(Tap footnote to read it. Old Testament quotations are underlined. "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love". However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior. It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings. (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".) Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé". Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing. It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )
The empty tomb
- And the Sabbath having passed, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so they might go anoint Him.
- And they go to the tomb very early on the first day of the week, the sun having already risen.
- And they were saying among themselves: “Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?”
- And having looked up, they see that the stone has been rolled away (for it was exceedingly large).
- And having entered into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right *clothed in a white robe and they were alarmed.
- And he tells them: “Don’t be alarmed. You seek Jesus the Nazarene, the one who has been crucified. He was raised! He isn’t here! Behold, the place where they laid Him.
- “But go, tell His disciples and Peter that He is going before you into Galilee. You will see Him there, just as He told you.”
- And having gone out, they fled from the tomb, for trembling and amazement was gripping them. And they said nothing to anyone, for they were frightened.
The disputed “Longer ending” of Mark
Translator’s note1Modern scholarly consensus is that verses 9-20 were added to the Gospel of Mark at a very early date and weren’t original to Mark. To support this, they will point out that this passage isn’t present in the earliest copies of the New Testament, and that some early church fathers (such as Eusebius) explicitly reject it. Further, some manuscripts which include it suggest that it’s absent from even earlier manuscripts. The existence of the “intermediate ending” (see note on the following section) is also cited as evidence against it being original. The typical reason offered for the addition is because Mark ending at verse 8 seems unfinished and unsatisfying. On the other side, those who favor its inclusion will cite Irenaeus (circa ~180) who quotes it as scripture, and who is earlier that our earliest manuscripts. They will also point out that it’s present in the vast majority of manuscripts, including many early manuscripts.
- Now, having arisen early on the first day of the week, He appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons.
- Having gone, that woman reported it to the men who had been with Him, who were mourning and weeping.
- And having heard that He lives and was seen by her, those men didn’t believe her.
- And after these things, He appeared in another form to two of them while they’re walking, traveling into the country.
- And having gone, those men reported it to the rest, but those men didn’t believe it either.
- But later while they are reclining at the table, He appeared to the eleven and rebuked their unbelief and hardness of heart because they didn’t believe the men who saw Him *risen [from the dead].
- And He told them: “Having gone into the entire world, proclaim the good news to all creation.
- “The man who believed and was baptized will be saved, but the man who disbelieved will be condemned.
- “Now, these signs will follow the men who believed: They will cast out demons in My name, they will speak in new tongues,
- they will pick up snakes [with their hands], and if they drink anything deadly, it definitely won’t hurt them. They will lay hands on the sick and they will be well.”
- Therefore after speaking to them, the Lord Jesus was indeed taken up into heaven and He sat down at the right hand of God.
- And having gone out, those men proclaimed everywhere, the Lord working with them and confirming the word through the signs which follow them.
The highly disputed “intermediate ending” of Mark
Translator’s note2There is essentially no scholarly support for this “intermediate ending” being original to Mark, and the overwhelming vast majority of translations don’t include it. It has only been included here for completeness. This ending’s existence has been cited as evidence that Mark ended at verse 8. The reasoning is because if Mark ended at verse 20, then there would be no reason for this section to exist in the first place.
- [And they concisely proclaimed all these things which were *instructed to Peter and the men with Him. And through them from east to west, Jesus Himself sent out the sacred and imperishable proclamation of the salvation of ages. Amen.]
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