holy.
- And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us, for afterward He has said:
- “This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord; putting My laws into their hearts and I will write them on their mind.”5quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:33
- “And their sins and their disregard for My commands6“disregard for My commands” is one word in Greek, and is more literally “disregard for God’s law”. It’s a noun, and literally means “those who are without law”; i.e. those who – either by ignorance or by rebellion – don’t obey God’s (moral) law. I definitely won’t remember any longer.”7quotation/allusion to Jeremiah 31:34
- And where there’s forgiveness of these, there’s no longer an offering concerning sin.
Approach with a sincere heart
- Therefore brothers, having confidence for entrance into the Holy of Holies by the blood of Jesus,
- by which He inaugurated a new and living way for us through the veil (that is, His flesh)
- and having a great priest over the house of God,
- we should approach with a sincere heart in the full assurance of faith; having been *sprinkled clean in our hearts from an evil conscience, and having been *washed in body with pure water.
- We should hold fast to the confession of our hope firmly, for the One who promised is faithful.
- And we should consider one another as a provocation for ^love and good works,
- not abandoning the assembling of ourselves together – as is the habit of some – but admonishing one another, and so much more as you see the day drawing near.
- For if we are voluntarily sinning after we’ve received the full knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice concerning sins remains,
- but some terrifying expectation of judgement and the zeal of a fire that’s about to consume the adversaries.8quotation/allusion to Isaiah 26:11
- Anyone who broke the law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses.
- How much worse a punishment do you think will be deserved by the man who trampled the Son of God underfoot, and considered the blood of the covenant by which he was made holy contemptibly mundane,9“contemptibly mundane” is one word in Greek. It properly refers to something which had been stripped of its value because it’s been treated as ordinary or common. This can also contain the idea of profaning or being unclean because common (i.e. not holy/set apart) and insulted the Spirit of grace?
- For we *know the One who said: “Vengeance is Mine; I will repay.”10quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:35 And again, “The Lord will judge His people.”11quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 32:36
- It’s terrifying to fall into the hands of the living God.
Remember and be bold
- But remember the former days, in which you endured the sufferings of a great conflict after having been enlightened,
- being truly made a spectacle in this by both slanders and tribulations. But in this, you became comrades with the other men being treated this way,
- for you both sympathized with the prisoners and welcomed the plundering of the things you possessed with joy, knowing yourselves to have a better possession and a lasting one.
- Therefore you shouldn’t cast aside your boldness, which has a great reward.
- For you have need of endurance, so that after having done the will of God, you might obtain the promise.
- “For yet in a very little while, the One coming will come and will not delay.”
- “But My righteous will live by faith“12quotation/allusion to Habakkuk 2:3-4 and if he shrinks back, My soul takes no pleasure in him.
- But we aren’t shrinking back into ruin, but have faith for the preservation of the soul.
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Hebrews Chapter 11
- And faith is the assurance of what’s hoped for; the convincing evidence of matters not seen,
- for by this the elders were commended.
- By faith we understand the ages to have been prepared by the spoken word of God, so what is seen hasn’t been made from the things which are visible.
- By faith Abel offered a better sacrifice to God than Cain, through which he was testified to be righteous by God testifying of his gifts, and through it he still speaks though having died.
- By faith Enoch was transferred up (to not see death) and he wasn’t found because God transferred him.1quotation/allusion to Genesis 5:24 For before the transference, he *is reported to have pleased God.
- (But without faith, it’s impossible to please God. For it’s necessary for the man approaching God to believe that He exists, and that He is a rewarder of the men diligently seeking Him.)
- By faith Noah – having been reverently fearful after having been divinely instructed about things not yet seen – prepared an ark for his household’s salvation, by which he condemned the world and became an heir in accordance with the righteousness of faith.
- By faith, Abraham obeyed after being called to depart into a place that he was going to receive for an inheritance, and he departed not knowing where he would go.
- By faith he lived as a foreigner in the land of the promise like it belonged to another, having lived in tents with Isaac and Jacob, the fellow heirs of the same promise.
