1 Peter Chapter 5

(Tap footnote to read it.  Old Testament quotations are underlined.  "Love" with a caret ("^love") is agapé.1"agapé" The Greek words ἀγάπη (agapé, noun), and ἀγαπάω (agapaó; verb) are typically translated "love".  However, unlike our English word "love" – which primarily speaks of affection and feelings – agapé centers on choice and behavior.  It’s the "love" based on will, choice, behavior, and action; not feelings.  (Feelings-based love is the Greek word φιλέω (phileó), which properly means "brotherly love/affection".)  Thus, you could hate someone passionately and still treat him with "agapé".  Agapé "love" is best understood as the pursuit of what is most beneficial to someone or something, regardless of the cost to yourself or the type of response received from the person or thing.  It can also indicate a preference for someone or something over other things. )

Final instructions
  1. I urge the elders among you – as a fellow elder, and a witness of the sufferings of the Anointed, and a partaker in the glory about to be revealed –
  2. shepherd the flock of God among you, looking after1“looking after” is one word in Greek.  It focuses on care by “looking after” someone or something by paying close attention to it. them not because of compulsion, but voluntarily according to God; and not for dishonest gain, but eagerly;
  3. and not like you’re exercising authority over the men in your lot, but becoming examples to the flock.
  4. And when the Chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive back the unfading crown of glory.
  5. In the same way, younger men2“younger men” is one word in Greek.  In Roman society, boys would cease to be children between 14 and 16 at the yearly festival Liberalia.  At this point, the boy became a man in the sense of becoming legally responsible for his own actions.  However, he didn’t become a man with full rights in society until he turned 25, and had restrictions on what he could do until that age.  Hebrew culture had a similar arrangement, beginning at the bar-mitzvah and also ending at about 25.  These “younger men” were often considered irresponsible and prone to making bad decisions, which is a possible reason for Peter’s instruction here.  Modern science has shown that a male brain finishes development at about 25, giving this distinction between “men” and “young men” a biological component that the ancients apparently noticed via behavior. be submitted to the elders.  And all of you, gird yourselves3“gird yourselves” is one word in Greek, which can also carry the connotation of clothing yourself. “Girding” is a cultural reference, referring to the process of tying a belt or rope around the waist to gather their long robes and prevent them from getting in the way of work.  It figuratively came to mean getting ready for action or work. with humility towards one another because “God arrays Himself in battle against the proud, but gives grace to the humble.”4quotation/allusion to Psalm 138:6
  6. Therefore, be humbled under the mighty hand of God so He might elevate you in a proper season,
  7. having cast all your anxiety upon Him because He cares about you.
  8. Be sober-minded.  Keep watch.  Your adversary the Accuser walks about like a roaring lion seeking whom to devour,
  9. whom you must resist, firm in the faith, *knowing that the same sufferings are to perfect5“to perfect” could also be translated “to be accomplished”.  The Greek word literally means to “bring to an end” (Thayers), which can have to connotation of accomplishing, completing, or perfecting, depending on context. your brotherhood in the world.
  10. And after having suffered a short time, the God of all grace – the One who called you into His glory of ages by Jesus the Anointed – He will prepare, establish, strengthen, and ground you.
  11. To Him be the dominion through the ages of the ages, Amen.
  1. I wrote to you through a few words through Silvanus, (As I consider him a faithful brother) admonishing and testifying this to be the true grace of God, in which you must stand.
  2. The fellow elect woman in Babylon greets you, and so does Mark my son.
  3. Greet one another with a kiss of ^love.  Peace to all of you who are in the Anointed.  [Amen]


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