- For he was awaiting the city having foundations whose architect and builder is God.
- By faith, even [barren] Sarah herself received strength for conception of seed, even despite the season of old age, since she considered the One who promised faithful.
- And therefore, from one man (even him *regarded as near dead) were born descendants like the stars of heaven in multitude, and as countless as the sand by the shore of the sea.2quotation/allusion to Genesis 22:17
- All these men died in faith, not having received the promises, but only having seen and having welcomed them from afar, and having confessed that they are foreigners and wanderers on the land.
- For the men saying such things openly declare that they seek a homeland.
- And indeed, if they were remembering that place from which they left, they always had the opportunity to return.
- But now, they yearn for a better homeland; that is, a heavenly one. Therefore, God isn’t ashamed of them, to be called their God, for He prepared a city for them.
- By faith Abraham *offered up Isaac while being tested. The man who welcomed the promises was even offering up his only genuine heir,
- he to whom it was said: “Your seed will be called through Isaac“3quotation/allusion to Genesis 21:12
- Having reasoned that God was even able to raise him from the dead, from which he also received him back in a figurative sense.4“figurative sense” is literally “parable”.
- By faith Isaac also blessed Jacob and Esau concerning what was coming.
- By faith while dying, Jacob blessed each of the sons of Joseph and worshiped while leaning on the top of his staff.
- By faith while dying, Joseph made mention concerning the exodus of the sons of Israel, and gave instructions concerning his bones.
- By faith, Moses was hidden by his parents for three months after having been born, because they saw that the child was beautiful and didn’t fear the decree of the king.
- By faith, Moses refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter after having become grown,
- having chosen to endure adversity with the people of God rather than to have the temporary enjoyment of sin,
- having esteemed the reproach of the Anointed greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt, for he was looking away from everything else5“he was looking away from everything else” is one word in Greek. It means to fix the gaze so intently on one thing that you look away from (don’t pay attention to) anything else. towards the reward.
- By faith he departed Egypt; not having feared the wrath of the king, for he persevered like a man seeing the invisible One.
- By faith he has kept the Passover and the sprinkling of the blood so the one destroying the firstborn might not touch them.
- By faith they crossed through the Red Sea as through dry land, after which the Egyptians were swallowed up when they made an attempt.
- By faith the walls of Jericho fell, having been encircled for seven days.
- By faith Rahab the prostitute didn’t perish with the men who rebelled, having received the spies with peace.
- And what more might I say? For the time will fail me while describing about Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, and both David and Samuel, and also the prophets.
- Who through faith conquered kingdoms, worked righteousness, obtained promises, closed the mouths of lions,
- quenched the power of fire, escaped the sword’s point, were empowered from weakness, became mighty in war, and made foreign armies flee.
- Women received back their dead by resurrection and others were tortured, not having awaited release so they might obtain a better resurrection.
- And others received a trial of mockings and floggings, and still others of chains and imprisonment.
- They were stoned, [tried,] sawn in two, slain by the sword in slaughter; they went about in sheepskins, in goat skins, being in need, being afflicted, being tormented –
- men of whom the world wasn’t worthy – wandering in deserts, and mountains, and caves, and holes in the earth.
- And though having been commended through their faith, all these men didn’t receive the promise.
- God planned something better concerning us, so they wouldn’t be perfected without us.
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Hebrews Chapter 12
Run with Endurance
- Consequently, we also – having so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, and having set aside every burden and easily ensnaring sin – we should run with endurance the race being set before us,
- looking away from everything else except1“looking away from everything else except” is one word in Greek with that exact meaning. the author and perfecter of our faith, Jesus, who in exchange for the joy set before Him endured the cross, having disregarded its shame, and He has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
- For consider the One who has endured such opposition from sinners against Himself so you won’t grow weary, fainting in your souls.
The Lord’s Discipline
- In struggling against sin, you didn’t yet resist as far as shedding blood,
- and you have completely forgotten the admonishment that is addressed to you as sons: “My son, don’t disregard the Lord’s discipline, nor faint when being rebuked by Him.
- “For the Lord disciplines whom He ^loves, and scourges every son whom He welcomes.”2quotation/allusion to Proverbs 3:11-12
- You endure discipline, for God treats you as sons; for what son exists whom his father doesn’t discipline?
- But if you are without discipline (of which all have been partakers) then you are illegitimate children and not sons.
- Furthermore, we indeed had discipliners in our fathers of the flesh and we were revering them. And won’t we much more be submitted to the Father of spirits and shall live?
- For indeed, they were disciplining us for a few days according to the discipline seeming best to them. But His is the discipline benefiting us, for us to partake in His holiness.
- And indeed, all discipline doesn’t seem to be a joy in the present, but grief. But afterwards it returns the peaceful fruit of righteousness to the men who have been strenuously trained3“strenuously trained” is one word in Greek. It literally means to train naked or in a loincloth, and was used of athletes who trained themselves for the Olympic games, which were conducted clad thus. Figuratively – as it’s used here – it means to constantly train with rigorous effort and practice. through it.
- Therefore, lift up the *weary hands and the *weak knees
- and make the paths straight for your feet, so the lame won’t be dislocated,4“dislocated” could also be translated “turned away” or “turned out” (of joint). It was used as a medical term for spraining or dislocation. However, elsewhere it’s used for “turning away” in the sense of wandering into error. but rather might be healed.
Pursue peace and holiness
- Pursue peace with all men, and holiness (without which no one will see the Lord),
- watching carefully, lest someone falling short of the grace of God, or lest some root of bitterness springing up might disturb you, and through this many might be defiled;
- lest there’s some fornicator or profane man, like Esau who sold his own firstborn’s birthright for one meal.
- For you *know that even wishing to inherit the blessing afterward, he was rejected; for he didn’t find a place for a changed mind although he earnestly sought it with tears.
- For you haven’t approached a mountain capable of being touched, and *burning fire, and darkness, and blackness, and a whirlwind,
- and the sound of a trumpet, and a voice of words, which the men who heard begged the word not to be spoken to them anymore,
- for they weren’t enduring the thing being commanded: “If even an animal touches the mountain, it shall be stoned.”5quotation/allusion to Exodus 19:12-13
- And the thing appearing was so fearful that Moses said: “I’m terrified and trembling.”6quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 9:19
- But you have approached Mount Zion, and the city of the living God (the heavenly Jerusalem) and myriads of angels,
- and the festival assembly, and the church of the firstborn *enrolled in the heavens, and God the judge of all, and the *perfected righteous spirits,
- and the mediator of a new covenant (Jesus), and the sprinkled blood of purification speaking of better things than the blood of Abel.
- See that you don’t refuse the One speaking. For if these men didn’t escape on earth after having refused the One divinely warning them, then much more we won’t escape the One who is from the Heavens after turning away from Him,
- whose voice shook the earth back then. But now, He has promised saying: “Yet once more I will shake not only the earth, but also the heaven.”7quotation/allusion to Haggai 2:6
- And the phrase “Yet once more” plainly declares the removal of the things being shaken like created things, so the things not being shaken might remain.
- Therefore, in receiving an unshakable kingdom we should have grace, through which we might minister to God in a pleasing way, with pious reverence and fear.
- For also, our God is an utterly consuming fire.
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Hebrews Chapter 13
- Let brotherly love continue.
- Don’t overlook hospitality to strangers, for through this some hosted angels without knowing it.
- Remember the prisoners as if being *bound with them; and the men being oppressed since you yourselves are also being oppressed in body.
- Marriage should be considered1“Marriage should be considered honorable by all” could also be translated “Marriage is honorable in all”. The Greek sentence lacks a verb, so the sense must be supplied by translators. Because Greek often omits verbs and carries them over from previous sentences/verses, and because this verse is in the middle of a long list of commands, imperative force was chosen here. However, a verb of being (“is”) wouldn’t be incorrect either. Either or both senses could’ve been intended. honorable by all, and the bed should be undefiled; for God will judge fornicators and men who have sex with other men’s wives.2“men who have sex with other men’s wives” is one word in Greek, it’s masculine here and thus usually translated “adulterers” in this verse. However, the Greek (and Hebrew) words specifically mean a man (married or unmarried) having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed). While the English word “adultery” means either spouse having sex with someone else, the Biblical words – both Greek and Hebrew – divide sexual sins into two classes based on the marital status of the woman. A man having sex with another man’s wife (or betrothed) was adultery. A man having sex with an unmarried woman was fornication. Both are very serious sins – see the final clause of this verse – but they are differentiated by the Greek and Hebrew words.
- Your way of life should be without the love of money, being content with what you possess; for He Himself has said: “I definitely won’t desert you, and most definitely won’t3“and most definitely won’t”. In Greek, this is a triple negative (and not, no, not) to add very strong emphasis. While double negatives are occasionally used to add emphasis in Greek, triple negatives are extremely rare and make the statement even more definitively negative. Since English double negatives cancel each other out (instead of adding emphasis) the words “most definitely” were added to keep the very strong emphatic sense of the Greek. forsake you.”4quotation/allusion to Deuteronomy 31:6
- So being confident, we are to say: “The Lord is my helper, I will not fear; what shall man do to me?“5quotation/allusion to Psalm 118:6
- Remember the men leading you – whoever spoke the word of God to you – whose faith you should imitate, carefully observing the outcome of their conduct.
- Jesus the Anointed is the same yesterday, and today, and through the ages.
- Don’t be led astray by various and strange doctrines, for it’s good for the heart to be established by grace, not foods, by which the men walking in them weren’t benefited.
- We have an altar from which the men ministering in the tabernacle don’t have authority to eat.
- For the bodies of the animals whose blood is brought into the Holy of Holies by the high priest as an offering concerning sin, those bodies are burned outside the camp.
- Therefore, Jesus also suffered outside the gate so He might make the people holy through His own blood.
- Accordingly, we should go out to Him outside the camp, bearing His reproach.
- For we don’t have an enduring city here, but we seek the coming one.
- Therefore, through Him we should offer a sacrifice of praise to God through everything; that is, the fruit of our lips confessing His name.
- Yet don’t overlook the doing of good and fellowship, for God is well-pleased with such sacrifices.
- Be persuaded6“Be persuaded” is one word in Greek, typically translated “obey” in this verse. It occurs over 50 times in the New Testament and is almost always translated persuade/convince/trust, etc., which is also the word’s primary definition. (It’s also the root of the Greek word translated “faith”.) Thus, “be persuaded” is literal, while the traditional translation of “obey” is interpretive. Further, “obey” cannot be the intended sense here; see Matthew 20:25-26, and notice the future tense with imperative force in verse 26. Further, it’s in the passive voice here, meaning something is being done to the subject (“be persuaded), and not the subject doing something (“obey”). by the men leading you and yield7“yield” this Greek word properly refers to yielding of combatants. A modern analogy might be when a modern wrestler “yields” the fight to his opponent, granting the opponent victory. This word is only used in this verse, and nowhere else in the New Testament. to them (for they keep watch for the sake of your souls as if they will be giving an account) so that they might do this with joy and not internal groaning, for that would be unprofitable for you.
- Pray for us; for we’re persuaded that we have a good conscience, desiring to conduct ourselves nobly in all things.
- And I greatly urge you to do this, so I might be restored to you more quickly.
Closing and benediction
- Now, may the God of peace – the One who brought back from the dead the Great Shepherd of the sheep by the blood of the covenant of ages, our Lord Jesus –
- equip you with everything good in order to do His will; working in us what is pleasing in His sight through Jesus the Anointed, to whom be the glory through the ages of the ages, Amen.
- And I urge you brothers, bear with this word of encouragement for I wrote to you in few words.
- You know that our brother Timothy has been released, with whom I will see you if he comes sooner.
- Greet all the men leading you and all the saints. The men from Italy greet you.
- Grace be with you all, [Amen].
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